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not only their pecuniary assistance but their time: they will personally witness and examine the progress of the Students, and, on the General Examination, at the end of the session, will award prizes to the most deserving. Not that the study of Theology, which combines within itself so many claims to attention, of unequalled interest and importance, can really derive additional sanction from these, or from any adventitious aids; but it is at least desired that no legitimate means should be left untried of attracting young men to a branch of instruction, which is ever most highly appreciated by those who have pursued it with the greatest perseverance, and with the most distinguished success.

* But I mnst not conclude this address without adverting to another feature of this Institution, in which both the advantage and convenience of Students have been most especially consulted—I mean the Theological Library. By the liberality of those noble friends of our undertaking, to whom it owes its very existence, as a school for gratuitous Theological instruction, and by the kind assistance of my colleagues and others, who are interested in the union of sound learning with religious education, a very respectable collection has been formed, containing already more than three hundred volumes of the most approved Theological works. It is intended to place this on a footing which shall render it generally accessible ; a trifting annual payment being the only contribution to which a Student attending here is subjected, and even that being left entirely to his own option. The functions of Librarian will be discharged for the present by the Lecturer, who will thus have an opportunity of conversing individually with the Students, of ascertaining the correctness of their views, and directing them in the pursuit of information. And as the Students will be permitted, under certain regulations, to take books from the Library, it is hoped that provision may be thus made for the due employment of a portion of the Sabbath-day. Thus the temptation of devoting this day to secular studies—a temptation which too often overcomes the conscientious scruples of the young aspirant after literary honours, will be obviated; unprofitable recreation, and vacant indolence, will no longer be protected by even the shadow of an excuse ; and Theology as a science may be studied, as it ever should be, in connection with religion as a principle.'-pp. 23—25.

We cordially wish Mr. Dale success in his meritorious labours. He possesses many qualifications for his office, which will considerably tend to the efficiency of his efforts, and occupying, as he does, so many arduous offices, he deserves to be ranked among the most useful members of his profession.

Art. XV.-The Mercantile Teacher's Assistant. A Guide to Practical

Book-keeping, comprising three sets of Books, with an Appendix on Merchants' Accounts, Bills of Exchange, and Mercantile Letters. By

James Morrison, Accountant. London: Joy. 1829. This publication is an enlarged treatise on the same subject as that which employed Mr. Morrison some time since, and the success which attended his Elements of Book-keeping, has encouraged him to produce the work now before us. It seems to be exceedingly well adapted to the wants of commercial students, and merits the attention of all persons engaged in their instruction.

ART. XVI.— A Concise System of Mechanics, in Theory and Practice ;

with Original and Practical Remarks, Rules, Experiments, Tables, and Calculations, for the use of Practical Men. By James Hay,

Land-Surveyor. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd. 1821. It is a task of so great difficulty to combine theoretical and practical instruction, that most of our elementary works of science are rendered next to useless by their imperfections in this respect. The mathematics have especially suffered from this cause, and their importance been rendered doubtful in the eyes of a great many students, by their being suffered to view them apart from the objects of immediate application. The beauty of a theorem is so difficult for the young or uneducated mind to comprehend, that the deliciæ and elegantiæ of mathematics as an intellectual science, give the instructor little power over the minds of his pupils, and the greater part of them, whatever may be his efforts to impress them with a due sense of the value of his instructions, will give up the study as soon as his authority is withdrawn. There are few of our readers it is probable, who cannot remember some memorable instance of this unfortunate termination to a course of mathematics. But when the youthful student has his invention and his eyes and hands employed at the same time; when he has something to do as well as learn, the case becomes changed, and mathematics are pursued with the characteristic liveliness and determination of juvenile activity.

Mr. Hay has made it his particular object in the present publication to unite theory and practice, and assures his readers, that he has employed much both of time and study on his work. We can believe him, and from the style of his publication, we consider that it may be found of considerable use both to the private student, and to the younger members of the university, whose pursuits are frequently not a little facilitated by the writings of men who are neither tutors nor professors.

There are some very ingenious remarks interspersed throughout the work. The following on the strength of beams, &c., will show Mr. Hay's manner of treating his subject.

• The lateral strength of beams, posts, or pillars, of any material, are diminished the more they are compressed longitudinally. Because, when they receive the least bend, the longitudinal pressure acts upon that point as a weight to bend it still more, and causes them to break immediately.

Cor. Whence, when the mast of a ship is bent to a certain degree by a strong gale, the tension of the shrouds and stays completes the fracture. Whence also the injudicious practice of making the cast iron pillars that support the galleries of some churches solid instead of hollow cylinders.

So far as I have advanced in the theory of transverse strength and strain, I agree with former writers upon the subject, and also with experiments, which have confirmed the above theory.

I now beg leave to depart from the most of former writers upon one part of the theory. It is asserted by eminent authors, that a triangular beam will bear twice as much, or (by some) thrice as much, with the weight or strain placed upon its vertex, as when placed upon its base; and they demonstrate this from the celebrated proposition of Galileo, which is Prop. L. of this book nearly. It is there supposed that the whole of the fibres are torn asunder; and in breaking the whole section of fracture opens, by turning round the point or line in contact with the straining force, as on an immoreable fulcrum or joint.

Now, (as I have there remarked,) this is not the case ; it depends wholly upon the nature of the substance employed, how far this fulcrum or neutral point may be removed towards the opposite side ; for it is obvious, that, if a body be easier crushed than torn asunder, this fulcrum, in beams whose sections are parallelograms, will be nearest the side that inclines to be convex ; that is, where the force of cohesion and the force opposed to crushing may balance one another. This circunstance, however, candot alter any part of the preceding theory, as far as regards bodies of the same material, whose sections are parallelograms; because, wherever the fulcrum is situated in one body, it must be similarly situated in others of the same substance and position, whichever of the opposite sides be uppermost.

• But in a triangular beam, it is evident, that, if the force of cohesion be equal to the force opposed to crushing, the fulcrum or neutral point will accommodate itself to a situation where the forces will balance one another, whatever side be in contact with the straining force, and will be equally strong the one way as the other. But, if the force of cohesion be greater than the force opposed to crushing, then the triangular beam will be strongest with the edge in contact with the strain, but, if less, the contrary.'--pp. 113-115.

ART. XVII.-Cottage Poetry. By the Author of “Old Friends in a New

Dress.To which is added, a Supplement to “ Old Friends in a New Dress," containing twelve additional fables. London :-Smith, Elder,

and Co. 1829.j We like the idea of Cottage Poetry, and it is a kind and benevolent heart only which could have thought of such a title, or written poetry of such a character. The little cheap collection before us has also many of the characteristics which render simple, pastoral poetry agreeable, and several of the pieces might be said to deserve a better place, could they have a better than one in which they they are to be found by men of pure and humble minds. The following lines will show how gently our cottage poet plays his oaten pipe.

• The labors of the early day
With richest gain my toil repay ;
Both health and appetite I feel,
Best sweeteners of the frugal meal :
With strength restored, I then renew
My duties and my pleasures too :
That duties pleasures are to me,
How grateful, Lord, I ought to be!
• What pure delight, what treasures yield
The grove, the garden, and the field !
The birds that hail the break of day,
The fragrance of the new mown hay,
The beauties of the varied flowers,
Shining o'er all the beds and bowers,

All tend to raise my thoughts to Thee :
How grateful, Lord, I ought to be!
. And when my daily task is done,
While gazing on the setting Sun,
As its mild radiance fades

Hope lingers on its parting ray;
Hope and reliance that to cheer
From day to day, from year to year,
The morrow shall its rising see ;
How grateful, Lord, I ought to be!
0, may I not presumptuous seem,
Attempting too sublime a theme,
But may I, like the obedient Sun,
My earthly course of duty done,
Sink gently into life's decline,
And every thought be wholly thine !
That I dare hope to rise with Thee,
How grateful, Lord, I ought to be !'-pp. 16, 17.

ART. XVIII.-Statement of the Services of Mr. Dawson, as Chief Agent

of the Australian Agricultural Company, with a Narrative of the Treatment he has Experienced from the late Committee at Sydney, and the Board of Directors in London. London: Smith and Elder.

1829. This is the statement of a plain man of business, who considers himself to have been greatly injured by his employers, and seeks redress accordingly, by appealing to the just decision of the public. It is always the daty of the public to attend to such an appeal, and we, therefore, recommend Mr. Dawson's pamphlet to the consideration of such of our readers as may be in any way interested in the matter. The writer, it appears, was applied to in the spring of 1824, by Mr. John M'Arthur, the barrister, who informed him that an association had been established for the purpose of improving the fleeces of Australian sheep, and pressed him strongly to offer himself as agent to the Company. Mr. Dawson was then in an excellent situation on a nobleman's estate in Berkshire, and enjoyed an income of six hundred a-year, with the prospect of an advance. He was, however, persuaded to give up his occupation and embark for Australia, and the disappointments which followed this step form the subject of the pamphlet.


LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. MR. Bucke's Epic Drama of Julio Romano, or the Display of the Passions, will be published early in February. It will be accompanied by an historic memoir, giving an account of the proceedings in Parliament last session, on the claims of dramatic writers ; remarks on the pre nt state of the stage, and the author's correspondence with various persons. To which will be added an Appendix, stating the manner in which dramatic writers are rewarded in Russia, Germany, and France.

The Rev. Hobart Caunter is preparing for publication, in one vol. post octavo, a poem entitled the Island Bride, with an illustration by Martin,

The Lost Heir, a novel, which has truth for its basis, will be published in a few days.

Charity Bazaars, a poem, is just ready. The Author, we understand, is a near relation to the noble author of Matilda, and Yes and No.

The forthcoming poem of The Reproof of Brutus, will contain distinct appeals on the state of the Country, to Mr. Peel, Sir F. Burdett, Messrs. Hume, Horton, and Sadler. The Archbishop of Canterbury, The Bishop of London, Sir Walter Scott, Southey, Campbell, Wordsworth and Moore. Malthus. Mc Cullock and Mill.

Mr. Klauer Klattowski, author of the German Synoptical Grammar, bas in the press, in 2 vols., A Manuel of German Literature, intended for self-tuition. The whole selection will be illustrated by copious explanatory Notes, and the first portion of the work will be accompanied by an interlinear analytical translation.

Mr. Klauer bas also nearly ready for publication, A Manuel of Icelandic Literature, with an abridgment of Dr. Rask's excellent Swedish Icelandic Grammar.

Education in France.It appears from an account in the Voleur, that there are in Paris 577 priests; 80 charity schools, 12,000 pupils of both sexes ; 403 elementary schools, of which i12 are gratuitous, with 25,582 pupils; 7 colleges; 118 boarding schools for boys, at which there are 7,669 pupils; 329 boarding schools for girls, with 10,240 scholars; and for the higher branches of education, 20 public establishments, most of which are supported by government, with 317 professors, and 17,823 students : thus making the number of persons receiving education in Paris 73,222—about one-tenth of the population.

Paris Academy of Sciences.-At the sitting of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, lately held, a report was read, giving an accuunt of several experiments performed by order of the Academy, for the purpose of determining the tension of vapours in high temperatures. It was stated, that many of these experiments had been attended with great danger; but that they had produced the important result of the discovery of a new invention for a sucker, by which all accidents in steam engines may be avoided, when the tension becomes greater than is necessary for the required service. At this sitting M. Eugène Robert announced through one of the members, the discovery of some fossile crocodiles' teeth, and the remains of lopbyodone at Boulogne, near Paris.

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