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life, just got over the barrier in time. I ultingly, “A real butcher,' as the third The bull did not run at his cloak, but went horse fell; and even tried to express himstraight at the man, and it was a mercy he self in English, holding out three fingers escaped. Poor Rafael did not have the saying, “Three, three horse.' same luck. I do not very well remember 6. The death-scene when the bull is how it began, but my impression is that killed is very horrible. The only redeem. the bull charged him. This would be very ing point is the magnificent coolness of unusual, as all bulls fear the spear – Í the matador. It is beneath his dignity to believe it is used by the vaqueros in driv- jump out of the way as the chulos do. A ing them — but all the spectators agreed mere turn of the foot gets him as much out that this was an unusually bold and fero- of the way as he deigns to go. And when cious bull. It is only on the idea of the he is meditating his stroke, he is grand, bull attacking him that I can conceive the standing straight in front of the bull, not picador getting into such an awkward (two yards off, calmly poising his sword place. The bull had him jammed against and selecting the right place to strike the the barrier. He rushed at the horse and infuriated wild beast, who has all the will gored it three times in rapid succession, to kill him, and really the power, but who the poor brute falling dead without a is helpless as a little puppy-dog before the struggle. The picador rose in the stir. terrible skill of el diestro, the cunning rups, but the great heavy wooden stirrup man,' as the historians of the ring delight hampered him, and then the bull attacked to call him. The matador has a scarlet him. Once the horn was turned aside by flag, which irritates the bull much more the leather and iron defence he wore; the than the crimson cloak of the chulos. second time it was driven into his side. They all have little tricks of bravado. It was a horrible sight. The chulos Cara Ancha would wrap his sword in the rushed at the bull with that splendid flag and hold it out to the bull, to show courage which atones for a great deal of that he could not use it to defend himself. the horrors of the fight, and the bull's at- Gallito, instead of drawing the flag away tention was drawn away. No sound of when the bull made his rush, would complaint escaped the picador. Slowly calmly draw it over his back. This he and laboriously he got one leg over the did five times without moving from his barrier. There were plenty of attendants place, turning round each time as the bull, to help him, and he was pulled over. For recovering himself after the first rush, one moment he straightened himself in the turned and dashed at him again. That arms of the men, and it was then I saw time I myself applauded; it was really a turned to me the colorless face, with its very grand sight. But the killing was horrible look of agony. Then I think he horrible. On two occasions the bull was fainted, and was carried out quite stiff and killed with one blow, the nearest thing rigid in the arms of his bearers. Il est to the foudroyant death-stroke of which mort, ce picador,' said the old gentleman Ford speaks, that I saw. But then there next me, quite calmly. I should have was very little applause. It was too merliked to have thrown him down into the ciful a death. The third and fourth bulls ring! Do you suppose the people cared ? were killed in a way which was a disgrace Not they! Los muertos no tienen amigos to humanity. It may seem a strange thing is one of their proverbs. Another picador to say, but the most horrible sight of all to mounted hastily to take the vacant place. me is the extinction of the bull's intelli

As a further instance of the feeling of gence before his death. A time comes the people, I may add what happened with when he gets quite stupid. He stares another bull. No sooner was it perceived vacantly at the red flags, which no longer that he had killed his third horse, than the excite him; he evidently can no longer enthusiasts on the lower seats near the understand what is going on, and somering rose en masse and cheered the bull to times at this point he gives a perfectly the echo, waving their hats and handker- heartrending bellow, which seems a last chiefs, and shouting, · Bravo toro, bravo ! despairing appeal to be allowed at least to Viva toro!' A minute afterwards, the die in peace. The fierce dun bull which bull was bellowing pitifully with pain and had gored the picador, and which had bewilderment, two skiifully planted ban- quite worn himself out with his wild rushes derillos having gone deep into him, and at the beginning, remained a long time in the spectators jeered and mocked at his this state. Though he had gored the poor pain as fiercely as they had applauded picador, I must say I felt . a great disposi; before. My neighbor was very enthu- tion to cry,' when the poor, gallant wild siastic. Un carincero,' he remarked, ex-l beast died. To hear the bulls' cries for

mercy in their poor, inarticulate language strongly constructed of steel, and differs that no one but God understands, and to but little from those similarly employed in hear it met with brutal, pitiless jeering, is coal-mines. The bar across the entrance very dreadful.

Thank heaven, the horses is closed ; a signal is given to the man in didn't cry. I don't think I could have charge of the winding engine, and we are stood that. In any case, it is a horrible off. Visits to collieries have been so fre. and degrading sport, which ought to be quently described, that the sensations genput down by force."

erally experienced are tolerably familiar, at least on paper, even to those who have never personally ventured on that somewhat trying novelty. But here all is re

versed. The same cage is attached to a From Chambers' Journal.

wire rope, wound by a similar hauling A NOVEL ASCENT.

engine; but darkness gives place to light, Some little time since, under the title of and the dread fceling of sinking into the “A Subaqueous Excursion,” we embodied bowels of the earth never to return yields our impressions on visiting the caissons to a sensation of easy and luxurious eleva. of the Forth Bridge at Queensferry, and tion and airy ascension, as we rise higher portrayed the scenes enacted in the air- and higher through complex masses of chambers, where, some ninety feet below bracing and strutting, till we land on the water-level, the foundations of the huge platform at the summit, and jumping from structure were being excavated. All this the cage, experience a pleasing sense of is now changed; the busy workers no exhilaration in the fresh breezes, the vast longer ply pick and shovel deep down be expanse of country open to our gaze, and neath the water ; but high up in mid-air the thought that we have beneath us the above the " gallant Forth" are rearing largest railway bridge in the world. the steel superstructure of the giant canti. A glance over the edge reveals to us levers. The main steel piers are now the very great height at which we stand. erected to their full height, and their as: Far below in the giddy depth we see men, cent forms an expedition so novel and reduced to the size of pigmies, hurrying unique, that we have endeavored briefly to about; whilst the guardship is dwarfed depict our experiences in gaining the sum into a toy-boat. The view is one never to mit.

be forgotten. It is a clear day, and one Leaving the classic Hawes Inn, immor- by one we see the islands of the Forth talized in " The Antiquary," and which at reposing on its placid surface, and mark one time or another has sheltered many the grand outline of the western hills, fadhistoric personages on their way across ing away into the blue distance. Arthur's the Forth, a steam-launch conveys us to Seat stands sharply marked against the Inchgarvie, the island in mid-channel. glowing skies, and the smoky canopy of We pause on landing, and look upwards Auld Reekie fringes the glories of the at the mighty towering structure. The beautiful grounds of Dalineny. Turning Forth Bridge stands three hundred and northwards, Inverkeithing and “ Dunfermsixty feet above water-level, below which line gray” lie almost at our feet, and the its foundations at their greatest depth ex. Ochil Hills flank a scene seldom if ever tend some ninety feet - giving an over-all surpassed. measurement of about four hundred and We turn from the beauties of nature to fifty feet – a height but little exceeded by the gigantic cantilevers beneath our feet, the Great Pyramid of Egypt, which and mark the busy workers at their toil. reaches four hundred and sixty feet, or by No light task that, to labor hour after Cologne Cathedral and Old' St. Paul's, hour betwixt heaven and earth, summer standing respectively five hundred and ten and winter. All honor to British pluck and five hundred and eight feet above and determination, to the minds that direct, ground-level.

and the hands that execute such an under. The “cage which we now enter will taking ! accommodate about a dozen men. It is

Fifth Series, Volume LXIL


No. 2294. - June 16, 1888.

From Beginning,

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II. MR. SANDFORD. Conclusion,

Cornhill Magazine,

Blackwood's Magasine,

Westminster Review, V. THE PYGMY RACES OF MEN,



St. James's Gazette,

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGe will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither, of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters are obliged to registe: letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks, and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGE, 18 cents.




To her pertains that royal round Nay, be not June, nor yet December, dear,

The birthday cake, its summit crowned

With'brave devices;
But April always, as I find thee now:
A constant freshness unto me be thou,

She sits, in queenly state aloof,
And not the ripeness that must soon be sere.

And deals, sans comment or reproof, Why should I be Time's dupe, and wish more

Capricious slices.

One day she wears her birthday crown, The sobering harvest of thy vernal vow?

Then, all unsceptred, topples down I am content, so still across thy brow

To common earth-day; Returning smile chase transitory tear.

Three hundred days and sixty-four Then scatter thy April heart in sunny showers; Must crawl their sordid course before I want nor Summer drouth nor Winter's sleet:

Another birthday. As Spring be fickle, so thou be as sweet;

Good Words. With half-kept promise tantalize the hours; And let Love's frolic hands and woodland

Fill high the lap of Life with wilding flowers.


[It is said that, chiefly in consequence of the female fashion for feather trimmings, our goldfinches are nearly exterminated.]

WHEN lovely woman stoops to folly,

And wears bird-feathers on her head,

The consequence is melancholy:

Our “Goldies" nearly all are dead!
POOR FOLKS' LIVES," ETC. Fie! How can female bosoms harbor
ONE morn in every summertide

Such cruelty, at such a cost?
The sparrows' early twitterings chide

Poll Swedlepipe, the gentle barber,
Miss Polly's lateness;

Might well return, a mournful ghost,
She sighs and turns, and wakes at last

And haunt reproachfully each daughter
To sense of rapture deep and vast,

Degenerate of Mother Eve.
And sudden greatness.

Consent to such a ruthless slaughter?

Punch finds it hard, dears, to believe. With conscious, coy, yet stately air,

Have you not heard their mellow whistles? She comes (two feet on every stair),

Descried their darting red and gold?
A radiant Polly;

Beheld them stripping seeding thistles,
And, marching through the breakfast-room, With eyes so innocently bold,
The birthday salvoes round her boom

And tails so brisk and beaks so nimble?
In straggling volley.

Ah, surely any human she,

With heart less hard than her own thimble, To her, the day's unchallenged queen,

Will sigh out, “Let poor ‘Goldie' be!' Each subject, be he great or mean,

Due tribute renders;
She cuts the string, unfurls the wraps,
And bares, mid deep-drawn “Oh's" and

Successive splendors.

Not for the blood and iron of thy fame,
What's done or set aside to-day

Not for the warrior's laurel on thy brow, Depends, it hardly boots to say,

But for thy stainless honor we acclaim
On Polly's high word;

Those ninety years forever deathless now. Who speaks of copies, scales, or sums,

Thy life was like some alchemistic flame That malapert thenceforth becomes

That, melting though it must with raging A scoff and byword.


Burns purely firm, transcendently the same, What shall the festal pudding be?

The motley gear within the crucible, It hangs on Polly's sole decree

Till forth there issues from the fusion one Cook waits direction;

Where erst were many, Truth where False Her Highness speaks the word of power,

hood erst, And naught in raisins, eggs, or flour

A mass ensouled by Wisdom manifest.
Can raise objection.

Sleep, Kaiser, till the final clarion

Shall stir thy slumber, and the world shall Through ail the grovelling year beside

burst A fork and spoon (to humble pride)

From jangling strife to reconciling rest.
Lift meat or bone up;

One day of rich and throbbing life

• Those who, by distinguished service of long wat She wields, in awful joy, a knife

fare, had earned their repose, formed in ancient Rome Divinely grown up.

a separate order, and were styled “Emeriti."

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From Nature. unless the latter vanquishes the force, and ANTAGONISM.

then it becomes, popularly speaking, the SOME months ago, shortly after I had force, and the former force the resistance. resigned my office of judge of the High There are propositions applying more Court, I was expressing to a friend my or less to what I am going to say of some fear of the effect of having no compulsory antiquity. occupation, when he said, by way of con Heraclitus, quoted by Professor Huxsolation, Never mind, ‘for Satan finds ley, said: “War is the father and king of some mischief still for idle hands to do.'” | all things.” Hobbes said war is the natuYou may possibly in the course of this ral state of man, but his expressions have evening think he was right. I have about them some little ambiguity. In chosen a title for my lecture which may Chapter 1. of the “ De Corpore Politico" not fully convey to your minds the scope he says, “ Irresistible might in a state of of the views which I am going to submit nature is right," and " The estate of man to you. I propose to adduce some argu- in this natural liberty is war.” Subsements to show that “antagonism," a word quently he says: “A man gives up his generally used to signify something dis-natural right, for when divers men having agreeable, pervades all things; that it is right not only to all things else, but to one not the baneful thing which many consider another's persons, if they use the same it; that it produces at least quite as much there ariseth thereby invasion on the one good as evil; but that, whatever be its part and resistance on the other, which is effect, my theory - call it, if you will, war and therefore contrary to the law of speculation - is that it is a necessity of nature, the sum whereof consisteth in existence, and of the organism of the uni-making peace.” I can only explain this verse so far as we understand it; that apparent inconsistency by supposing he motion and life cannot go on without it; meant “law of nature to be something that it is not a mere casual adjunct of different from “ the natural estate of man, nature, but that without it there would be and that the making peace was the first no nature, at all events as we conceive effort at contract, or the beginning of law; it; that it is inevitably associated with but then why call it the " law of nature," unorganized matter, with organized mat. where he says might is right? There is ter, and with sentient beings.

however some obscurity in the passage. I am not aware that this view, in the The Persian divinities, Ormuzd and breadth in which I suggest it, has been Ahriman, were the supposed rulers or advanced before. Probably no idea is representatives of good and evil, always new in all respects in the present period | at war, and causing the continuous strugof the world's history. It has been said gles between human beings animated by a desponding pessimist that "there is respectively by these two principles. Un. nothing new, and nothing true, and noth- doubtedly good and evil are antagonistic, ing signifies,” but I do not entirely agree but antagonism, as I view it, is as neceswith him; I believe that in what I am sary to good as to evil, as necessary to about to submit there is something new Ormuzd as to Ahriman. Zoroaster's reliand true in the point of view from which gion of a divine being, one and indivisible, I regard the matter ; whether it signifies but with two sides, is, to my mind, a more or not is for you to judge.

philosophical conception. The views of The universality of antagonism has not Lamarck on the modification of organic received the attention it seems to me to beings by effort, and the establishment of deserve, from the fact of the element of the doctrine of Darwin as to the effects force, or rather of the conquering force, produced by the struggle for existence being mainly attended to, and too little and domination, come much nearer to my note taken of the element of resistance subject. Darwin has shown how these

struggles have modified the forms and Lecture delivered at the Royal Institution, on April 20, by the Right Hon. Sir William R. Grove, habits of organized beings, and tended to F.R.S.

increased differentiation, and Professor

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