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tion, is the fate which some of the most celebrated streams of antiquity have undergone during the lapse of ages. If any body were to say, that Palmyra could have been adequately supplied with water from such of the neighbouring sources, as those to which access could now be had, he would be laughed at for the stupendous folly of his assertion. And yet it is not to be denied, that the Tadmor was found a sufficient reservoir of water for the uses of the luxurious city, insignificant as that stream bow appears to the traveller. In countries like those of Mesopotamia, Armenia, and the adjacent provinces, the surface was peculiarly subject to change; the total neglect of cultivation allowed a wild irregularity of growth to cover the face of nature, while the accumulation of sand, driven by the tempest, was every year rendering doubtful the localities of particular spots. . Add to this, the vagueness with which ancient geography fixed the site of cities and the sources of rivers, and we shall have ample means of explaining the discrepancies between the itinerary records of antiquity, and the information which we have of the modern state of the same countries. ::
The judgment, ability, and indefatigable research of Mr. Williams, have done a vast deal for the casy illustration of one of the most delightful works of the Greek classics; and sincerely do we hope, that his ambition may induce, and his other avocations allow, the Reverend author to undertake a project, of all others the most desirable at this moment—the ancient geography of the whole of Asia. If Mr. Williams fail to succeed in such a task, we utterly despair of ever seeing it accomplished.
Art. XX.-A Short Account of Experiments made in Italy, fc. for
Preserving Human Life and Property from Destruction by Fire.
By Chev. Aldini. 8vo. pp. 24. London: P. Rolandi. 1830. The author of this pamphlet is a venerable personage of opulence and station in his country- Italy. He has, after great labour and, we believe, expense,-certainly after a very extended application of his time,-framed an apparatus, which, as far as we can venture to form an opinion upon such a subject, is likely to prove of the deepest importance to society in general, but in an especial manner to the inhabitants of this crowded metropolis. The Chevalier being the nephew of the celebrated Galvani, and professing, himself, the most disinterested views, it is not surprizing that in this land of liberality and enterprize he should have obtained a great deal of encouragement. Several public bodies have investigated his invention, and approved of it; and the Chevalier, we believe, indulges the hope, that the Government will, ere long, entertain a proposal from him for its immediate practical application.
The Chevalier informs us, that being very anxious to find out some method by which flame could be effectually resisted, with the view of enabling persons more speedily and conveniently to extinguish fires, thought of a covering of armour, constructed in the ancient fashion. The weight of the armour proved a great impediinent to the operations of the fire-men, and the author was induced to substitute a coat of mail, composed of the wire gauze, which, in the case of the Davy lamp, is so well known to be impenetrable to flame. But here again the inventor was met by a formidable difficulty; the wire gauze kept out the fame, but it did not exclude the heat, and the consequence was, that this improved protector was next to useless. To look out for some substance that would exclude heat as well as flame, became the care of the Chevalier, and this material he was fortunate enough to detect in the amianthus.
Amianthus is a variety of the mineral asbestos, and having the singular properties of flexibility and elasticity, is capable of being converted into threads, and consequently wrought into a tissue. The manufacture was well known amongst the Romans in ancient times, being used by them in numerous articles of domestic convenience as well as of costume. Veids of amianthus are to be found in several countries on the continent, and in some places in England and Scotland.
In order to bend and twist the cords of amianthus, the action of steam is requisite; but these cords, which may be made to any size, are para ticularly strong. The tissue, however, is found to be rather too expensive, and the Chevalier is engaged in experiments, the object of which is to find out some chemical compound capable of giving properties resembling those of asbestos, to a cheaper description of cloth. At present, he finds that cloth, dipped in a solution of alum, answers the purpose to a certain extent. With cloth so prepared he invests the body, arms, and legs of the fireman, while the covering for the head, hands, and feet is made of asbestos; the spaces for the nose, eyes, and mouth in the asbestos cap are protected by wire gauze. So much for the inner dress. The second or outer coat, which completes the apparatus, consists of a metallic net work, made of iron, the intervals between the threads being about 1-25th of an inch. The whole dress is comparatively light, and, having abundant joints, offers no impediment to the freest motions of the fireman. Mr. Faraday, of the Royal Institution, has furnished the following description of one of the Chevalier's experiments:
“The third experiment was with the complete apparatus. Two rows of faggots, mingled with straw, were arranged vertically against bars of iron, so as to form a passage between thirty feet long, and six feet wide. Four such arragements were made, differing in the proportion of wood and straw, and one was with straw alone. Fire was then applied to one of these double piles; and a fireman, invested in the defensive clothing, and guarded by the shield, entered between the double hedge of flames, and traversed the alley several times. The flames rose ten feet in height, and joined over his head. Each passage was made slowly, and occupied from twelve to fifteen seconds; they were repeated six or eight times, and even oftener, in succession, and the firemen were exposed to the almost constant action of the flames for the period of a minute and a half, or two minutes, and even more.
When the course was made between the double range of faggots without straw, the fireman carried a kind of pannier on his back, prepared in such a way as to be fire-proof, in which was placed a child, with its head covered by an asbestos bonuet, and additionally protected by the wiregauze shield.'--pp. 22, 23.
The worthy Chevalier, in the simplicity of his soul, counts on the most ardent support of the insurance companies. He knows but little of the policy of those to whose patronage he thus looks up. If a security from the depredations of fire could once be established, the occupation of the companies is gone.
MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. Connected with Literature, Science, and the Fine Arts. The Meetings of the Scientific Bodies in London for the present month are as follows:-Royal Society, 1st, 22d, 29th ; Antiquarian, Ist, 23d, 29th; Linnæan, 6th, 20th ; Zoological, Ist, 29th ; Horticultural, 6th, 20th; of Arts, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th; of Literature, 7th, 21st, 29th ; Geological, 2d, 16th; Astronomical, 7h; Royal Institution, 2d, 23d, 30th ; Royal Asiatic, 3d, 17th. The Anniversaries in the same month are, Antiquaries, the 23d; Royal Society of Literature, 29th ; Zoological Society, 29th.
There is in the press a volume entitled Oxford English Prize Essays, in which are to be included Academic Efforts of Lords Eldon and Sid mouth, Bishops Burgess, Coplestone, &c.
The Life and Correspondence of Admiral Lord Rodney is in the press.
Miss Mitford, we are happy to be able to say, is about to produce a new volume of Country Stories.
There are now in Rome no less than 101 foreign Painters; 3 foreign Sculptors; and 8 Architects. Of the first description of Artists, 8 are Englishmen; of the second, 8 also ; and of the last, 9 are English.
Mr. Moore's second volume of the “ Notices” of Lord Byron's Life, &c., is on the eve of appearing.
The literary circles in Paris have been lately agitated by a curious case of literary piracy. A Mr. Defaucoupret had some time ago published a translation of Sir Walter Scott's Ivanhoe. Another translation, as it purported to be, was prepared by a Mr. A. Montemont, in which, however, it turned out that the first eleven chapters were stolen from the version of the former translator. The matter was brought before the Courts, and the purloiners were mulcted in the sum of 2000 francs, and were also obliged to suppress the said stolen chapters.
Mr. Campbell, the poet, is busily employed in organizing a club to be composed principally of literary men, and thence to be called the Literary Club. No man of the present day could be found to unite a greater number of the qualities necessary to succeed in such an undertaking than Mr. Campbell himself. .
The “ Travels of Prince Paul of Wirtemberg,” is shortly to issue from the New Orleans press.
A very curious paper was recently read before the Society of Antiquaries by Mr. Ellis,-a history of Naval Uniform in England. In the time of Queen Elizabeth, it appeared from this communication, the commanders were ordered to dress in scarlet, which they continued to do by royal ordinance until the Commonwealth, and from that period till the time of George the Second, naval officers dressed according to their own fancies, each commander of a vessel having a whim in costume of his own. A letter on the same subject was also read by Mr. Locker, of Greenwich Hospital, who states that the present naval uniform (blue, .faced with white) was ordered by George the Second, in consequence of observing the effect of those blended colours, in a riding-dress of the Duchess of Bedford's. Epaulettes, it seems, are quite a modern invention, insomuch, that Nelson, in the early part of his life, threatened to cut two of his naval friends, as intolerable coxcombs, merely because they mounted epaulettes. Mr. Stapleton, private secretary to the late Mr. Canning, has in the press a History of the Political Life of that Minister, from his acceptance of the seals, in September, 1822, to his demise.
The Meteor steam vessel, Lieut. W. H. Symous, is the first steam ship that has ever conveyed the Foreigo Post Office Mail. Her first trip was from Falmouth, on the 5th February, to the Mediterranean.
Sir Thomas Lawrence's will has been proved in Doctors' Commons, and the personal property sworn as under 45,000t.
The Baron de Humboldt does not intend to publish an account of his excursion to the Ural mountains of Siberia.
A project is now seriously contemplated for converting Primrose Hill into a cemetery, after the fashion of Père la Chaise at Paris. Plans and elevations have already been drawn, and it is proposed to accomplish the object by raising a fund of 400,0001. by subscription. It is a fact of some in portance, with reference to this plan, that the number of bodies annually buried in London is 30,000.
The Netherlands have a circulation of 60,000 sheets of Newspapers a day; France has 72,380; and England 70,70: being at the rate of 1 to every 100 persons in the Netherlands, 1 tu every 437 in France, and I to every 184 in England.
The Custom-house regulations respecting the importation of foreign books and prints are these :-All maps and prints which merely illustrate works of literature are exempt from the duty, as they pass with the book, being included in the 51. per cent. But when the letter-press is only an explanation of the prints which it accompanies, they are liable to a separate duty.
A Tale from the elegant pen of Mr. Mc. Farlane, author of the popular work on 'Turkey, is announced. It is entitled the Armenians, and is intended to illustrate the manners and habits of the Turks and Armenians.
It appears from a list furnished by the police authorities to the prefect of police at Paris, that the number of English residing at present in different places in France is as follows:--Paris, 14,300; Versailles, 2080; St. Germain, 150; Tours, 2795; Bourdeaux, 965; Bareges, 80; Montpellier, 300; Marseilles, 120; Lyons, 60; Fontainbleau, 30; St. Quentin, 200; Dunkirk, 500 ; St. Omer, 700; Boulogne, 6800; Calais, 4550 ; other places, 1865. Total, 35,695.
On the 2d of April will be completed Vol. 1 of the National Portrait Gallery, containing thirty-six highly finished portraits of illustrious and eminent individuals of the nineteenth century. Edited by W. Jerdan, Esq. F.S.A. &c. &c.
IN THE PRESS.-Four Discourses, by William Hull. The first volume of a Treatise on Optics, containing the Theory of Impolarized Light, by the Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, A.M., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.The second edition of a volume of Sermons, by the Rev. Charles Tayler.Theological Meditations, by a Sea Officer, in one vol. demy 12mo.-The Nature and Properties of the Sugar Cane: with practical directions for improving its Culture, and for the manufacture of its various products, by Mr. G. Ř. Porter.—The Effects of the late Colonial Policy of Great Bria tain, by Mr. Barclay.-Four splendid and accurate Views of the Frigates Shannon and Chesapeake; shewing their various positions, &c. during the action, fought on the 1st of June, 1813, most beautifully drawn on stone, by Mr. Haghe, under the inspection of Capt. R. H. King, R.N.
Three Courses and a Dessert, with Fifty Engravings, from Original Drawings, by George Cruikshank. Conversations for the Young, by the Rev. Richard Watson.—Daniel and John's Prophecies Unsealed; or, Adam's Resurrection.-- Panorama of the Maine, from Mayence to Frankfort, drawn from Nature, by F. W. Delkeskamp, accompanied with a description of the places on each bank of the river, and a minute Account of Frankfort.-Panoramic View of the most remarkable objects in Switzerland, taken from Mount Righi, by Henry Keller, to which is attached a circular view of Switzerland, from the same station, by General Pfyffer, accompanied with descriptive letter-press.-A Statement of the Nature and Objects of the course of study, in the class of Logic, and the Philosophy of the Human Mind, in the University of London, by the Rev. John Hoppus, A.M.- Travels in Russia.- Treatise on the Steam Engine.-Present Land Tax in India.—Garrick Papers.— Knowles's Fuseli. -- Croly's Poetical Works.—Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth.--Game of Life, by L. Ritchie.—Memoirs of the Right Rev. John Thomas James, D.D. Lord Bishop of Calcutta, are nearly ready; they are gathered from his Letters and Memorandums, by Edward James, M.A., Prebendary of Winchester, and Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of the Diocese ; with the Charge the Bishop delivered at his visitation at Calcutta, in June, 1828.-) Discourse on the Authenticity and Divine Origin of the Old Testament, with Notes and illustrations, translated from the French of J. E. Cellerier, formerly Pastor, now Professor of Hebrew and of Sacred Criticism and Antiquities, in the Academy of Geneva, by the Rev. John Reynell Wreford.
Hernani.— The triumphant success of this Tragedy, at Paris, has given the romantic party a decided advantage over the classic school. As this piece nearly absorbs the attention of the Parisians at this moment, we shall give the plot of it. The story and character are Spanish. Hernani, the son of a nobleman, being of an adventurous mind, attaches himself to banditti, after, however, having fallen in love with Donna Sole, who returns his affection. This girl is also admired by Don Carlos, who afterwards became Charles 5th of Spain. She has a third lover in the person of an antiquated, disagreeable, but importunate uncle, Don Gomez, with whom she resides. Under the oppression of the uncle's power, and, by various arts, the lady consents to a union with her relation. Whilst preparations for the wedding are going on, Hernani arrives in disguise, and, being pursued by the King and his men-at-arms, Don Gomez takes him under his protection, and secures him in a secret place. To all the King's entreaties the old man is firm, refusing to do an act contrary to the laws of hospitality. At last the royal pursuer is silenced by the offer of the lady to yield herself as a hostage for Hernani, and his majesty and train withdraw. This affair being over, the jealousy of the uncle returns against his guest, on whom he now looks only as a successful rival, and be provokes him to fight; but Hernani declines, and contents himself with giving a horn to Don Gomez, declaring to him, at the same time, in the most solemn manner, that whenerer the sound of that instrument should reach his ears, that instant he would kill himself. An event arises now to call upon both to unite their efforts in a common object, namely, to prevent Don Carlos from being elected Emperor. Hernani even attempts his person, for which Charles generously pardoned him, after his elevation to the throne, and further, gave him permission to marry Donna