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which had seized her after bearing a child), by his giving her the infusion of the závilla-leaves steeped in spirits, and some of the above drops.-pp. 193—4.
With charcoal pills, Mr. H. has cured pains in the shoulder and neck, and ' among other diseases,' he saved a young man from the effects of the bite of a rattle-snake, by the same black dose, and immersion in cold water.-p.417.
For nausea, charcoal is also efficacious; and for dysentery, it is an invaluable remedy.'-p. 419. Moreover, he applied it in conjunction with rice, as a poultice.
Mr. H. tells us, in the same place, that he also applied “remedies of his own for scald-head, ulcers in the nose and throat, and, lastly, for the palpitation of the heart.' Eventually, too, be cured himself of the pain in his chest, brought on by diving ; but our author does not vouchsafe to favour us with an account of the remedies he employed against these “ills which human flesh is heir to.” However we are informed in p. 420, that the infusion of ashwood is an infallible remedy for coughs proceeding from cold.
Mr. H.'s account of the practices and superstitions of the Mexicans, in cases of illness, is curious, but we pass it over to make room for a recipe against that dreadful malauy, hydrophobia, which the author received from Don Victores Aquilar, who assured him, that he had never known it to fail. For want of anything better, it may be worth a trial, and we therefore subjoin it in the autbor's translation :
"“ Method of curing Hydrophobia.” • The person under the influence of this disease must be well secured, that he may do no mischief either to himself or others.
Soak a rennet in a little more than half a tumbler of water (for about five minutes). When this has been done, add of pulverized sevadilla as much as may be taken up by the thumb and three fingers. Mix it thoroughly, and give it to the patient (that is, force it down his throat in an interval between the paroxysms). The patient is then to be put into the sun if possible, (or placed near a fire,) and well warmed. If the first dose tranquillize him, after a short interval, no more is to be given, but if he continue furious, another dose must be administered, which will infallibly quiet him. A profound sleep will succeed, which will last twenty-four or forty-eight hours, (according to the strength of the patient's constitution), at the expiration of which time, he will be attacked with severe purging and vomiting, which will continue till the poison be entirely ejected. He will then be restored to his senses, will ask for food, and be perfectly cured.”?—pp. 117, 118.
Mr. H. has heard of many other remedies against various diseases generally considered incurable, as being in possession of the Indians; and therefore proposes that scientific men should be sent on a special mission among the various tribes, for the purpose of collecting a knowledge of the herbs, which these simple children of nature have learnt from their ancient mother, to apply to their
exigencies. We fully agree with him in the opinion, that such an enterprise would prove eminently useful, and hope that in these piping times of peace, our government will select from the half-pay medical list, some individuals fit for such an enterprise, and forward them on the philanthropic expedition.
Art. V.—The Harleian Dairy System ; and an Account of the various
Methods of Dairy Husbandry pursued by the Dutch. Also, a new and Improved mode of Ventilating Stables, with an Appendix, containing Useful Hints (founded on the Author's experience) for the management of Hedge-row Fences, Fruit Trees, &c.; and the Means of rendering Barten Land Fruitful. By William Harley. London: Ridgway. 1829. Not the least singular, and to many readers by far the most interesting portion of this book, is the auto-biography of the author, given in the introduction, proving him to be a person of very extraordinary enterprise and perseverance. This will be perceived at once when we consider that, while he was engaged in the extensive manufacture of soft goods and other mercantile concerns, he filled up what leisure time he had, by converting his suburban villa of Willow-bank, and the few fields around it, into a public watering and bathing place, pleasure grounds, gardens, orchards, dairy, piggery, bakery, including a manufacture of manure, solid and liquid, almost sufficient in each of the several departments for supplying the wants of the whole city of Glasgow, consisting of above a hundred thousand inhabitants. We can recollect this very spot some twenty or more years ago, to have been little better than a wilderness, with scarcely a respectable shrub, much less a tree, to overtop the prevailing thorns and brambles, while the cold stiff clay soil, and the bleak exposure of the hill side to the easterly winds, gave but small temptation to the most sanguine improver to expend his capital. No obstacle however could deter our author, who having begun by carting the water of the Willow-bank spring over the city, and selling it at a penny a bucket, went on step by step, till he made his place the resort of fashion ; and the waste and barren wilderness above described, is now covered with elegant houses, all built of white free-stone, often procured in part out of the foundation trenches; nay, whole streets, and even fine squares, have recently started up, as if by magic, around Mr. Harley's well in the wilderness, which is now indeed the focus of the west end of Glasgow,-improvements which may in a great measure be fairly ascribed to the enterprises originated by our author, though aided no doubt by near vicinity to the great mercantile metropolis of Scotland.
In his management of steam, Mr. Harley almost appears to have rivalled his celebrated townsman, Watt himself. With a small engine of six-horse power, the fuel of which (twelve cwt. of dross
coal) cost only one shilling per day, he performed wonders. This engine in the first place propelled a multiplicity of his farming and dairy machinery, such as a threshing mill and fanners, a turnip and potatoe slicer, a hay and straw cutter, a corn bruiser, and a churning apparatus;' but this was only a small portion of its appliances : coiled within the boiler was a leaden pipe, 150 feet long, and two inches diameter, into one end of which cold water was admitted, and was heated in passing through the boiler for the supply of the bot baths, the scullery, the bakery, and wherever hot water was wanted in the establishment; while a pipe from the engine boiler served to supply steam for all the cooking wanted for the cows, horses, and pigs, as well as for the men and women. Not only so, but the whole of the establishment was heated by the miraculous steam. It was nothing surprising after all this, that Mr. Harley was waggishly reported to have milked his cows by steam, and even to have achieved other things, as he tells us, still more wonderful by that power.'
Such is a small sample, as our author might say, of the details in the work before us, and which we think must produce a desire in all who have read this, to know something of the man himself. It has been remarked of a considerable number of distinguished men, that they owed much of their celebrity to the early care of their mothers, and our author appears to add another instance to the honour of the female sex. He thus opens his interesting, and by far too brief memoir :
* To those who have expressed a desire to know more of the Author's early associations than he would otherwise have had the presumption to disclose, it may suffice to state, that he is a native of Glendovan, in the Ochills of Perthshire. Deprived at a very early age of his parents, he had the good fortune to have the bitterness of such bereavement assuaged by the affectionate attentions and parental kindnesses of an excellent woman, his paternal grandmother, who was better known to the community of which she was the ornament, as the Lady of Whiteridge, that being the Dame of the property whence she derived her income, To a strong natural understanding she added the advantages of a well cultivated mind, and all the estimable qualities of a heart fraught with an unceasing desire to do good. With these attainments she undertook the grateful task of “ teaching the young idea,” and of so employing every maternal effort for the improvement of her adopted charge, as to impress upon his mind by precepts pointed out to him from the Bible, the Pilgrims' Progress, and similar sacred and instructive sources, the great duty he owed to his God, to his neighbour, and to himself. This mental discipline was alternately relieved by recreative diversities, in which this much esteemed woman would delight to participate ; but in none, perhaps, was there more reciprocal enjoyment than in the anecdotes which she occasionally related, of the Rebellion of 1745; one of these was so indelibly impressed upon the Author's 'mind, from its family application, that he may be excused for narrating it.
* As it was known that the property enjoyed by the Lady of Whiteridge
was held of the Crown, the Pretender claimed, as his right, the feu duty; and, in order to enforce the payment thereof, he sent a party with instruc: tions either to obtain the money or bring away the cattle. Previous intimation of this hostile visit having been communicated, all the Establishment was put in requisition to transport the horses and black cattle to a distant part of the Ochill Hills. When the Pretender's party arrived, the “ Lady," (as she was called), received them courteously, and entertained them with liberal hospitality; but peremptorily refused to pay the feu duty. This extraordinary firmness, coupled with such unexpected kindness to the intruders, (for, on their departure, she furnished each man with a supply in his plaid), caused the persons and property of Whiteridge to be thenceforth generally respected by all parties who happened to be marching or countermarching past the premises, which were situated by the way-side.
• With such scenes as were ever before his eye, it was to be expected the Author's early habits should introduce him to a familiarity with, and an attachment for rural affairs, and particularly for those healthful and invigorating sports of the field which can only be truly relished by the lovers of a country life. About this time his maternal uncle, (Mr. Blyth, of Perth), who had commenced a manufactory at Kinross, for weaving sattinets, endeavoured to prevail upon the Author to learn that business. The proposal was at first but coldly received ; country weavers at that time of day did not rank very high in the estimation of society; indeed, so deep-rooted was the Author's prejudice as to the respectability of the pursuit, that he considered the distinction to be but a shade between a weaver and a “ finisher of the law." A little time, however, mingled with some useful inculcations, soon dissipated this error, and the Author, in a short time, found himself perfectly at home at Kinross, attending to the business with diligence, and enjoying the hours devoted to recreation, in angling in Lochleven, or, when the Loch was frozen, rambling about the castle which the fate of the unfortunate Mary had rendered memorable.
• After learning the operative part of that business-fine linen, which was then manufactured in no other part of Scotland, the Author visited Perth, where he acquired a similar knowledge with regard to brown linen ; and, on Whitsunday, 1789, he proceeded to Glasgow, and was received there into one of the most respectable manufacturing houses then in town. In a few months he obtained such a knowledge of the cotton manufacture as enabled him, in the following year, to commence business on his own account. In 1794 he produced the Turkey red-checked gingham, a species of manufacture hitherto unknown in Great Britain. During the first season, the sale of this popular article was confined (per agreement) to the late Mr. Gilchrist, of Edinburgh. Soon after this, it was introduced to the London market, and subsequently became an article of considerable importance as an export to America and the West Indies, whither it was sent in large quantities, and in great varieties of original patterns.
• For some time prior to the Peace of 1814, the Author paid nearly £20,000 annually for winding and weaving of cotton yarn, in addition to a large expenditure upon buildings, labourers' wages, &c.'—pp. xiii-xviii.
It appears from this that Mr. Harley had from his earlier years a turn for originality and improvement, which however cannot, we think, be with much probability ascribed to the old Lady of
Whiteridge, who was no doubt as immovably wedded to good or bad old customs, as she was to her freedom from the Pretender's duty. His thirst for innovation indeed may be remarked in the most minute things, extending even to an evident desire to change, if not to improve, his mother tongue-the broad Scotch of the Ochil Hills. His good old grandmother, indeed, would scarcely have recognised the name of her property of Whitrig under his Glasgowized appellation of Whiteridge,—while Willowbank again is intended as an improvement upon the Scotch original of Sauchie Ha'-the word “sauchie” meaning Willowy, if it were allowable to form an English adjective from “ willow.” This sort of affectation of English, we have always remarked as one of the most besetting sins of the middle ranks, particularly the mercantile classes in Scotland, and it pervades many of the pages under review. To return to his narrative.
* In 1802, he acquired a few acres of ground, merely for a family residence, at Sauchy Hall. This spot had formerly been a bleach-field, and contained an abundance of spring water, an article, of which the city of . Glasgow was then very much in need. The Author conseqnently set to work to obviate this public inconvenience: he had carts and four-wheeled carriages built, which were employed in conveying large supplies of water daily into the city for the use of its inhabitants. The success of this project led to the formation of the Glasgow and Cranston Hill Water Companies; the establishment of which rendered the Willow-bank water afterwards unnecessary.
• With a view, however, to turn this indispensable article of life to some other public account, the Author was induced to erect, what was at that time much wanted, namely, hot and cold baths. These were held in much estimation, and received considerable patronage. At length it became a frequent remark by invalids, that it would be a very desirable accommodation if they could be furnished with a little new milk; a wish that was soon complied with by sending a cow from the villa at Willowbank to be milked at the baths; and hence was laid the foundation of the Willow-bank Dairy, a brief account of the progress of which may not be inappropriately introduced in this place.
In 1810 the first cow-house was erected, which was calculated to hold twenty-four cows; a plan of which, with a description of the building, will be found in the following pages. As the demand for milk in. creased, additional accommodation was provided, till, at the Peace in 1814, three hundred cows could be arranged. At one period, the stock amounted to two hundred and sixty.'- Vide Dr. Cleland's Annals.
The Grand Duke Nicholas (the present Emperor of Russia,) his brother the Grand Duke Michael, Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria, and other German Princes, as well as many noblemen and gentlemen from all quarters of the globe, paid a visit to, and were highly gratified with, the Establishment. Many of them expressed their regret that no plan of the buildings, or account of the System, had been published, which they would have been willing to possess on any pecuniary terms.
• The Highland Society of Scotland also appointed a deputation of its members to inspect the Dairy, and to report their opinion of the same;