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“who served Queen Elizabeth forty years | Richard Nott, aged 11 years. His School fellow lying in the bed - chamber;” or Lady

Walter Thomas made his Epitaph. Blanche Parry, “chief gentlewoman of

Dear to his parents here doth lye, Queen Elizabeth's Privy Chamber, and A youth admired for Piety, keeper of her Majesty's jewels, whom she His years eleven, yet knew more faithfully served from her Highness's Of God than many of threescore. birth; "or Anne Ellis, " who was born in Denmark, and was bedchamber woman to But the glory of the whole is the wonQueen Anne.” We come on a record derful window over the communion-table, “To the memory of the right virtuous and with its fine depth of blue, a treat for the beautiful gentlewoman, Mistress Margaret eye -- satiating one with color. This imRadcliffe, one of the maids of honor to poverishes, as it were, all the modern perQueen Elizabeth, and who died at Rich- formances near it. A great authority on mond.” Many of the men, too, have painted glass, Mr. Winston, declares it to served their king, like Cornelius Vandum, be “the most beautiful work in this re" souldier with King Henry at Turney, spect, of harmonious coloring,” he was Yeoman of the Guard, and Usher to Prince acquainted with. The subject is the CruHenry, King Edward, Queen Mary, and cifixion. It is divided into five compartQueen Elizabeth ; or Peter Newton, ments, three of which are filled by pictures " who served King James and King of our Saviour and the two thieves. Below Charles, and was Usher of the Black them are the holy women, a crowd of Ro. Rod."

man soldiers, etc. ; over the good thief a Some of the inscriptions are quaint and tiny angel is seen, bearing off his soul to touching, like that which celebrates, “the Paradise, while a little demon has the imlate deceased Virgin Mistress Elizabeth penitent one on his back. On one side Hereicke :"

is the portrait of a young king at his

prayers, arrayed in crown and mantle, with Sweet Virgin, that I do not set

the armed Śt. George overhead ; on the Thy grave verse up in mournful jet

other side a lady, also kneeling, over Or dappled marble, let thy shade Not wrathful seeme, or fright the Maid

whom watches St. Catherine. This winWho hither, at the weeping Howres,

dow had quite a strange course of adven. Shall come to strew thy Earth with Flowres.

res. According to one account, it was No: know, blest Soule, when there's not one a present to King Henry VII. from the Reminder left of Brasse or Stone

Dutch States-General, and was intended Thy living Epitaph shall be,

for his beautiful chapel. Another version Though lost in them, yet found in me. runs that it was a present from the king Deare, in thy bed of Roses then,

and queen of Spain. The two figures Till this world shall dissolve, as Men

represent either Henry VIII. and his beSleepe, while we hide thee from the light, Drawing thy curtains round - Good-night.

trothed, Catherine of Aragon, or, accord

ing to the other account, Prince Arthur With much simplicity another lady, and Catherine. It took five years to Dame Billing, frankly tells us of the hap- make, and by that time the young prince piness she enjoyed with her three hus- had died, and King Henry had succeeded. bands, whom she sets down in their order, Whether his religious views had altogether "garnishing the tablet with their armies." changed, or from other reason, the winAnother widow records on an old battered dow was not set up, and he made it a pres" brass "the merits of one Cole, her hus- ent to the abbey at Waltham. On the band, at great length; whereof an ex- dissolution it was bought by General tract:

Monk, who brought it down to New Hall,

where it was well protected during the In Parliament, a Burgesse Cole was placed Civil War. From New Hall it passed to

In Westminster the like, for many years; But now, with Saints above, his soul is graced, a Mr; John Olmius, who sold the window And lives a Burgess with Heaven's Royal

to Mr. Conyers, of Copt Hall, where it Peers.

was set up; and there it seemed likely to

remain. Unluckily, it entered into the There is also seen here Pope's well- minds of the church wardens' committee known epitaph on Mrs. Corbett, which of St. Margaret's, in 1758, to have a thorwon Dr. Johnson's highest praise, though ough restoration of their old church. he makes the objection that her name is Dreadful windows, the same that were yet not mentioned in the lines themselves. to be seen about twenty years ago, were Nor must we pass by a quaint Westmins- put in ; a common “household parapet,” ter boy's cpitaph:

as it was called, was added, with the

homely porch. But now they bethought set out deliberately intending to master themselves of Mr. Conyers's beautiful the world, and who in twelve years of window, and bought it for four hundred a life magnificently full, conquered alike guineas. Thereupon the chapter, offended Greece and Persia, Egypt and Afghanby its “ Popish” character, commenced a istan, Turkey in Asia and the Punjab; lawsuit to have the window removed ; but who stood master in Thebes, Babylon, and the action was decided against them. Samarcand; who made the march we Thus this rich and glowing feast of color dare not try, through Beloochistan; who was retained. Below it there is a curious founded a city which continued to flourish oaken reredos, elaborately carved into the through ancient history, and the new barshape of a large picture —- “ The Last Sup. barian time, and the Middle Ages, and per at Emmaus" - the work of a Soho modern history, and flourishes even now, artist some one hundred and twenty years though the greater conquerors of whose ago. The pulpit is a poor fantastic thing island Alexander had never heard, were colored like a sugarplum. There is an supposed but yesterday to have burned it antique bench in the porch which is used up; who, above all, dared believe that he at the distribution of the weekly dole of could reconcile Europe and Asia, and who sixpences and bread to a number of poor alone among mankind succeeded, while widows.

he lived, in realizing that dream. AlexFrom this sketch it will be seen how ander, as painted by historians, is still a much of interest there is in this old sort of monster, a man with irreconcilable church. Perhaps Canon Farrar may be qualities, a wise statesman, a great ruler, induced to throw it open to the public for a soldier beyond compare, gifted with ina couple of hours every day; and, we will sight that seemed independent of knowlanswer for it, the indulgence will be ap- edge and almost supernatural, and yet preciated.

amidst it all nearly a lunatic. There are points in his character which are as yet absolutely unintelligible, and it is chiefly on one of these that the present writer has

to-day a word to speak. From The Spectator.

About the beginning of the seventh

century B.C., a family called the Temenids, The discovery of the sarcophagus of which Dr. Curtius thinks may have sprung Alexander at Saida, in Syria, is, if truly from a cadet of the great house of the reported, an interesting incident; but it Heraclidæ, and which certainly claimed will not help the historian much. The to be so descended, appeared among the body has almost certainly perished, or if fierce clans of the Macedonian highlands, it were einbalmed, we shall learn from and gradually assumed a position and seeing the mummy little that we did not pursued a policy which resemble with know from coins and statues, and the tra-curious exactness those of the earlier dition which has lived so long and burned Hohenzollerns. Always brave and comso brightly. What men now desire of petent men, always fighting, and generally antiquarians and explorers, is to find for victorious, they from generation to generthem new facts which may reveal to them ation mastered, or conciliated, or bribed more fully the personality of the wonder their neighbors, advanced their claims to ful boy with Shelley's face made strong, an undefined superiority, and were at last the first of European mankind who broke recognized as in some more or less titular by force into the secluded life of Asia, sense kings in Macedonia. It was a kingand so stamped the impression of himself ship like that of the Stuarts in Scotland, into two continents, that to the Arab who which maintained itself above a hundred knows nothing but his own legends, and half-independent lower jurisdictions. At the Hindoo peasant who knows nothing length, more than two centuries after its at all, his name is as familiar as to the appearance, the race produced a great European. We know in an unusually man, Philip of Macedon," who, if we minute and, so to speak, intelligible way only knew of his difficulties as we know the sources of his power; we know that of his successes, would probably be prohe must have been a true genius, a "dai- nounced one of the greatest kings who monic being,” rare as that character has ever lived. Born a barbarian, but bred a been among legitimate dynasts — we can Greek in Thebes, he combined the barnot recall another of the first rank — but baric force which in Greece had begun to we know comparatively little of the real wane, with the Hellenic intelligence and character of the man who at twenty-two varied range of intellectual interest. He



protected Aristotle, and he mastered not only master of what his people knew Greece. A good soldier, a great diplo- as "the world,” but was a master who had matist, a sound financier, — he had discov- developed loyalty in the conquered. We ered the value of honesty, and his gold are not about to weary our readers with coin was held in such esteem as was after his history; that, so far as it can be wards won by the byzant of Constantinople known, is known well enough, though or the English sovereign, — he was, above what we think its supreme incident has all, a capable administrator. Coercing been generally forgotter; our only busior purchasing all his clan-chiefs, paying ness is with the quality in his mind which his followers regularly, and holding out gave Alexander his surpassing strength. magnificent hopes, he was able to keep Recollect, he had neither experience nor together a small standing army, whom the results of experience to help him. he called his companions, and, finally, by Neither he nor his had ever fought the introducing what we now style "the con- Persians. He had no proof that his army scription,' to form a body destined to be was the resistless machine it proved itself known through all history as the Mace to be. He had no reason for believing donian soldiers. The highlanders of that, with an army not equal to a Persian Macedonia, aided by recruits from the division, he could conquer the great king north, supplied him with magnificent ina- in his own home, – nay, every reason terial; their chiefs, whose descent rivalled against it, for the Persians numbered milor surpassed their own, he turned into lions, and were so little an exhausted or efficient officers; and he imposed upon "effete ” race that Alexander himself, the all a discipline which many stories show best judge on such a point of all mankind, to have been as rigid as that of Rome. believed that, with Persian soldiers only, When his army was complete, he found he could conquer the Oriental world. He himself possessed of a weapon so match: knew nothing, except from travellers' tales, less in his day, that he believed himself of the countries he was to invade ; his nocapable of conquering Greece, and even tions of their geography were like the noof trying conclusions with the great king. tions of schoolboys about South America; He had, it would seem from all accounts, he took the Oxus for a continuation of the an army of fifty thousand men, four-fifths Don, and was astounded by the tide in the of whom were trained to charge with a Persian Gulf, — yet he dared stake his long bayonet (sarissa) in the resistless for- throne, and his leadership in Greece, and mation known as the phalanx, fed by the all that leadership might yield him, on conscription with probably twelve thou. his chance of subduing what must have sand recruits a year, and drilled and dis seemed to him like a new planet. No ciplined like modern Germans. His work doubt in entering Asia“ he broke," as Pyrhad been done when he had forged this rhus afterwards said, “ into the women's weapon, and he died, murdered, in 336 chamber," while Pyrrhus himself, in meet

ing the Romans, “ found himself in the His son should by all analogies, pre- men's ;” and no doubt, also, with his won. vious and subsequent, have been a weak derful insight, he may have suspected the man of the indolently reflective, or even permanent secret of Asia, which is that noindolently sensual type, the force of a where on the continent at any time has family exhausting itself in a man like there been any race which, unmoved by rePhilip; but nature had a kindness for the ligious feeling, could withstand for a day race of the Temenids. Philip's wife, the onset of a competent European force. Olympias, was a fiercely able woman of From Darius to Surajah Dowlah, that recthe Sarah Jennings type, with a power of ord has always been the same. But then, saying things at once witty and brutal; though he might have suspected this, he and the race, drawing near its end, flow. could not have known it, any more than ered in Alexander. The statesman soldier he could have known the second secret of of ability was succeeded by a man with Asia, which is, that her weakness is the the highest genius at once for war and weakness of an ocean that gives way to statesmanship, a lad who at sixteen every keel, and every swimmer, and every grudged victory to his father lest nothing little fish, but closes in on their path again, should be left for him to do, who at eigh- and remains for all their passage, swift and teen crushed the previously irresistible stormy as it may be, unchanged and immuTheban organization, and at twenty-two table. Always throughout history the saw the great king, as great to him at European wins, but always the Asiatic least as the czar is to the king of Servia, survives, and sits calmly reflecting upon flying before his arms, and at thirty was death and eternity above his conqueror's


grave. What was the secret of Alexan- | his mind, and that thenceforward till he der's magnificent audacity ?

died, he expressed it so strongly as to We believe it to have been mental cour- rouse the angry scorn of his greatest capage springing from a quality in Alexander tains, and to draw from Olympias the which in its degree was almost without a haughtily satirical remonstrance that parallel. No man in history of whose“ Alexander was always embroiling her mind we know anything, unless, indeed, it with Juno.” That sense of supernatural were Benvenuto Cellini, ever had a simi- power once in his mind, separated him lar self-consciousness. Every story, every from all the remainder of humanity, made myth, every act recorded about Alexander, Persians and Greeks equal before his eyes, indicates this quality as the one which so that in one supreme hour of his life, he dominated his character. He felt in him- dared break his own enchanted sword of self from the first, powers which in their sharpness, and disband by decree his own degree, if not in their nature, separated Macedonian army, and gave him the courhim from all children of men, and gradu- age which, when he refused the offer of ally grew — what shall we say — intoxi. Darius to partition the world, and when cated with the sense of his own genius. he turned south to conquer India, made So brave, that the officers of the phalanx him seem to his companions half-delirious, seemed like cowards by his side ; so half-divine. The single reason he gave learned in the knowledge of his day, that Parmenio for rejecting the offer of the scholars were to him but ignorant men; great king, then awaiting him with half a such a strategist, that he had nothing to million of soldiers, was, “I am Alexanlearn from experience; such a statesman der;” and his whole scheme for reaching by instinct, that his very victims were the Ganges and founding an empire there ready to die for him against his own fol -a scheme which must have succeeded lowers, and all the while a lad, his veins had his soldiers consented to go onfull to bursting with life, capable of all must have been conceived and worked out enjoyment, even of the mad drinking bouts and perfected within his own brain. In of his highland chieftains, he stood in his a man penetrated with an idea of that kind, own sight so separate from the ruck of pitifulness could hardly exist except for mankind, that he half doubted if he be the submissive, for to him, as afterwards longed to the same breed. His thoughts to Mahommed, resistance and blasphemy, which produced such results, which, for were identical. He was not, perhaps, cruel example, crushed armies twenty-fold his by nature, for though he looked coolly on own in number, seemed to him like in torture, so did the Christian judges of spirations. He began to ask — sincerely Europe down almost to our own time; and ask, and not as modern men would fancy though he slew Parmenio and his son, he — whether there must not be in himself probably knew that his friend and counsomething of the divine, some trace of sellor, the most powerful of the Macedoactual godhead, some unknown relation- donian clan-chiefs, and the keeper of his ship with the beings above man, from one treasure-house - in which was stored gold of whom he, probably in all earnestness, enough to buy all Greece and every merbelieved himself descended. We of this cenary in Europe — had plotted to super. century do not know the full difference sede him. An absolute king hears much. between our thoughts and the thoughts of Alexander knew well the bitter hatred of the men of old, and assume that Julius some of the clan-chiefs for his ascendency, Cæsar, in his ostentatious cult of Venus, and may have known, as well as suspected, his divine ancestress, was playing to the the plan of dividing his marvellous emgallery ; ” but what if he believed it, or pire which they, aided, there can be no half believed it, himself, and derived from doubt, by their hereditary rank – for most it much of the audacity to master Rome? of them were not only soldiers, but ancient There is no evidence whatever that Alex. nobles of Macedonia — ultimately carried ander was a sceptic, and to the pagan of out. The biting insolence of Clitus, old, as to the Hindoo of to-day, direct avenged by his death from the monarch's descent from the gods seemed neither own hand, revealed the fiery spite lurking monstrous nor unlikely, was, in fact, a under Macedonian deference, as much as concrete equivalent for what moderns call the strange scene that followed, the voluninspiration. It is certain that Alexander tary plébiscite taken by the common solmade a long and painful march into the diery that Alexander was right in killing desert only to ask of a great oracle if he him and ought not to die of remorse, manwere indeed a son of Jupiter, that the ifested his perfect hold upon the hearts of response confirmed an inner conviction in Macedonians at large. It is at least pos

sible that his attitude as a half-divine | when not a dry plank could be seen, and man, above counsel and beyond patriot. when the unfortunate passengers had unism, as close to the Persians he conquered dergone an hour, or perhaps two, of as as to the Macedonians by whom he con- nasty a bit of tossing about as can be quered them, at last irritated his great found round our coasts. As we watched officers to madness, and that he died, as the two trains slowly move off the pier was long suspected, neither of drinking Londonwards, we thought to ourselves, nor of marsh fever, but of poison. Even what will be the result if ever this tunnel on his death-bed the same unconquerable is completed? Will it draw two nations belief in his own personality displayed into closer unity, or will it give rise to itself. It was, in his thought, to himself, unnecessary alarms and mistrust? Will the semi-divine, that all his triumphs had it do away altogether with the splendid been due; and though he had been bred mail-packets which put to sea in weather in a hereditary policy, and had been that would almost wreck a rather less brought up to believe himself the last of powerful boat? Or will it, after all, be the Heraclidæ, he gave no thought to such an unpleasant idea to travel twenty. his dynasty, or his possible issue, but dis- six miles under the bed of the sea in a dainfully bade“ the strongest among you

narrow tube, that most passengers will take the world, his empire, the merest prefer the packet and fresh air in spite of fragments of which made kingdoms that sea-sickness ? lasted till Rome mastered all, to be herself After dinner we had a look round the swallowed up in the fulness of time by town. Dover is always interesting with the returning Asiatic wave. There is only its pier and harbor, castle and heights. a fraction now of all Alexander's domin- The Romans discovered the value of the ion in Asia — for he never annexed, site of Dover Castle, as the remains of though he conquered the Punjab — which their old pharos testify. No doubt we is not within the dominion of some brown took the hint and built the castle close by: Asiatic king.

It is well worth a visit with its towers and armory. But we must return to our hotel, for we have a good day's work before us to-morrow.

Next morning we were up with the lark; From Chambers' Journal. and after breakfast, proceeded to the staTO THE BOTTOM OF THE CHANNEL

tion and presented one of our letters of TUNNEL

introduction, which produced for us a It was on a fine warm afternoon in July courteous request to wait a short time when my friend and I reached Dover, whilst an engine was being got ready to armed with the highly valued authority to take us to the workings, if we did not pay a visit to the Channel Tunnel works object to that mode of travelling. Of on the following morning. The weather course we did not, for there is nothing we had been decidedly sultry, and London, as enjoy better than travelling in this way, usual, was unpleasantly close and stuffy, provided the weather be fine. In a few so that the prospect of a couple of days of minutes our engine came up, and we sea-air was in every way welcome ; but mounted, and were soon off. As the when it also included the prospect of an works are situated on the Folkestone side adventure such as we were about to under of the celebrated Shakespeare Cliff, we take, our feelings as geologists were par- had to go through the long tunnel which ticularly pleasing and happy ones. pierces it. The effect was most weird;

Having fixed on our hotel, we sauntered we were in total darkness, whilst the roar on to the Admiralty Pier to watch the of noise was so great that I could not make landing of passengers from the mail-packet my friend hear, although I shouted as which was rapidly approaching from Cal- loudly as I could. Presently, the engineais. Soon she came alongside, and with driver – in order to produce a startling remarkable promptitude was secured and effect, I suppose opened the stoke-bole her passengers landed; indeed, there is door, and the lurid glare was just enough to perhaps no place in the world where such show that there were still four of us on the rapid transits of passengers and their engine. All around us was inky black ; effects take place as on this through-con- whilst we four looked more like demons tinental route. On this fine afternoon all than men as we stood in the fierce glow of was cheerful and bright, far different from the engine's fire. Once more we were in what we had often seen, when the boats the light of day and running at a fine rate; could hardly get to their landing-stage, I but this did not last, as we were nearing

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