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soon came to the conclusion that his ruin “My friends, this is what I think ; there was a certain thing. This is the argu. is only one thing left for me to do, that is ment that he followed, as it were, mechan. to die. I no longer wish to deceive my ically. "A man is in business, this pest neighbors, or to make the poor people infalls upon bim; there's an end of it. "No toxicated with brandy. Therefore, what more business for him."

is left to me but to die?" Seized with a fear hitherto unknown to “ He is right,” his customers said, him, he began to tremble and grow pale. laughing at him. Conscience, awakened in him, murmured, "I even have an idea,” continued Pro. “No, no; it won't do to go on letting the koritch, " that I should like to break all poor people make themselves shamefully the bottles you see round you, and let the tipsy.

contents of the casks run into the next Beside himself with terror, he called his canal, to get rid of the temptation to wife, Arina Ivanovna, to his assistance. drink."

Arina Ivanovna ran to him ; but no Here Arina Ivanovna broke in with the sooner did she recognize the involuntary simple words, – acquisition made by Prokoritch, than she “Just try one or two, and see.” Her cried out in great excitement,

heart, it was evident, had not been touched “ Help! Police! Stop thief! by the divine gift which had so suddenly

Why am I to be instantly ruined descended upon Prokoritch. But it was through this miserable thing?" said Pro- not easy to check him; he went on shedkoritch to himself, wondering who had ding bitter tears and talking continually. passed it on to him. Meanwhile, by de When a misfortune like mine overgrees, the tavern filled with people; but takes a man,” he said, "it's his fate, he Prokoritch, instead of serving his custom- was born to be unlucky. In thinking over ers with his usual good-will, astonished his position, in trying to place himself, he them profoundly by not only refusing to would not dare to say, I am a trader,' sell them any wine, but also by pointing or •I am a merchant.' He could not do out to them, in the most touching way, so without deep uneasiness. He would that for the poor all misfortunes began simply have to say, “I am an unlucky through drink

wretch,'" “18," said he, through his tears, “you And during the whole day Prokoritch would be satisfied with one little glass, that gave himself up to these flights of philoswould be all very well — it would even be ophy, for though Arina Ivanovna resoa good thing for you; but your only idea lutely opposed her husband's idea of is to take every possible opportunity of breaking the bottles and pouring their swallowing whole caskfuls, and then what contents into the canal, still they did not happens? You get drunk, they run you sell any wine. Towards evening Prokoin, and you get a hundred lashes for your ritch's sadness wore off, he became even trouble. Consider, my friends, is it worth gay; and as he went to bed he said to while to go through all this, and spend all Arina Ivanovna, who was crying, “ Well, your earnings upon a stupid fellow like my dear wife, though we have gained me into the bargain ? "

nothing to-day, what does that matter? Why, Prokoritch, you must be mad!” How light one feels when one has a clear said all his astonished customers.

conscience !" " That's not very surprising, myf

y friends. And, indeed, he was asleep almost be. when one is suffering from a misfortune fore his head touched his pillow; slum. such as has befallen me," answered Pro. bering peacefully and not even snoring, koritch. “See for yourselves the sort of whereas in the days when he made money license I have received,” and he showed and had no conscience he invariably them the conscience which the drunkard snored. had thrust upon him, and asked if any one Arina Ivanovna, however, saw things of them would like to have it. But as in a somewhat different light. She undersoon as they saw what it was, the ques. stood very clearly that for a tavern-keeper tion became, who could get to the most conscience was by no means an agreeable respectful distance from it, and no one acquisition, or one likely to be profitable, seemed in any hurry to accept the offer. so she made up her mind that at any price

You see the grand license, who will this unwelcome gliest must be got rid of. have it?” repeated Prokoritch, getting She waited patiently all that night, but angry.

bardly had the dawn begun to appear * But what is to become of you now?" through the dusty windows of the tavern, his customers asked.

when sie softly stole the conscience from

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her sleeping husband and hastened out | ing, meanwhile, the number of bags, made with it into the street.

of lime-tree bark, that he might be exIt happened to be market-day, the carts pected to bring in with him; for as a rule of the country folk were already coming he took plenty of these out, and brought in, one after another, and Lovets, the them back full of his pilferings. But topolice inspector, himself was hastening to day he returned without a single bag. On ihe market-place to see that everything perceiving this Madame Lovets lost her went on in proper order.

temper at once, and darting up to her husWhen she saw him Arina Ivanovna bad band she said, what seemed to her a brilliant idea. She “Where are the bags ? " ran after him until she was breathless, "Upon my conscience began and, as soon as she had overtaken him, Lovets. with surprising dexterity she slipped the “ I ask you where are the bags ?” conscience into the pocket of his overcoat “Upon my conscience repeated without his knowing it.

Lovets. This Lovets was not an absolutely Oh, very well, then, let your conshameless rogue, but as he was not par science feed you till next market-day. ! ticular he indulged pretty freely in various have nothing to give you for dinner," little malpractices. His manner was not Madame Lovets declared. insolent, but he was gifted with a too in Lovets hung his head, for he knew this quisitive glance. He had not had a hand was an argument to which he had no anin any very discreditable affair, but he swer. snapped up willingly anything that came He took off his overcoat, and immedi. within his reach. In short, he was a very ately his ideas changed entirely. Conrespectable rogue. But now, all at once, science remained in the pocket of the coat this man began to turn over a new leaf ! hung upon the wall, and Lovets at once When he reached the market place he felt light and free and more like himself. realized that all the goods in the carts and Once more it seemed to him that nothing shops or upon the stalls did not belong to in the world belonged to other people; that him, but to other people. Never before it was all his by right. The aptitude for had he been conscious of this feeling. appropriating and consuming everything He rubbed his eyes, saying to himself, came back to him.

"Am I ill? All this must be a dream!” " Ah ! ah ! my good friends, now you

He went up to a cart meaning to help won't get off so easily,” he cried, rubbing himself to some of its contents, but his his hands; and he promptly put on his arms hung powerless at bis sides. He coat again, to hasten back to the market. moved towards another intending to pull But, strangely enough, he had scarcely the beard of a moujik, but to his horror got it on when his impulse stopped short. his hands remained clenched. Then he He seemed to himself to be two men. was terrified and said to himself, – One, without the overcoat, impudent and

" What is the matter with me? I shall unscrupulous; the other, with it, timid and be ruining my profession forever. It will modest. be better for me to go home as I seem to Although he found himself animated by have taken leave of my senses !”

the best intentions, he did not give up his Hoping always that this mysterious idea of going back to the market. Per affliction would presently pass away, he haps,” he thought, " I may end by getting walked through the market looking about the better of it." him. It was crowded with all sorts of But the nearer he got to the market, the things, above all he noticed much poultry, faster his heart beat and the more he felt and everything seemed to say to him, impelled to show some kindness to all “ You have only to stoop down and help these poor people, who worked in the rain yourself.” The country people, however, and mud from morning to night to gain became bolder, seeing that our friend was two copecks. He no longer thought of not going on as usual, and that he con- taking other people's property. On the tented himself with looking very hard at contrary, he felt his purse a burden to him their goods. They even dared to make now he realized that it contained, not his fun of him, calling him “ Niigaud Niigau- money, but his neighbors'. dovitch " (son of a simpleton).

Here are fifteen copecks for you, “No, I have some unheard-of illness," friend,” he said to a peasant, giving him said Lovets to himself, and he went home the money. empty-handed.

“Why do you give it to me, simple. His wife was waiting for him, calculat- ton ? "

" It is to make up for my former in- scrap of dirty, oily paper. As soon as justices. Pardon me, for the love of she had unfolded this paper, she cried God."

out, “May God forgive you, then."

“Ah, here's an explanation of the tricks In this way he went through the market, he has been playing us; he had conscience giving away all his money, and when it in his pocket," and she began to thiok. came to an end he no doubt felt a great What puzzled her was how to get rid of weight lifted from his mind. Nevertheless conscience, and to whom she could pass he became very thoughtful.

it on. She did not wish to crush with one “I have certainly caught some illness," blow whoever she should choose as the he said again to himself

. “ I had better victim, but only to cause him a litile temgo home, and I can take the opportunity porary inconvenience. After some conof collecting together all the poor I meet sideration she made up her mind that she by the way, and giving them a meal ; " and had better bestow conscience upon the he proceeded to do as he had said. He Jew banker, Brjotski, the promoter of picked up numbers of beggars on the great commercial enterprises, and director road, and brought them into his courtyard. of innumerable railway companies. At the sight of them Madame Lovets held “ His back is broad enough, at any up her hands in horror, asking what he rate," she said to herself, “it won't hurt would do next. Lovets came up to her him." and said in a caressing tone,

Having decided this, she slipped code “Just see these good people whom I science carefully into a stamped envelope, have brought you, my little Theodosia. upon which she wrote Brjotski's name and Feed them, for the love of God.” But he address, and then threw it into the letter

box. peg, when he again felt clear of all im. "Now,” she said, going back to her pediments. Seeing from the window all husband, "you can go to the market the beggars of the town assembled in his boldly.”. courtyard, he could not understand what Brjotski was seated at dinner surroundthey meant by coming there. What were ed by his family. One of his sons, a boy they come for? Would he have to go out ten years old, 'was next him; this child and beat them all ?

was pondering over banking transactions. 6. What are all these people doing “What would happen, father," he said, here?” he asked, going towards the court-"if I invested the money you have given yard.

me at twenty per cent. a month? How “What? All these people ? They are much should i have at the end of the the worthy vagabonds you have just told year?" me to feed," replied Madame Lovets At simple or compound interest ? " dryly.

asked Brjotski. * Let them be turned out this minute," “Oh, compound interest, of course." he cried angrily; and he rushed about the " At compound interest that would come house like a madman. He paced up and to forty-five roubles and seventy-nine codown the rooms a long time, repeating pecks, not counting the fractions." incessantly, " What can have happened to “Then, father, I shall invest it like me?'

that." How was it that a man who used to be “Invest it by all means, my boy, but exact, even fierce, in the fulfilment of his take care that you get a very good secuprofessional duties, had suddenly become rity.” limp as a rag?

On the other side of the table sat an“Theodosia Petrovna, my good woman, other of Brjotski's sons, who was seven for Heaven's sake have me tied up,” he years old. He also was occupied with an entreated. “I feel that to-day I am capa: elementary problem in mental arithmetic. ble of committing follies which it would Further off sat two more, who were both take a year to repair.”

engaged in calculating the amount of in. Madame Lovets saw that her husband terest one owed to the other on a loan of must be very ill indeed. So she put him sugar-candy. to bed and made him swallow a hot Opposite Brjotski, his beautiful wife sat draught. After about a quarter of an hour in state, holding in her arms her baby girl it occurred to her to go and search the who already clutched instinctively at her pockets of her husband's coat, to see if he mother's gold bracelets. In short Brjotska had a copeck left. One of them contained was a happy man. He was just tasting : an empty purse; in the other she found a new sauce, so delicious that he woula

willingly have had the sauce-tureen decked After this Brjotski flew rather than with old lace and ostrich feathers, when a walked home, and by evening had quite servant handed him the letter. He had forgotten his past sufferings and was himhardly taken it when he became extremely self again. agitated.

He went back to business at once, and * Why should any one send me this spent the night in planning new banking thing?” he cried, trembling all over. No transactions on a colossal scale. one understood what he meant, but they The poor conscience lived like this for all felt that to finish their meal was im- a long time, and passed through many possible. I will not describe the torments hands; she was not wanted anywhere. that Brjotski suffered on this memorable People's only idea was to get rid of her, day. I will only mention one thing, that to pass her on at any price, and at last, this man, weak and feeble as he seemed to weary of this Wandering Jew existence, be, bore like a hero the most terrible tor- she said sadly to her last possessor, a tures, but as to giving up the smallest certain small tradesman whose business sum of money, nothing could make him never prospered, do it.

Why do you continually torment me “What I suffer does not matter,” he and tread me underfoot ? " said to his wife in the moments of most “What do you want me to do with you, acute agony.

Only hold me fast, and if my dear conscience ?” he answered ; "you the severity of the pain makes me ask for are no good at all.” my cash-box, don't bring it, my love. Let “ This is what I suggest,” replied conme die first!” However embarrassing a science. “ Find me a little Russian baby situation may be there is almost always and lodge me in his pure heart. Perhaps some way out of it, and one was found in the innocent would receive and cherish this instance. Brjotski luckily remem- me; as he grew up he might become at. bered an old promise he had made to give tached to me, and take me with him into something to a charitable institution of the world. Perhaps he would not hate which a certain general who was a friend me.” of his had the management. Time had The tradesman did as she wished. He slipped by without his doing so, but now found a little Russian child and slipped circumstances pointed out to him the most conscience into his pure heart. As the convenient way of fulfilling his obligation. child grows up conscience will grow with Without delay he cautiously opened the him; one day he will be a great man with envelope which he had received by post, a great conscience. In that day all falsedrew out the enclosure with a pair of hood, crime, and violence will disappear, pincers, put it into another envelope with for conscience, grown bolder, will speak, bank notes for a hundred roubles, and, and will be obeyed. M. WRIGHT. sealing it up carefully, went to see the said general.

“ I wish to help on this good work with a contribution, your Excellency,” said he,

From The Contemporary Review. placing his sealed packet upon the table before the general, whose face expressed his satisfaction. " It is a worthy act, sir,” he replied.

In early Rome we find the same state Here his Excellency stopped in confu- of matters as we have found in Greece. sion.

The city is the unit. This city-state con"Oh, quite so, your Excellency - quite sists of citizens who have all equal rights so,” said Brjotski hastily, happy to feel and privileges. All outside of the city himself relieved from the heavy burden have at first no rights within its territories, which had troubled him so much ; “be and if they come within the city, they have assured that we financiers are animated by no claim to justice or consideration except the purest patriotism, and are Russians what they can obtain through a citizen. above all things."

In all ancient cities there were always a " Thanks! thanks !” said the general, large number of slaves, men or women, "and - hem! hem! However

who either themselves or whose ancestors * Yes — your Excellency, Russians first, had been taken captive in war or stolen Russians first.”

from their homes. Thus there were three “Well! well! Good! good! God be classes of the population - citizens with with you."

full rights and privileges, aliens with no

THE POSITION OF WOMEN IN ANCIENT

ROME.

I.

" Indeed you

rights of their own, and slaves who were We have already seen what was the regarded as mere property. But the de result of this state of matters in Greece. velopment of the city of Rome follows a In Rome the result was different. The different course from that of the Greek alien women attained to less prominence cities. The Romans gradually extended even than the alien men, and in this ac. the privileges of citizenship till the unit count of the position of women in Roman was no longer a city, but a nation, and society we may pass them without notice. finally it became the civilized world. A few foreign women appear in the early Aliens make no prominent figure in Rome, history of Rome, and play a prominent as they did in Athens, unless we consider part; but the tales are borrowed from the plebeians as aliens, and in the process Greek stories of the times of the tyrants, of time the plebeians became citizens, and and do not fit in with strictly Roman ideas. every civil distinction between them and During the best period of Roman history the original citizens vanished. Besides, alien women are never mentioned, except the censor had the right to put the name in plays borrowed from the Greek, and it of an alien on the list of citizens, and no is only when we come to the later days of doubt many foreigners became Roman the republic that we begin again to hear citizens in this way. The slaves also had the names of a few. But their presence a more advantageous position in Rome. is owing to the prevalence of Greek ideas The road to citizenship was at an early and Greek customs, and even the few that period laid open for them. Their masters are mentioned keep in the background. manumitted many of them, and they be The female slaves also do not demand came freedmen. These freedmen came our attention. The female slave was to be numerous and influential, and the treated simply as a cow or sheep. If she censor Appius Claudius in 312 B.C.* ad- produced healthy offspring, it was so mitted them all to the full rights of citi much gain to her master, and he did not zenship. They were not, indeed, allowed care who was the father. Of course she to enjoy the honors of the State, but this could not marry, and all her children were same Appius Claudius granted to the sons the property of her owner. Sometimes a of freedmen admission into the Senate, male slave and a female slave were allowed and his right-hand man, Cn. Flavius, curule or compelled to live together, and there ædile of the year 304, was the son of a was something like a marriage. But they freedman. Thus, in course of time, the bad no right to their own children, and no slave became the freedman, the freedman's obligations towards them except such as son became an ingenuus, or freeborn citi. were imposed upon them by their proprizen, with all the rights and privileges of etors. At the same time, as their fertility Roman citizenship.

was a source of revenue to their masters, In Roman society there were these same they were often treated very kindly. In three classes of women - the full citizen, olden times, the female slave who had the alien, and the slave. The Roman three children was allowed a dispensation citizen could marry only a woman who was from hard work, and if she had more she the daughter of a Roman citizen. Mar- sometimes obtained her freedom. The riage with any other was impossible. The Romans had a great liking for the slaves very object of marriage was to produce a who were born within their households, race of citizens, and therefore both father and often brought them up along with the and mother must belong to the class of young members of the family, with whom citizens. It was for this reason that such they thus became intimate.' This close care was taken of the purity of Roman connection tended to lessen the sense of women, and such a broad distinction was absolute proprietorship in many cases, and drawn between the conduct of the man the slave woman was treated with considand the woman. There must be no sus eration. It was no doubt through such picion of spuriousness in regard to the influences that the lot of the slave woman Roman citizen. But the offspring of the was ameliorated, and when we come to the man with a foreign woman or a slave did times of the empire, we see laws made to not become a citizen, and therefore the protect them, and freedom frequently conState was perfectly indifferent as to what ferred upon them. relations might exist between a male cit It is, then, the matrons alone who are izen and alien wonen or slaves, and soci- conspicuous in Roman history. Every ety was equally indifferent.

citizen girl married and became a matros,

and it is that class exclusively which we • Dionysius makes Servius Tullius admit the freed- shall discuss. man to citizenship: iv. 22.

Now, the first remark that has to be

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