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the way round, which gives it the appear-sel, either the carcase of a dead animal, ance of a vast mushroom. We screamed or, as I suggested to Koutelos, the bones at the foot of it for some time, but got no of some dead monk cast forth from on response, so we went on our way and high; these uncanny, long-necked crealearned on our return home that it had tures looked very angry with us for disbeen uninhabited for some time past. An- turbing them in their repast, and with other slender peak goes by the name of hoarse screams retreated to some lofty Aphrodite's Leg, though I can only attrib- pinnacle ; the shepherds of these parts ute the choice of this simile to the neces. make flutes of the leg bones of these birds sary ignorance of monks on the subject of prey, which sound delightfully sweet of the female form; it has never been in and bucolic when played on the mountainhabited by hermit or by monk, and was side. I possessed myself of two of them, put there, Koutelos thought, as a perpet- which rank in my estimation as only secual temptation. Another peak hard by is ond to my " wooden wife” amongst iny crowned by the Monastery of St. Nicho- Meteora curiosities. las, where the monks invited us to ascend On our return to St. Stephen's, we by a thin rope, used for hauling provisions passed close beneath the nunnery of Rooup, the thick one being temporarily dis- sana, built on a much lower pinnacle than abled; to this invitation we shouted a the rest, and approached by a wooden polite refusal, as also I did, when begged bridge which looked exceedingly shaky; to ascend by the ladders, the top half of the nuns have disappeared from this part which looked very rickety, as the monks of the world altogether, and the first travdraw them up every night for fear of the eller whom curiosity tempts to cross this shepherds who are living in a mandra or bridge, will, I feel confident, end his days mountain dairy just below. Koutelos, in the chasm below. We had another however, ran up to speak to a friend of peep at the Monastery of the Holy Trinity, his, and as he ascended I thought the re- as we neared the end of our day's tramp, semblance to a blue-bottle climbing a wall and in the clear light of day we investivery remarkable.

gated the geography of the place which Whichever way we turned in this mar. had so much puzzled us the day before in vellous valley of rocks, some new wonder the mist, and, at length, wearied with our met our eyes; here and there, high up on long day, we reached our home just as the the rock-side, we saw cells in which the sun was about to set. Poor Koutelos was frescoes are still preserved bright and dreadfully knocked up, owing to a violent clear, but to which there is now no ap- fit of ague, which had come upon him proach whatsoever, only the holes in the whilst waiting for me in the damp at the rock are still visible in which the ladders foot of Varlaam. It is a curious fact that were fixed, up which the hermit once intermittent fevers and ague are very climbed to his eyrie. Another massive prevalent on these lofty peaks, and whenrock is perfectly honeycombed with cells, ever the wind is from the plain of Thesand Koutelos told me that in former years saly, the monks are smitten by the malariit was the prison of the monastic repub- ous blast which passes over the villages lic, where refractory monks were confined below without doing much serious harm. and fed on bread and water; now it is That evening Sophronios and his brethquite deserted, save by countless pigeons. ren were very chatty when I visited them Another rock just behind Kalabaka has in the common room, and were very eager on it what the monks are pleased to term to hear my opinion of their famous mona natural cross, but requiring an imagina- asteries; the conversation then turned tion to realize as keen as that required to on miraculous pictures, prophecies, and see in the above-mentioned rock a resem- priestly excommunications, which showed blance to Venus's leg. On the summit of to us the exceeding superstition of these it they told me the emperor Andronikos holy men. Their great guide in life is a had his hermitage, and certainly from be. sort of Greek old Moore's almanac, called low it is easy to see that a monastery once Agathangelos, which points out to the stood thereon, for the walls are visible, credulous all the lucky and unlucky days, but it has been inaccessible for genera- all things that are to be avoided and the tions.

things that you should do. One prophecy Behind this rock nestles a miserable they brought before our notice amused us village called Kastraki, so placed that in much; it states that during the eighties, a winter not a ray of sunlight can penetrate great European war will take place, that into it. Up every cleft and valley we saw the first king of a regenerated Constantivultures hovering over some dainty mor- | nople will be a Constantine; and that King


George will return to his own place. Some to our experiences amongst these rocks, ingenious individuals explain this by as- a sort of sacred oasis in a wild desert, serting that the Danish royal family is which will, I fear, soon lose those assodirectly descended from the Paleologi, ciations which bind it to the past, and as and that the crown-prince Constance will we traversed the great Thessalian plain, in the eighties be restored to his ances. we cast many glances back on the peaks tral throne. Such is the gossip in vogue and pinnacles which had afforded us so in a monastic common room, and after much interest during our stay amongst listening to the story of a robber, whom them. the late superior had excommunicated,

J. THEODORE BENT. and who, after death, had turned into a vampire, I thought it time to go to bed.

The following day was exceedingly bril. liant, so I took my wife on muleback the

From The Gentleman's Magazine. same round I had been before, that at

THE OLD EMPEROR AND THE NEW. least she might see the exterior of the monasteries. At Varlaam we signalled the monks, and pointed to my wife, and to “A NATION's history contains its rethe net in a very distinct manner; they serve of strength." No one with a true obviously grasped our object in doing so, insight into the life and the aspirations of and stood looking down upon us as they the German people will, therefore, lightly shook their heads to the imminent danger give up the memory of mighty achieveof their tall hats. It was our last and ments of ages past for the present greater brightest day amongst the Meteora ; on glorification of a monarch under whom, in the morrow we bid Sophronios adieu, and some degree, a German Empire has been descended once more to Kalabaka.

restored. The bishop was delighted to see us We are not of yesterday. From the when we called at “the palace," and martial dawn of our history, when the begged us to accompany him to his cathe-Teutonic name became the terror of the dral, which I am bound to say is one of Roman world — to the days when, under the most interesting mediæval Greek an elective head called " king of the churches I have seen out of Constantino-Germans,”a semi-aristocratic, semi-demople. There, in the outporch, emblazoned cratic commonwealth of paramount power in large letters and surrounded by quaint in Europe existed, in which a hundred old frescoes, was the bull of the emperor republican towns flourished in civic self. Andronikos, the founder of the church; government, in commerce and art, and within the nave stood a magnificent pul- which often curbed the arrogance of the pit, the gift of the same emperor; it is Papacy – to the time of the Reformation, approached on back and front by marble when the world was again freed from the steps, the balustrades of which are deco- yoke of universal Roman dominion, and rated with the florid profusion of the By- Germany, moreover, went through a great zantine school, and over the centre was an though unsuccessful struggle for the imoctagon dome to cover the preacher, sup: provement of her political institutions ported by verde-antique pillars, which said down to the Thirty Years' War, in which pillars are miracle-working, the bishop she poured out her life-blood for the spir. told us, and water, which has come in itual emancipation of mankind -- again, contact with them has curative powers, and last century, in the "second classic is sold to the poor. The belief of Greek epoch ” of her literature (for she had had peasants in these strange waters is re- a first one in her Minne-singers, who were markable ; the priest, after the celebration followed, in a minor key, by the Masterof the holy mysteries, always washes his singers) - then in her glorious wars of hands, and this is sold to the poor, who deliverance against Napoleon I., - last, drink it eagerly, and firmly believe it does but not least, in that great upheaval of them good.

forty years ago, which aimed at union and Behind the screen, rich in wood carving freedom from the Vosges to the Memel, and sacred pictures, is the holy table, in from the Alps and the Adriatic to the white marble, in front of the seats for the German Ocean and the Baltic, the nation synod, where before the days when the has had no lack of notable deeds in war hermit king removed the governinent of and peace, or of prominent figures either. the monasteries to the Meteora, sat the Her empire, albeit finally brought down assembly of the Thebaid. This church very low by the crimes of her princes, who was an interesting and fitting conclusion from selfish ambition tore and shattered

its cohesion, often in alliance with a for- member of the Prussian Parliament, and eign foe, lasted a thousand years — from after he had written a letter, announcing 843 to 1806. And even so late as the sec- his readiness to respect the new liberties ond half of the sixteenth century, Alger- of the people. By way of softening public non Sidney, no mean authority in such opinion, it was given out that he had spent matters, still put the freedom of German his time in England “in the study of institutions in favorable contrast with Parliamentary institutions." Not many those of his own country. ("* Discourses months, however, elapsed before he was concerning Government.”)

hand and glove with those who carried out A nation's progress' is sometimes the State-stroke of November against the brouglit about by strange agencies, in Prussian Assembly. In May, 1849, he curious zigzag lines. The sovereign who was appointed commander-in-chief of the has been extolled as the founder of Ger- royal army whose task was to put down man union, was the same who fought with the popular governments established in an iron hand against the national aspira. Rhenish Bavaria and Baden in support tions in 1848-49, and who in 1866 ousted of the German National Assembly, then nearly one-third of the country from the threatened by the conspiracy of reactionGerman Confederacy: A ruler of the ary courts. For several months a war strict “right divine” type, he began his thus raged, in which a number of pitched career as an extreme reactionist. At Ber- battles were fought, the Baden army havlin, before that Revolution which first con ing gone over in mass to the national ferred freedom of the press, the right of cause. The wrestling ended with the sur. meeting, and a Parliament upon Prussia, render of the last stronghold of the parhe was generally designated as the head liamentary and democratic cause, namely, of the “Russian party.” In 1825, when of the famed fortress of Rastatt. Nicholas waded to the throne through Then began, contrary to what were beblood, the then prince of Prussia was at lieved to be the verbal terms of the capituSt. Petersburg In letters from there lation, a perfect reign of terror. Although he admiringly spoke of the “splendid con- prisoners of war, a number of prominent duct" of the czar.

leaders among them W. A. von Trütz. In the " Diaries" of Varnhagen von schler, a member of the German ParliaEnse, the diplomatist and friend of Hum- ment, Max Dortu, Von Biedenfeld, Heilig, boldt, the differences are recorded which Böning, and other officers, together with broke out in 1845 between the prince and some twenty soldiers, and men of the prohis brother, on the subject of granting fessional and burgher class — were courtsome kind, however shadowy, of a con- martialled and shot. The court-martialling stitution, in accordance with the solemn went on from July into October, 1849. royal promise of 1813. The heir pre. So many captives had been made that all sumptive fiercely advocated the continu. the dungeons and otherwise available ance of the most unqualified despotism. localities which could hastily be prepared, In 1848, it was he who cannonaded to the were scarcely sufficient. The property of bitter end when the people of Berlin rose the prisoners and of those who had fed for the attainment the simplest ci was confiscated. The leaders were de. rights and representative government. prived of their right of citizenship Varnhagen reports that, when the first among them the Nestor of the moderate prisoners were brought into the castle constitutional party, Adam von Itzstein, yard, the prince indignantly addressed who had not taken part in the rising. the soldiers in this way: "Grenadiers ! Those condemned, or who had sought why have you not killed the dogs at safety abroad, were sentenced to a joint once ?” There was a terrible scene after. liability for the payment of twelve million wards between the prince and Frederick gulden of “costs of war.” Such was the William IV. Varnhagen relates that the exodus in consequence of these ghastly former called his brother “a spouter and events, that sixteen years afterwards the a coward.” The king, crying from rage, population of Baden was still less than it retorted that the prince “ merited being had been before 1849. arrested and brought before a court-mar It was one of the most extraordinary tial." Finally, Prince William was urged changes recorded in history that, years to fly lest he should fall a victim to the after, popularity should have been conrage of the people.

ferred upon this same prince. Germany He fled in disguise. In London he lived to-day possesses at least something of for months as an exile. He was only al. those institutions which were aimed at by lowed to return on his being elected a the men who had been martyrized in 1848

49; and that fact accounts for the change. sent of the then crown-prince, though he
Even the sad recollections of the consti- bravely led the Prussian troops against
tutional conflict of 1862-66 faded away Austria. In 1870 he, therefore, all the
after a while. During that struggle, Herr more quickly gained the sympathies of
von Bismarck once threatened the repre. the southern Germans.
sentatives of the people with “having the The war of 1866 had been undertaken
regulations for menials (Gesinde-Ordnung) against the grain of the Prussian people
read to them as a corrective. He and itself, whose Landwehr men had in not a
his royal master were then spoken of, in few cases to be forced into it. It was the
and out of Parliament, as “Stratford and most risky undertaking, France and Rus-
Charles Stuart.” Nations, as a rule, have sia lying in wait to step in, if its issue had
not very long memories for wrongs done been in any way delayed. The statesman
to them. They are easily satisfied, and it who brought on that war, himself said
requires a great deal of monarchical per- years afterwards that “if he had failed,
version to rouse their anger, or even to the very women of Berlin would have
turn them away from those feelings of killed him with their brooms.” In the
exuberant loyalty to which they are rather Reichstag he more than once recently

avowed that it was a “fratricidal war So it came to pass that he who once had (Bruderkrieg). Owing to the national borne the hated name of "the Grapeshot disruption which was its result, the Man Prince,” he against whom Freiligrath had of December and his minister Lavalette hurled one of the most scathing poetical imagined that Germany was now hopeanathemas, was at last fondly spoken of as lessly cut up into “ three stumps” (trois “the Emperor Whitebeard”-in allusion tronçons), and that France would have it to that Kaiser Frederick the Redbeard, her own way. So the Luxemburg ques. who, in the later popular tale, was said to tion first came up, like sheet lightning; sleep entranced in the hill until the day and then the terrible storm of 1870-71, came when he would revive the glory of Fortunately the south-Germans stood true the empire. But though the German peo- to the cause of the Fatherland, in spite of ple readily forgot much, William I., on his fratricidal precedents. They did not aim death-bed, still ordered the decoration, a "stab at the heart” of Prussia, as the founded in remembrance of the sangui- Italians had been bidden to do against nary deeds of 1849, to be placed in his Austria. They valiantly fought, under the grave !

leadership of the crown-prince, for the In the tragic affliction of his successor, common country. The rapidity with which there has been no stint of sympathy even decisive victories were thus won, preamong men holding doctrines at variance vented Count Beust from carrying out his with dynastic institutions. Martial, but traitorous schemes in concert with the not a martinet, the new emperor has given Duc de Gramont and Napoleon III. In his proofs of courage. At the same time 1878, Prince Gortschakoff sought to act he is not eager for fresh laurels, but well in collusion with France against the Ger. disposed for the maintenance of that peace man Empire. Fortunately, the Austrian which, in truth, has been the aim and government then did also ot remember object of the German nation and govern. 1866, but entered into an alliance which ment ever since the signal victory over has ever since been a guarantee of peace. French aggression. In the constitutional After the accession of Frederick III., conflict which brought Prussia to the verge his former utterances have been ranof revolution, Frederick Ill. is said to sacked, from the days of his early correhave been averse to the dictatorial sys- spondence with Queen Victoria and the tem of that "budgetless government,” for prince consort down to recent times. which Prince Bismarck himself had after- Many have gathered hope therefrom. wards to seek a bill of indemnity. Against Men do not easily cease to put their trust an oppressive press ordinance he spoke in princes. There are some facts to the out in terms of protest. In latter years credit of the new monarch. When monuthe present emperor and his gifted wife ments were unveiled for Schleiermacher, have occasionally shown marked friendli- the philosophical theologian, and for ness towards an eminent scientist who in Baron Stein, or when the Humboldt Cen. those Parliamentary struggles had played tenary was celebrated, the then crowna firm and characteristic part — namely, prince joined in the manifestations in to Dr. Virchow. If general report can be words showing contact with the more trusted, the war undertaken against the progressive ideas of the age. In the case German Confederacy had also not the as-1 of Humboldt, it must not be forgotten,

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political views of that man of light and tradition, as a thing we are accustomed to. leading in science had come out after his Therefore, let the parole be, not to stand death, which utterly shocked the retro-still, but, Progress!” In the same spirit grade parties. The absolutist parole go- he made it a point, a few years ago, to be ing round in those days was, that " the present at a lecture of the Berlin School court had nourished a snake at its bosom." Board councillor, Mr. Cauer, in honor of All this did not prevent the crown.prince the humanitarian philosopher and poet from doing proper honor to Humboldt, Lessing, the friend of Mendelssohn. That who, down to his last days, had gloried in was at a moment when the vile anti-Semite the remembrance of the French Revolu. agitation raged most fiercely. In the lection as a great act of popular emancipa- ture itself weighty blows were dealt out to tion.

the Stöcker party. The crown.prince, to Great interest has always been taken all appearance, enjoyed it extremely. It by the present emperor in the communal is to his honor that he has repeatedly affairs of Berlin. "In its town council a shown his contempt for a rowdy movenumber of Progressist leaders hold seats. ment of intolerance and for mediævalist Under the administration of these ad- atrocities, which he regards as a disgrace vanced Liberals, the German capital is to a so-called age of high civilization. known to be one of the best regulated — a The impotent rage of the Stöcker gang perfect model in its way. In politics, it may be gathered from the fact of placards has kept steadfastly to the Fortschritt having been found recently on some trees creed. Hence frequent attacks in gov. and houses at Charlottenburg, with the ernment journals, which disgraced them- inscription : "The Jews' Emperor, Fred. selves by speaking of the " Progressist erick Cohn!" It is said that the object ring.". Now, there is a letter dated Janu- of this lampoon had one of the placards ary 3rd, 1883, and addressed to the town's brought up to him, and felt amusement authorities, in which the crown-prince ex. thereat. pressed “his full acknowledgment of the The empress herself, who holds in these intelligent and thoughtfully systematic matters the same enlightened views as her care which the civic administration de- husband, is the object of persistent deprevotes both to the physical welfare and the ciation on the part of the bigots and abso. intellectual and moral culture of the popu: lutists. She is known to take a hearty lation.” He added: “Wherever I found interest in the bettering of the condition an opportunity for visiting institutions of of womankind, as well as in the improvethe town, I have always been filled with ment of the lot of the poor. Scientific lively satisfaction by the success achieved, and artistic affairs she follows earnestly which I had occasion to observe.” and with much taste. To her, Dr. Schlie

In regard to the intolerable claims of mann, the famed discoverer, dedicated one the Papacy, there is a letter of his of of his last great works. The foreign pol1878, when he acted as a regent. He then icy of England as well as of her adopted wrote to Leo X111. that "the demand to country she studies with intelligent attenhave the constitution and the laws of tion. All this has not shielded her against Prussia altered in accordance with the invidious attacks; but she may find satisstatutes of the Roman Catholic Church faction in the knowledge that the group cannot be acceded to by any Prussian from which they proceed, is one not in harmonarch, because the independence of mony with the progressive mind of Gerthe kingdom, whose maintenance has been many. entrusted to me for the present as an her To Dr. Simson, the president of the itage of my forefathers and as a duty to-Imperial Court of Justice, the present emwards my country, would suffer a diminu- peror once said: "I have seen war, and I tion if the free movement of its legisla- must tell you that it is the greatest duty, tion were to be subordinated to a power if possible, to avoid war.” He evidently standing outside of it.” At the same time, wishes to be a prince of peace, if France Prince Frederick expressed a hope con- will only act upon the dictates of reason, cerning a mutual spirit of conciliation. and if the czar will not pursue a headlong

As a Freemason, in 1883, he gave a policy of masterfulness. Royal marriages toast to “ Enlightenment and Progress," do not concern us very specially ; but is it declaring : " Our time demands light and not absurd that a German Kaiser's daugh. intellectual improvement. However dear ter should not be free to bestow her hand existing institutions may have become to upon a German prince of her personal us, we must not uphold them simply be- predilection, whilst Russian czars and cause we have received them by way of grand dukes, often for political purposes,

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