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form of entreaty. But their ardor could tempt for woman herself, mixed doubtless not be confined within the limits of the with a sneaking dread of her power. One house. They left housekeeping to take of his sayings handed down to us is : care of itself, and issued forth into the " Had there been no women in the world, streets and public places to waylay every the gods would still have been dwelling man that had a vote. They did not wait with us.” But another is also attributed till they became acquainted with the men. to bim - a modification of a saying of They assailed strangers as well as friends. Themistocles : “ All men rule their wives, They also held meetings among them- we rule all men, and we are ruled by our selves and had secret deliberations. Each wives.” The speech in Livy shows little day their numbers swelled. Roman citi- of his ferocity. It contains the arguments zenesses from distant towns and villages that would have been used in the time of flocked in to help their sisters of the city. Livy, and for his time it is valuable:No stone was left unturned. They went to the nobles, they interviewed prætors and dignity within the family, the women
If men [he says) had retained their rights and consuls. At length the day drew near would never have broken out publicly in this when the vote was to be taken in the public manner. If women had only a proper sense assembly. A great meeting was held on of shame, they would know that it was not the previous evening. One of the consuls, becoming in them to take any interest in the the obstinate red-haired Cato, delivered passing or annulling of laws. But now we a savage speech against the matrons. allow them to take part in politics. If they Others joined in his resistance. The tri- succeed, who knows where they will end? bunes who had proposed the abrogation As soon as they begin to be equal with us, spoke in their favor, and they were well they will have the advantage over us. And for
whát object are they now agitating? Merely supported. But the matrons must have to satisfy their inordinate craving for luxury spent that night in great anxiety. They and show, which will become only the more knew that two of the tribunes were ready intense the more it is gratified. to oppose the abrogation, and that their veto was sufficient to prevent the abroga of the replies of men in behalf of women,
The reply of L. Valerius was, like many tion passing. And therefore their resist. ance must be overcome. The women
I am afraid, far from satisfactory to them : were determined. They rose early; they Cato is wrong in asserting that women make gathered in vast crowds; they surrounded a public appearance on this occasion for the the houses of the obstinate tribunes ; they first time. The wives of the first Romans coaxed, they threatened, they employed stepped publicly between fathers-in-law and every form of womanly persuasiveness on sons-in-law. Roman matrons went on deputathese two tribunes, and at last the tribunes tion to Coriolanus, they interfered at the Gal
lic invasion, they performed public services gave way. The abrogation of the law was in religious matters. Then the prosperity folformally put to the meeting; there was no
lowing the Punic Wars has brought advanopposition, and the women gained their tages to all classes of the community; why point. One historian asserts that, on should the matrons alone be excepted from hearing the news, they burst into the as- this good fortune? And why should men sembly, donned their ornaments once grudge them their ornaments and dress? more, and celebrated their victory by a Women cannot hold public offices or priestspirited dance within the legislative build- hoods, or gain triumphs; they have no public ings.
occupations. What, then, can they do but The historian Livy, to whom we owe
devote their time to adornment and dress? the most vivid account of this outbreak Surely then men ought to let them have their of the matrons, furnishes us with a report
own way in these matters. of the public meeting held on the day be. On another occasion the women of fore the vote was taken. Especially he Rome gathered in numbers and made a supplies us with the speeches of the prin public appeal. The circumstances were cipal opponent, Cato the consul, and of these: The triumvirs, Octavianus, AnL. Valerius the tribune, who proposed the tony, and Lepidus, had proscribed a large abrogation. We can have no hesitation in number of citizens, and they confiscated believing that these speeches are the pro. and sold their estates in order to meet the ductions of the historian himself. Cato, expenses of a war then going on. But we may be sure, did speak on the occa- land was a drug in the market, and, besion, and the speech which Livy puts in sides, people were unwilling to purchase his mouth is in harmony with his charac. property exposed to sale in consequence ter. The stern lover of old ways had a of violent acts. The sum, therefore, obdetestation of woman's rights and a contained from the sales fell far short of the
amount required, and the triumvirs had to these gods could be worshipped properly look to other sources of revenue. They only when the sacrifices were offered by accordingly passed a decree that fourteen members of the family. It was profana. hundred of the richest women in the city tion for others to attempt this service. should lay before them an exact state. So if the wife had not been taken into the ment of their means, with severe penalties family of her husband, she could not have against concealment or undervaluation; shared in his worship, she would not be and they claimed the power to employ any present at the family festivals, and she portion of the wealth thus reported to would be bound to go to the worship of them for paying the expenses of the war. the gods and celebrate the festivals of her The women were thrown into the utmost father, to whose family she would still perplexity and distress, but they could belong. Thus pecuniary and religious find no man daring enough to plead their considerations would create a transference cause before the triumvirs. Left to their of the wife into the family of her husband. own resources, they went first of all to the But when we come to historical times we sister of Octavianus and the mother and find both of these influences dying out or wife of Antony. The sister of Octavianus dead. The pecuniary influence was gone. and the mother of Antony gave them a The wife was no longer bought. And the kindly reception, but Fulvia, the wife of religious influence existed only in a few Antony, drove them from her door. Thus families whose members might attain to insulted, they turned to the tribunal of the the highest priesthoods of the State. In triumvirs. Hortensia, the daughter of the fact, the Romans had given up, to a famous orator Hortensius, spoke in their large extent, their special family gods, name. She delivered a powerful speech, and therefore transference of the wife into which is highly praised by the great Latin the family of the husband became unneccritic Quintilian, and she succeeded in essary. getting the demands of the triumvirs re. What, then, took the place of this transduced to a comparatively small sum. ference into the family? To answer that
These public appearances of women we must look into the condition of the were, of course, only occasional; but they Romans in respect of wealth. At the ear. were frequent enough to show that women liest stage the Romans lived in humble had interests of their own, and had reso. cottages. The consul might command lution enough to assert them when such armies, but he dwelt within a house of a course was necessary.
few chambers, and might often be seen Perhaps the cause which altered the ploughing his own land. The household position of women most of all, next to lived on the produce of its own farm. In their goodness, was the change in the cir- these circumstances the wife could be cumstances of the Romans, brought about nothing else than an economic houseby the extension of their empire and the keeper, working with her hands and enincrease of wealth. I have already said tirely dependent on her husband for her that it was held as a maxim that woman maintenance. Probably her father would could do nothing of herself ; that she must not wish to have her sent back to him, as be under the guardianship of her father, he might have enough to do for the rest her husband, or some tutor; and that in of his family, and he would be very unthe earliest period the girl, on being mar. willing to pay back the sum which he had ried, passed from the power of her father received for her, and so the wife had into the hands of the husband. It has to make up her mind to submit. But a been inferred by some, from one form of change in her position took place when the Roman marriage rite, that there was wealth began to flow into Rome. Then a time when the Roman bought his wife the men obtained ample means, and money from her father or guardian, and thus ac- would be to them no consideration. The quired full power over her. He did not fathers scorned in such circumstances to treat her as a slave. His own respect for sell their daughters; but, on the contrary, Roman citizenship and the mother of Ro- came to feel that it was their duty to proman citizens would prevent this; but his vide for them for life. The daughters power over his slaves could scarcely be would thus no longer wish to be in the greater than that over the wife for whom power of their husbands but in that of he had paid. Then there was a time when their fathers. A further development religion required that the wife should pass took place when the women themselves into the hands of her husband. Every came to possess wealth. Fathers left family in Rome had special gods of its large sums to their daughters, husbands own, who were supposed to protect it, and left large sums to their widows, and thus
arose a class of rich women. This seemed nothing to do with the contract, and theresuch an anomaly to some of the Romans fore were not essential to the marriage. that they tried to check it. A law was It was necessary in this contract that hus. passed (the Lex Voconia) in 169 B.C., by band and wife should give their consent, which it was illegal to make a woman heir and when they were under control, that to a fortune above one hundred thousand their parents or guardians also should asses, and she was never to get more than consent. Generally each family had a the heir appointed in the will. But the family council, consisting of friends and necessity of the law might have proved its relatives, and this council would be sumfutility. Throughout Roman history a moned to decide on the terms of the conmarked feature is the strong affection of tract, and it was deemed disreputable in a fathers for their daughters and of husbands man to dissolve his marriage without in. for their wives, and no law could effec- voking this council. Husband or wife tively restrain them from contriving to might dissolve the marriage for any reagive the most part of their goods to those son, but precipitation was guarded against whom they loved. Accordingly, the fa. by the necessity of legal forms and by the thers and husbands invented devices by practice of asking the advice of this coun. which all such laws might be evaded. Acil
, at the head of which was the father of father, for instance, named as his heir the husband or wife. some man who had solemnly promised Such, then, was the position of woman that he would hand over all the fortune to in respect to marriage in the last centuthe daughter. The heir thus became a ries of the Roman republic, and it will mere trustee, and the Roman law at length be seen that she was on a practical equalsanctioned such trusteeships. And thus, ity with man. This state of matters somealthough the woman was nominally under times caused curious combinations in life. the power of a guardian, she had yet full | The most singular case, one throwing liberty to do with her property as she much light on the ideas of marriage prev. liked, and she gained the importance and alent among the nobility of Rome, is that influence which belong to wealth. These of Hortensius, which has been related by changes produced a revolution in the na- Plutarch. Hortensius, the great Roman ture of marriage. Marriage now became orator, was anxious to be allied to Cato, a contract. It was the invariable custom the champion of Roman liberty, who died for the father to give a dowry with his at Utica, and to marry Cato's daughter. daughter. The interest of this dowry was There was one difficulty in the way. sufficient to support her, so that she could Cato's daughter, by name Porcia, was be no burden on her husband. In fact, already married to Bibulus. But Hortenthe husband was not liable for her support sius did not regard this as a serious obexcept remotely; the duty fell on the stacle. He went to Bibulus, told him his father first and then on various kinsmen, wish, and begged him to dissolve his mar. coming only at a late stage on the hus- riage with Porcia, and thus afford himself band. The husband had the right to the an opportunity of marrying her. He stated use of the dowry while the marriage con- that after she had borne him two children tinued, but if it was dissolved, without he would relinquish his marriage claims, blame on the wife's part, he had to return and she might remarry Bibulus. Cato, the entire dowry. Of course the wife the father, was consulted, and refused his might have money of her own besides the consent. But Cato suggested a way out dowry. That remained entirely in her of the difficulty. He himself would yield own power, or the power of her father or up his own wife Marcia to Hortensius on guardian; the husband could not meddle condition thai her father did not object. with it. He might persuade her to be. Her father agreed, but on one stipulation, stow some of it on him, but he had no that her former husband should be preslegal control over it.
ent at the marriage. Cato accepted this Marriage was thus a contract which stipulation, and Marcia was married to came into full force when the woman was Hortensius. Hortensius died and Marcia led to the house of the man. It was a became a widow. But she did not remain contract which must be made in the pres- a widow long, for she soon married her ence of witnesses, and it could be dis- former husband, bringing with her the forsolved; but, again, the dissolution of it tune of Hortensius. In this case there is must be carried out legally – i.e., in the no constraint of any one and no illegality. presence of competent witnesses. Reli- Cato and Marcia dissolve their marriage gious ceremonies accompanied the mar. voluntarily and legally; Hortensius and riage, but the religious ceremonies had | Marcia marry voluntarily and legally; and
From The National Review.
Cato and Marcia marry again voluntarily tained in it. And there is one picture of and legally. Marriage existed so long as him, that, namely, which is to be found in both parties were fully agreed; and the Cædmon's poems, in which he differs in only obstacle to a dissolution of the mar- no important respect from the Devil as riage was the necessity of carrying it out conceived in the Bible. The somewhat in a strictly legal manner, and the duty of shadowy outlines of his character are, no consulting near relatives.
doubt, filled up and dramatized, but the In our next paper we shall discuss what conception is dignified and tragic, and was the effect of this arrangement on the perfectly free from that grotesque or comic happiness and character of women. element which is seldom wanting in the JAMES DONALDSON. Devil of the Middle Ages. A chief point
of interest in Cædmon's poem, which, whether originally written in England or on the Continent, is one of the greatest ornaments of early English literaturc, is
the striking resemblances which it preTHE CHARACTER OF THE DEVIL IN THE
sents to the corresponding portion of MIDDLE AGES.
Paradise Lost,"' coincidences which can It must have occurred to many, in read. hardly be merely accidental, especially as ing those stories of the Devil which were Cædmon was first edited in Milton's day current in the Middle Ages, that the char-|(1655); and even if his own knowledge of acter there ascribed to him is widely dif- Anglo-Saxon was too slight to enable him ferent from that which we find in the Bible. to take advantage of its publication, he He has lost all his dignity; he is no longer might at least have become acquainted the great enemy of God, but the petty with it at second hand. Some of these persecutor of men. Even his vices have points of likeness will be noticed as they become dwarfed; while in one virtue, occur. fidelity to the letter of his contracts, he Of the ten ranks of angels, then, whom almost sets an example to his victims. It God created above all, " to whom He is the object of this paper to sketch and trusted that they would do His will, since illustrate this new conception of his char- He had given them mind and wrought acter, and, as far as may be, to trace the them with His hand,* one had He made causes of its degradation.
so strong, so mighty in the thought of his The starting point, if only for the sake mind, He gave him so much rule that he of contrast, must be the Devil of the was highest next to Him in Heaven's kingBible; the angel who fell through pride, dom; so white had He made him, so win. who tempted man to his ruin, who re- some was his form in Heaven that came ceived power over Job's body, to try if by to him from the Lord of Hosts, he was any means he might lead him to curse like the bright stars. He was to work the God in his misery, who led on Ahab to glory of the Lord, and thank Hiin for the his destruction, who did his utmost to de- gift that He assigned him in the light. feat the purpose of Christ by tempting Dear was he to our Lord. But he began him and leading Judas betray him, who boastful words, and would not serve God; lost his prey when (according to the old he thought how, through his own might, interpretation of 1 Peter iii. 19) “ He who he might make him a stronger higher harwed Helle " delivered thence the fa- throne in Heaven. West and north † he thers of the Old Testament, who is finally began to work, fortresses he built. •Why to fight with St. Michael and the angels, should I trouble myself ?' said he; there to be conquered and bound in Hell for- is no need at all for me to have a lord, so
This is the Devil with whom we many wonders may I work with my hands. have to contrast the Devil of the Middle Ages, but it is not a mere contrast. The If thou beest he; but, O, how fallen, how changed character of the one is founded on the From him who, in the happy realms of light,
Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst outshine character of the other, for the theologians Myriads, though bright! of the Middle Ages, however much they
(Paradise Lost, book i., 1. 84.) may have been disqualified for under
Then he spake in word, thirsty for strife, standing the Bible by the tendency of the That he, in the north part of Heaven's kingdom, times to materialism and anthropomor
Would have a home and throne,
(Cædmon, part i., l. 31,) phism, were inferior to no Scotch Cov- with, enanter in their knowledge of the text, or
Homeward, with flying march, where we possess in their power of extracting from it infor
The quarters of the north. mation of doctrine which was not con
(Paradise Lost, book
I am to haste
I have great lordship, so that I may pre- Hell, darkness and heat, grim and bottompare a better throne, higher in Heaven; I less, God's self hath cast us away into the may be God as He. Around me stand black mists, although He can charge no strong comrades that will not fail me in sin on us or evil that we did to Him in the strife, warriors hard of mood. I may that land, yet hath He cut us off from the be their lord, and rule in this kingdom,* light, and cast us into the greatest of all as it seemeth not right to me that I should punishments. He hath now marked out at all fawn on God for any good. I will a world where He hath wrought man after no longer be His vassal.' When the Al. His likeness, with whom He will once mighty heard this, He renounced him from more people Heaven, with pure souls. His allegiance, and cast him down to Hell, We may not ever soften the mighty God's into the deep dales, where he was turned anger. Let us then turn away the heav. to Devil. The foe with his comrades, all enly kingdom from the sons of men, now fell down from Heaven ; + three days and that we may not have it, make them fornights they fell. They sought another sake His allegiance and change that which land, f that was without light and full of with His word He bade; then He will befire."
come wroth with them, and cast them from
His allegiance; then shall they seek this Then spake the proud kings that be. Hell, and these grim abysses ; then we fore was brightest of angels, whitest in may have them for subjects, the sons of heaven, and to his Lord dear, || Very un- men, in these fast clutches. Begin now like is this narrow place to the other that to think upon the war. If I to any thane we once knew, high in heaven's kingdom, of yore gave lordly treasures, when we sat which my Lord lent me, although we could happy in the good kingdom, then may he not hold it against the Almighty, but must not at a better season pay me back my yield our kingdom. Yet hath He not done gift, than if, whoever he be, he will conright, in that He hath felled us to the bot. sent to go up hence through the bolts, tom of the fire, to hot Hell, and taken and have might with him to fly with feathfrom us the heavenly kingdom. He hath ers, to go upon the cloud to the place marked it out to people it with mankind. where Adam and Eve stand wrought in That to me is greatest of sorrows, that the kingdom of earth, clothed with blessAdam, who was wrought of earth, should ings, and we are cast away hither into hold my strong throne, and be in bliss, these deep dales. Think of it all, how ye while we endure this punishment, harm in may betray them; henceforth may I rest this Hell. Ah! had I but the use of my softly in these fetters, if they lose the hands, and might for one hour get forth, kingdom. He that fulfils it, for him the be free one winter's time, then I with this reward is ready after forever, whatever host - But round me lie the iron bands, comforts , we may win here in this fire the rope of fetters rides me; I am king- henceforth. Him will I make sit next to domless. I see that He knew my mind, myself, who comes to this hot Hell, to say and also the Lord of Hosts understood that they unworthily by word and deed that Adam and we should agree ill about have forsaken the teaching of the King of the heavenly kingdom if I had the use of Heaven.'" my hands. But now we suffer torment in This sketch needs little comment. The
“That fix'd mind
points in which it resembles “ Paradise And high disdain from sense of injured merit
Lost" are numerous and striking. But to That with the Mightiest raised me to contend, whatever extent Milton may have been And to the fierce contention brought along
indebted to Cædmon, at any rate the Innumerable force of spirits armed." (Ibid., book i., l. 97 899., and book v., l. 743 899.)
tone of the two poems is the same. They † Nine days they fell.
are both tragic; indeed the Anglo-Saxon (Ibid , book vi., 1. 871.) 1 A dungeon horrible on all sides round
sketch has even less tendency to gra As one great furnace flamed; yet from those flames tesqueness than the work of the seven No light.
(Ibid., book i., l. 61.)
teenth century. Cædmon has filled up and $ Ibid., book i., l. 84.
dramatized the story from the life of bis “ Is this the region, this the soil, the clime?" own times, avoiding at the same time any Said then the lost Archangel, "ihis the seat That we must change for Heaven? this mournful striking incongruities, such as the appeargloom
ance of cannons in Heaven in Miltoa's For that celestial light?”
(Ibid., book i., l. 242.)
great poem. Satan is like a rebellious 1 "Who justly hath driven out His rebellious foes earl, or under-king, banished, and hopeless To deepest Hell, and, to repair that loss,
of return, but striving, like Harold in his Created this new happy race of men To serve Him better."
banishment, to do what harm he can to (Ibid., book iii., l. 676.) “the utmost border of his kingdom" who