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equally the flowers and the diamond lat-save room during the day; and secondly tice that lend so much picturesqueness, to the huge feather beds of the same size, and taken altogether the average English but lighter than that beneath, which ev. village is far more pleasing externally. erywhere take the place of blankets. Creeping plants seldom adorn the peas. Ranged against the wall are two or more ant's home, even ivy requiring protection solid oak dower chests, polished by the for three years or so after planting. In- robust arms of many generations. They side, however, the Danish cottage, though contain all the linen and other family treasnot one whit more extensive, contrasts ures; the silver-buttoned waistcoats, the favorably with our own; it possesses more gay Sunday costumes, and the glories of color, and, as a rule, is beautifully clean. the golden-crowned cap. In a corner solNaturally the cottages vary in size ; but emnly ticks a tall old eight-day clock, among those inhabited by the married which looks as though it might have come agricultural laborer, or Insidder, one of straight from Sussex. With the hospitaltour rooms is large, and the majority have ity common to the soil, the goodwife at but two rooms and a loft. When the boys once offers refreshment in the form of milk and girls of the cottager's family reach or mead, for the latter old classic drink has the age of thirteen or fourteen they are yet retained all its former popularity in confirmed; but should they have been Denmark. dunces, and so can neither read nor write The rent of such a cottage as this varies properly, that ceremony is perforce post from £2 to £2 55. per annum, and gener. poned, which is considered a sad disgrace ally has a garden plot attached. Its tento those concerned. Education is free and ant usually finds work all the year round compulsory and but seldom shirked, and at the Herremand's or Gaardmand's, either the confirmation is an important epoch in of whom may be his landlord ; his wages the youthful life; once it is over, the lads average eleven shillings weekly, except in and lasses all seek service at the Herre harvest, when they are raised, and when, mand's or Gaardinand's if they can; but in addition, some of the universal good wherever they go, they always manage to cheer falls to his share. Unlike the peas find employment somewhere altogether ant woman of southern lands where the away from home, a healthy weeding-out baleful partage forcé has had a century process which necessarily renders the size of existence, the Insidder's wife does no of the house of less importance, and which harder work than that of planting in her also reduces the Insidder as a class. In garden and attending to her house and the average cottage of two rooms, one children. If she be forced herself to a kitchen where the family live and dine, gather fuel in the forest, it is a sign of and though it has but a stamped earthen poverty; usually she employs some poorer floor, the deal table is so well scrubbed, woman for that purpose, and busies her the copper pans and crockery so well hands with some of the many domestic scoured, and the benches, painted red, are industries, for it is the peasant's aim to so gay, that the aspect is inviting. The buy little and make much. The wife, wood fire burns upon a brick hearth raised therefore, knits all the socks and stock: a yard from the ground, and it is the In- ings, prepares the yarn for the village sidder's invariable privilege — not his weaver - unless she has room for a handright - to gather all his fuel from the loom, the case with most Husmænd dead wood of the neighboring forest; in when she makes all the homespun, and wooded districts, therefore, and they are fashions her own and her children's many, the cottagers all bake and brew; clothes, as well as most of her husband's. elsewhere they find it cheaper to buy both In summer time she will help to make the bread and beer. But it is not in the kitchen new-mown hay, and assist besides in the that the goodwife will receive her guests ; barvesting. She is always a notable for visits of ceremony they are ushered housewife, and fowls are kept invariably. into the bedroom, and this chamber, in a They help to pay the rent, and often more family of any self-respect, is well fitted besides. Upon the highway one meets for the reception-room. The deal floor is the tiny child of four or five, fair-haired scrubbed with sand to a polished white, and blue-eyed, her mother in miniature as the beds, gay with green striped cotton regards dress, from the close-fitting cap curtains, and a check coverlid with a deep and large apron to the little sabots peep. flounce, are scrupulously neat, though they ing out from under the long full petticoats. look extraordinarily short and very high, She is armed with a withy, and is there owing first to an ingenious habit of mak- alone to guard the flock of poultry search. ing all bedsteads telescope fashion, to ing for a meal by the wayside, and which,

ever living on terms of close intimacy with play lustily, and then it is that the comthe fam:ly, are well-conducted birds, easily pany is reinforced by the Insidder and his amenable to discipline. In winter they family, who also benefits at Christmas are stowed away in all sorts of places, in time by the customary gifts from the the loft, or more often in hutches placed manor house. under the benches, which, painted bright Village industries are fostered in Denred or vivid green, take the place of chairs mark, where the practice of turning out in the cottages. It is chiefly from these everything wholesale by machinery is not and from the Gaardmænd's dwellings that yet general. The Husmand, therefore, the bagmen collect the enormous numbers can follow many trades, and work his of eggs exported, almost every day in the holding at the same time. Still, in spite week, from the various Danish ports to of comparative prosperity, the Husmand London, Hull, and Newcastle; yet the presents another example of the difficulty house and garden room is fully as limited with which the sinall peasant proprietor as in the majority of our own cottages, can compete with the larger farmer in and Danish winters, besides, are longer agricultural products. From statistics coland more severe. How long is this source lected by the Royal Danish Agricultural of national revenue to lie with us compara- Society we learn that the average yield of tively unheeded and lost? Will none a Danish cow is from twenty-five to thirty awaken our farmers and laborers to the quarts per diem, but the same statistics wealth they persistently neglect ? Why show the average yield of the Husmænds' should not fowls' eggs be as profitable cows to be but from fifteen to twenty to them as to the Danes ? and why should quarts. Denmark of course does not enjoy not an organized system of collecting eggs immunity from poverty any more than from every farm and hamlet be estab- other countries, and each district has its lished as successfully in England as in workhouse; but partly owing doubtless to Denmark? Although the Insidder and the fact of small communities presenting his family do not receive invitations to naturally fewer complications in their sojoin the Gaardmand's festivities, and cial difficulties, and partly because of long though their own weddings, naturally, are generations of prosperous agriculture, the conducted upon a very different and more proportion of pauperism in relation to the modest scale, still occasions are not lack-population is small. ing when it is necessary for the goodwife The dialect of Jutland and that of the to don her best cap, decorated in some north of England is so much alike, that it districts with the curious glittering crown is not uncommon for the Jutland farmer of thin gold plate, and for her husband io to accompany his cattle in the steamer to don his best waistcoat, gay with a double Newcastle, and there strike a bargain with row of handsome silver buttons. These the north-country dealer without an interarticles of value were, if not inherited, mediary, each addressing the other in his purchased in the days when she worked as own tongue and being understood. Olda dairy.maid and he as a karle on some fashioned in the simplicity of his life the farm, and not until each had saved enough Danish farmer of cvery class surely is, to furnish a cottage according to their but unenterprising, unintelligent, and unstation did they dream of marrying. instructed he is not, and hence a prosper

At the Herremand's, all the dairymaids ity, with the causes of which it might be in the evening, when their work is over, well if our English farmers would make assemble in the spinde stue, or spinning themselves acquainted. room, under the care of the meierske, or

FRANCES MARY DE BORRING. woman at the head of the dairy, who is responsible that all goes well, alike with the butter and its inakers. Here they spin and weave the goodly store of linen

From Longman's Magazine. which will probably last them the term of their busy, thrifty lives. At harvest-time,

ETON: 1836 TO 1841. on the larger farms, there are grand festiv I went to Eton in September, 1836, ities among the farm hands, much feasting when I was twelve years old. I boarded and dancing in an empty barn, which is at Mrs. Horsford's, and Coleridge was my decked with greenery and wheat ears, tutor. Dr. Hawtrey was head-master, and whilst hoops festooned and slung from Dr. Goodall was provost. The old school the rafters serve as candelabra. The vil. was prospering and the number of the lage band is stationed at one end upon an boys annually increasing under Hawtrey's improvised platform, and is expected to bland administration.

Half a century afterwards — i.e., in 1887 | to an injury to one of his hands), and pro- I had occasion to go to Eton to see a ceeded to catechise me as to my name grandson, and by good luck a friend of his and age and tutor and place in school, and took me to have a look at my old room at the amount of my pocket-money, and my my dame's. Fifty years may have made preference for dry-bobbing or wet-bobbing. a considerable change in me, but time We soon became confidential, and he then seemed to have had scarcely any effect on told me something about himself, with the appearance of the little room. There some little embroidery of his facts, as I were the old upright iron window-bars, afterwards learnt. He had been three through which I could just squeeze my years at Eton, and was now in the lower head as a boy. The familiar press-bed, on remove, in which I had been placed. He which I had slept for five years, was in its therefore proposed that we should mess old place. There was a new bureau together at breakfast and tea, and do our every boy at Eton lias a bureau — but school work together a little scheme the new bureau was the facsimile of my that suited him admirably, as it meant that old one. There was the painted cupboard I was to prepare the lessons for him and in which we kept our crockery and knives do most of his verses. I was, however, and forks and jrmpots. A projecting rather a gainer by this compact, for he green curtain concealed the wash hand- gave me some of the benefit of his experistand, as it did in olden times. The ence; and as he was "in the lower boats," wooden chair was of the same make and in which lower boys were then allowed to pattern as it had been of yore. And there row, he had a certain sort of prestige was the very identical oak table, on which amongst other boys, which made me glad Lord Seaham had carved his name several to have him as a friend. years before it descended to my use. Not very long after Three fingered Jack

It may readily be believed that the sight had left me, another little fellow came to of the old room awakened long-dormant say that the captain of my dame's wanted memories; and the faces and figures of to see me, and he took me to a room where many of the boys who had been my com- I found all the big fellows in the house panions fifty years ago seemed to rise up assembled. Some of them were very big, before my eyes. It is said that old people to my juvenile apprehension ; " Fat Rogremember the events of their younger ers," as he was then called, being no days more clearly than those of middle chicken, whilst poor “ Baby Frere," who life. Having arrived at that time of life was afterwards drowned at Cambridge, which Lord Beaconsfield called “anec. was even bigger than Rogers. There dotage,” | venture to recount a few old were some eight or ten others, and among stories and reminiscences of what hapo them the two Johnsons, very clever boys, pened at Eton "in my time," as we call it. one of whom is now known as Canon My contemporaries are becoming fewer Furse, of Westminster, whilst the younger every year and I hope that those among brother, who subsequently became a col. them whose names are mentioned will not leger, was the celebrated Billy Johnson, be offended at my taking the liberty to one of the undermasters of Eton for many write of them.

years. I was again catechised on many How well I remember the first evening points personal to myself, and some mild of my career at Eton! I had gone to attempts were made to “ green me," as school about a fortnight later than the boys call it. A nickname was suggested other boys, and was specially commended for me as “ Young Waterloo," because to the care of the captain of my dame's, there was a market-gardener of my name, the great William Rogers, now'rector of whose cart used to stop before my dame's St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, whose "Remi- door; and he, having fought at Waterloo, niscences " have lately been published. I was accustomed to tell tales about the had tea with my daie, a handsome old great battle, and was called “Old Water. lady, who, with her two kindly daughters, loo.” My services as a fag were allotted managed the house. A maidservant had to Fat Rogers, who was a kind and considthen shown me to my room, and helped in erate master, and he gave me the “liberunpacking my clothes and books; and I ties” and “his name." If I remember was feeling rather proud, as monarch of rightly, the “liberties " gave an immunity all I surveyed, with a blazing fire to warın from all fagging for the first ten days'; me, when there came a tap at the door, whilst the “ name was a valuable perma. followed by the entrance of a small boy, nent protection, as a lower boy, when called rather bigger than me, who introduced on by another fellow to fag for him, was at himself as “ Three-fingered Jack” (owing liberty to excuse himself by pleading that

!

he was fagging for the boy whose " name gan to command. We had no unpleasant had been given him.

services to perform, such as the blacking There were only three or four lower of boots or the cleaning of lamps. But boys in my dame's house, so that a new we learnt to brew tea and coffee and chocfag was an acquisition. Fat Rogers was olate, and to make toast, and to butter in the sixth form and in the upper boats, muffins, and to boil eggs; none of which and he messed with some other big fel arts we should ever have been taught lows, whose appetites required to be ap- otherwise, and the knowledge thus acpeased by beefsteaks and chops and quired has been of lifelong use.

Nor was sausages and chocolate at breakfast. It this all. We used to have Dutch ovens was almost a daily task to go and fetch a and small gridirons, with which we cooked, dish of beefsteaks from the Christopher, at our own fires, sausages and chops and which was handy to my dame's, and I be- tiny beefsteaks and poached eggs. I hear lieve they were the best beefsteaks in the that cooking utensils are not allowed now world. I and another fag named Jodrell in a boy's room. More's the pity! for (long since dead) used to take it in turns this slight knowledge of cookery has often to make the chocolate. One day, soon helped me and my comrades in foreign after my arrival, the chocolate-pot was parts. There was occasionally a silly, arupset on the fire, and the question arose bitrary exercise of fagging power, when who was to get a fresh supply of milk for a little fellow was told to go up town our masters. Jodrell was an older and to some shop to buy sixpennyworth of taller but slighter boy than I, and he in- straight-hooks or a'pint of pigeon's milk ; sisted on my buying the milk; and when which latter commission usually caused words failed, he tried to coerce me. We dire offence to the damsel at the shop fought, and he fell with a terrible black where the pigeon's milk was demanded. eye, and it became his lot to go and buy There were two kinds of fagging which the fresh supply of milk. When our mas- young oppidans disliked. The big colters came in they found their breakfast all legers used to have private rooms over ready, and dismissed their fags without the shops in the Eton street, on and benoticing Jodrell's eye.

yond Barnes's pool bridge. From their But I was to hear more about it after windows they would hail a lower boy and wards. That evening, after lock-up, a boy fag him to go into college to fetch a book named Temple (the present Duke of Buck- or one of their greasy black gowns, which ingham) came over from Cookesley, Jo- we all detested. But it was worst of all drell's tutor, to say that he wanted to to be fagged to fill basins for the collegers speak to me. On our way to Cookesley's, in long chamber. There were, I think, Temple (who seemed to me then quite a about sixty boys in college, who were big fellow, though he is now not much locked up at night in the long chamber above my shoulder) amused himself by where they all slept. There was a long informing me that Cookesley was going to and strong table about the middle of the have me swished for hitting Jodrell, which chamber, on which were some twenty large seemed to me very unfair, seeing that he white basins for the collegers to wash in began the fight. We arrived at Cookes. by turns. The basins could only be reley's pupil-room and found him busy cor- plenished from the pump, out of doors, in recting verses. Presently he looked up Weston's yard; and the little collegers, and said, Who's this?” Temple an- who were themselves fags, used to try to swered, " This is the boy who gave Jodrell catch small oppidans to help them empty a black eye." "What's your name?" and fill the basins. There was another asked Cookesley; and on hearing my kind of fagging in long chamber which name he jumped up and shook my hand, was not so bad. A little before election Satand said, “ Mrs. Cookesley knows your urday it was the custom to clean and polfather. Temple, take him up to have tea ish the oak floor of long chamber. For with you and Mrs. Cookesley in the draw. this purpose oppidan fags were caught, ing-room.” Nothing more was heard about and whilst one of them was seated on a the black eye or the swishing; and Cookes. horse-rug, or coarse blanket taken from a ley and bis wife were ever afterwards very colleger's bed, the others dragged him up kind to me, and always asked me to break and down the floor, so that the weight of fast every half.

his little person polished the boards. ColThe idea of fagging or being fagged is legers were always called tugs in my a sort of bugbear with some modern phi- time. Tug was supposed to be short for losophers. I look back to it with pleas. tug-mutton, as they were then allowed by ure. It taught us to obey before we be the college statutes to have no meat but

Half a century afterwards - i.e., in 1887 | to an injury to one of his hands), and pro- 1 had occasion to go to Eton to see a ceeded to catechise me as to my name grandson, and by good luck a friend of his and age and tutor and place in school, and took me to have a look at my old room at the amount of my pocket-money, and my my dame's. Fifty years may have made preference for dry-bobbing or wet-bobbing. a considerable change in me, but time We soon became confidential, and he then seemed to have had scarcely any effect on told me something about himself, with the appearance of the little room. There some little embroidery of his facts, as I were the old upright iron window-bars, afterwards learnt. He had been three through which I could just squeeze my years at Eton, and was now in the lower head as a boy. The familiar press-bed, on remove, in which I had been placed. He which I had slept for five years, was in its therefore proposed that we should mess old place. There was a new bureau together at breakfast and tea, and do our every boy at Eton has a bureau — but school-work together -- a little scheme the new bureau was the facsimile of my that suited him admirably, as it meant that old one.

There was the painted cupboard I was to prepare the lessons for him and in which we kept our crockery and knives do most of his verses. I was, however, and forks and jrmpots. A projecting rather a gainer by this compact, for he green curtain concealed the washhand- gave me some of the benefit of his experistand, as it did in olden times. The ence; and as he was "in the lower boats," wooden chair was of the same make and in which lower boys were then allowed to pattern as it had been of yore. And there row, he had a certain sort of prestige was the very identical oak table, on which amongst other boys, which made me glad Lord Seaham had carved his name several to have him as a friend. years before it descended to my use. Not very long after Three fingered Jack

It may readily be believed that the sight had left me, another little fellow came to of the old room awakened long-dormant say that the captain of my dame's wanted memories; and the faces and figures of to see me, and he took me to a room where many of the boys who had been my com- I found all the big fellows in the house panions fifty years ago seemed to rise up assembled. Some of them were very big, before my eyes. It is said that old people to my juvenile apprehension; "Fat Rogremember the events of their younger ers, as he was then called, being no days more clearly than those of middle chicken, whilst poor “ Baby Frere," who life. Having arrived at that time of life was afterwards drowned at Cambridge, which Lord Beaconsfield called “anec. was even bigger than Rogers. There dotage,” | venture to recount a few old were some eight or ten others, and among stories and reminiscences of what hap- them the two Johnsons, very clever boys, pened at Eton “in my time," as we call it. one of whom is now known as Canon My contemporaries are becoming fewer Furse, of Westminster, whilst the younger every year and I hope that those among brother, who subsequently became a colthem whose names are mentioned will not leger, was the celebrated Billy Johnson, be offended at my taking the liberty to one of the undermasters of Eton for many write of them.

years. I was again catechised on many How well I remember the first evening points personal to myself, and some mild of my career at Eton! I had gone to attempts were made to “ green me,” as school about a fortnight later than the boys call it. A nickname was suggested other boys, and was specially commended for me as “Young Waterloo,” because to the care of the captain of my dame's, there was a market-gardener of my name, the great William Rogers, now'rector of whose cart used to stop before my dame's St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, whose "Remi-door; and he, having fought at Waterloo, niscences” have lately been published. I was accustomed to tell tales about the had tea with my daine, a handsome old great battle, and was called “Old Waterlady, who, with her two kindly daughters, loo.” My services as a fag were allotted managed the house. A maidservant had to Fat Rogers, who was a kind and considthen shown me to my room, and helped in rate master, and he gave me the “liberunpacking my clothes and books; and I ties” and “his name.” If I remember was feeling rather proud, as monarch of rightly, the "liberties" gave an immunity all I surveyed, with a blazing fire to warın from all fagging for the first ten days; me, when there came a tap at the door, whilst the name was a valuable perma: followed by the entrance of a small boy, nent protection, as a lower boy, when called rather bigger than me, who introduced on by another fellow to fag for him, was at himself as “ Three-fingered Jack ” (owing liberty to excuse himself by pleading that

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