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which existed on this point was aggravated very greatly diminish the profits which no doubt by the absurd popular supersti- would otherwise be theirs. tions connected with the disease, and by Just as we are much behind other nathe failure to recognize that it was simply tions in the foundation of technical instruca very severe kind of one of the acute tion, so we are being fast outstripped in specific maladies. From the latter cause the provision for means for the scientific especially has confusion arisen, since it investigation of matters which, like the one it will be found that previous records of we are now considering, greatly concern the post mortem appearances fallaciously the public welfare. We believe it to be a comprehend the examination of animals fact that at the present moment neither dying at all possible stages of the malady. of the two great government departments But now we know these points accurately; which are concerned in the scientific arrest and as in this particular case the subject of national disease, viz., the Privy Council has been so thoroughly worked up, there and the Local Government Board, have will be scarcely any excuse for the disease any laboratory whatever at their disposal, escaping immediate recognition and ade and consequently are obliged to seek the quate treatment.
necessary accommodation in private insti. Here we cannot help pointing out what | tutions; or, to put it in plain language, the a very grave injury is inflicted on the pub- government is not ashamed to get its public by the vexatious operation of the so- lic work done by the favor of private called Vivisection Act, which prevents the means. The Berlin Laboratory and the veterinary inspector from at once resort. Pasteur Institute should serve as the kind ing to M. Pasteur's admirably simple and of example which a statesman whose deconclusive method of testing the real con- sire for the improvement of the country dition of any animal killed under the and the people is not a question of votes suspicion of rabies. Under the present but of genuine interest might study with régime valuable time is lost, and risk in advantage. curred of the inoculative material becom Those gentlemen, unfortunately few in ing useless from decomposition, etc., by number, who represent science at the pres. reason of his being compelled to forward it ent moment in Parliament, would have to some such institution as the Brown for a large field of good work open to them examination. The very valuable observa- if they attempted to reform this state of tion recently published by M. Pasteur's as. affairs by adjusting the advantages and sistant Dr. Roux, that the immersion of the assistance offered by science to the real tissue in a mixture of glycerine and water needs of the nation. At present the actual prevents septic change, but does not miti- opinion of the scientific world on any subgate the influence of the virus, to a slight ject of special interest is usually only extent obviates part of the difficulties and extracted with difficulty by evidence beinconvenience just noted, but the anomaly fore a select committee. It would be very still remains that, while the immense value easy for the scientific members of the of the experimental test has received the House to concentrate their force by pre. full recognition of the recent committee vious meeting and organization, and so to of the House of Lords, the law does not give weight to that side in a debate which permit it to be used except in one, or at was truly working for the best solution of the outside two places in Great Britain, any national problem involving health and which have with the usual difficulties and disease. In former years, the opinion of obstruction succeeded in obtaining the unscientific persons has been sought on necessary permission. No one perhaps the subject of rabies as being of equal supposes that the benefits which science weight with the assured observations of offers to the public will ever be received scientific experts. This lamentable state with anything like adequate acknowledg- of things has led to the present condition ment of the difficulties, and it may be of our legislation against this disease, dangers, which have attended this or that under which the malady is but temporarily, particular discovery. But we think that if readily, stamped out in one district it cannot be recognized by the mass of the alone; this same district becoming inpeople who actually or theoretically direct fected again from neighboring parts of the the legislature by their votes, that, while country as soon as the regulations are they eagerly reap the benefits of the har. withdrawn. There is no doubts from the vest of science, at the same time they ininutes of the Lords committee on rabies, permit that harvest to be choked by the that the report of that committee was tares of legislative obstruction, and thus drafted in this unfortunate manner owing
IN A TURKISH CITY.
to the influence of Lords Mount-Temple access that it is almost impossible to reach and Onslow, who, in their speeches and it in less than ten days from England, but writings, have afforded numerous evi- the post, that great solace of the exile, is dences of their complete want of scientific extremely irregular, Letters come quickly knowledge of the nature of the disease, enough as far as Trieste; but then they and who, consequently, have failed to are put on board an Austrian Lloyd grasp the most obvious way in which it steamer, and spend nearly a week dawdcan be extirpated — namely, the univer- ling down the Adriatic, till they reach sal application of preventive legislation. San Giovanni di Medua, which is one of Mistakes of this kind, it seems to us, the worst ports in European Turkey, and would be utterly prevented by combined that is saying a very great deal. Scodra action of the scientific members of either is about twenty miles from the seacoast, House, and if, as is sometimes our unfortu- and each consulate possesses a postman, nate duty, we have to chronicle ill-advised who takes it in his turn to ride down to measures of supposititiously scientific offi- the port to meet the steamer and bring cialism, let us hope they will not have back the mails. When the weather is passed out into law without a strenuous bad, the boats do not touch at Medua, so protest from the united voice of “our the postman has the pleasure of seeing representatives."
the Lloyd go by to Corfu, and of spending the time at fever-stricken Medua somehow or other till its return. Sometimes there is quite a collection of postmen, who have
handed over their mail-bags to the Lloyd From Chambers' Journal.
agent, and are waiting to receive the post
when the steamer does touch. But supFIRST FAPER.
posing the gale to moderate sufficiently There are still some places left in the for this, the difficulties of the postmen are world where a man may feel in exile. not over. We always talk of the “road' Railways, steamers, and telegraph lines to Medua, but it is only by courtesy, for, have brought most parts of Europe within strictly speaking, there is not even a track easy reach of the omnipresent travelling for the greater part of the way. gentleman known to residents abroad as In the summer it is all plain sailing ; the the T.G. There is an English society of boats touch with commendable regularity; one sort or another in most foreign towns; the river Drin is low, and the postman and where there is no society, there is a ambles along the level banks, or occaBritish merchant or two, or some one try. sionally in the dried-up bed of the stream. ing for a concession, or some one financing But in winter it is a very different thing; a railway. A man does not feel himself the Drin has no respect for its banks, and absolutely in exile when he can hear his not content with flooding all the plain, own language spoken occasionally by res carves out new courses for itself now and idents or visitors; but here in Scutari - then which puzzle the most experienced
or Scodra, as it should properly be postman. Sometimes he has to wade, called - we so seldom see a T.G.'s face, sometimes he has to borrow a londra or or hear any English voices but our own, canoe, and paddle across the river; and that we may fairly consider ourselves in sometimes he gets intercepted for a week, exile. The place itself seems utterly ig- and the precious mails for which we are nored by the average Englishman. If I longing with the impatience only known tell him I am going to Scodra, he says, to exiles have to be stored in a damp hut, “Oh yes !” but his face shows that the waiting until the rush of w..ters be past. name conveys no impression to his mind. The postal officials, too, in Euroj e have
It's generally called Scutari in vague notions as to our whereabouts. A Europe,” his face lights up, if he be a per- letter plainly addressed “Albania” has son of intelligence, and he replies, "Oh, been sent to America, and returned from of course - where the Crimean cemeteries Albany, N.Y., with the inscription, “ Try are.” Unfortunately, it is just where the Europe ;” and a parcel after having been Crimean cemeteries are not; but as peo- despatched from England was no more ple on the continent have resolved to call heard of for months, until one fine day a the capital of North Albania and the sub- Turkish postman arrived with it safe and urb of Constantinople by the same name, sound. It had been sent to Constantinople the mistake will naturally continue to oc- by a clerk who was too sharp to pay atcur. Not only is the place so difficult of tention to the address, and thence carried
If I say:
across the peninsula by a zaptich at an so upright and learned a judge; then the enormous expense of time and trouble. matter becomes more complicated, and it It is such little contretemps as these that requires all the ingenuity and tact of a make us welcome so heartily the solemn Greek to see that justice be done. face and long grizzled moustaches of Gio When the case comes on, the president vanni the postman as ne jogs up the road of the court is even more courteous and from the bazaar with the mail-bags swing- affable than usual to the litigants; he has ing at his saddle-bow.
weighed the matter over well, and has It is a queer land this; a land of upside decided, we will say, that he has plenty of down; where men wear petticoats and carpets for the present; that Barbelushi's women trousers; where
ride pistol is a very handsome specimen, and astride and men ride side-saddle; where that perhaps, by judicious hints, the fellow men air themselves in their best clothes, to it, which he knows is in existence, may while women do the work and carry the be enticed from Barbelushi's house to his burdens; a land where justice is quite as own. When the arguments have been blind as she is elsewhere, and quite as heard, the president and his two colleagues frequently pops the innocent man into confer over the matter before giving their prison and lets the real offender go free, judgment, and the former speaks very although she does not disdain to raise a strongly in favor of the justice of Barbecorner of the bandage over her eyes, when lushi's case so strongly, in fact, that the the right sort of oil is applied to allay the two colleagues, seeing which way the itching that troubles her palm. But here wind is blowing, and being too wise in is a stout little gentleman in the Stambouli their generation to oppose their chief, uniform, with his fez slightly on the back give their votes for Barbelushi. Thereof his head, and his hands crossed behind upon, the president plays a master-stroke, him, twiddling a string of amber beads. and gives his own vote for Skreli; but He is a jovial-looking little man, although being outvoted, judgment is given for he does walk so slowly and solemnly, with Barbelushi. The latter, rejoiced at win. his two secretaries or attendants behind ning his suit, returns the judge his most him. He represents the blind goddess grateful thanks for the eminent justice here, for he is, let us say, the supreme and skill in the law displayed by his judge of the mercantile court. He is also Excellency; and going home, at once dea Greek, and therefore a plausible and spatches the second pistol as an earnest unscrupulous rogue. With what a charm- of his gratitude. ing air of old-fashioned courtesy he salutes But poor Skreli is naturally much dis. us; how politely and even eloquently he appointed, and fancies that his carpet is discourses of indifferent topics of the lost for nothing. However, he is too good day! In his court he is just as polite ; but a fish to be thrown away, so the president the suitors know that it is quite as well to takes the first opportunity of condoling have the judge on their side, and that his with him on his misfortune, and assures taste for antique and curious works of art him that it was entirely owing to the mais rather more expensive than his salary jority being on the other side ; for that, as will permit him to gratify; and so, some- the records of the court show, he himself how or other, before an important case voted for Skreli. And all this is said with comes on, valuable rugs or chased silver so much apparent sympathy, and with so ornaments find their way to the judge's much sorrow that his efforts should have house as presents. Should Barbelushi been unavailing, that the simple Skreli is and Skreli go to law, and should Barbe- almost consoled for his loss, and goes lushi, foolishly relying on what he con- home resolving that before his next lawsiders the justice of his cause, omit to suit a much better carpet shall have beplay a counter-move to the gloriously pato come the property of so worthy and terned carpet that has mysteriously found upright a judge. And thus all parties are its way from Skreli's house to the presi- quite satisfied; and the law, as in other dent's, he will inevitably lose his case; parts of the world, gets the oyster, while the matter is too simple for a moment's the litigants get the shells. doubt. But let us suppose that a friend But tricks however cunning get seen of Barbelushi informs our little acquaint- through at last, and the judge and his preance that a pistol with a magnificently decessors in office are no doubt largely carved silver butt is awaiting his accept. responsible for that hole in the wall of the ance, and that only Barbelushi's native house opposite us. The owner of the modesty has prevented him from offering house evidently does not think his white it long since as a testimony of regard for I wall disfigured by the hole, for he has not
taken the trouble to plaster it up, though the centre of the town, a red flag marks it is probably plugged on the inside to the Konak or government house and barkeep out the draught. There are two racks of the troops ; while the other fiag. kinds of justice in this country, and that staffs that appear above some of the bullet-hole will serve as the visible sign houses near, distinguish the residences of of ore, as the president of the court does the consuls. To our right, and on. the of the other. Long before the Ottomans outskirts of the city, stands a huge, gaunt were heard of, the law of the blood feud building, with no ornament or decoration and of the responsibility of the family for on its plain plastered walls; this is the the misdeeds of all its members, was the Roman Catholic cathedral; and on Sunonly code known; and as yet the Albani- days and holy-days it is crowded with ans have not become sufficiently civilized mountaineers and Christian townsmen. to perceive the advantages of the govern On a steep rock to our left is the an. ment method, and so those of them who cient castle, now crumbling into ruin, and have not mixed much with Europeans, shorn of its strength by the proximity of draw their pistols when they meet an Mount Tarabos, to which modern artillery enemy, instead of dragging him before has given the command of the key of the court. The Mussulmans of the city North Albania ; and beyond, the Boiana and the Christians of the mountains go winds slowly through fat lowlands to the everywhere with pistols and yataghan in sea. Bebind us to the south-west is the their belt; only the Christians of the city rich plain of the Zadrima, cut up in every carry no arms. The justice of the law- direction by the erratic wanderings of the court is uncertain, expensive, and unsuited Drin; and then a range of hills, which to a nation of warrors; while the blood- hides the Adriatic from our view, and feud is honorable, and costs no more than forms the port of San Giovanni di Medua a charge of powder and a bullet, and so the by sending a spur out into the sea. streets and bazaar of Scodra continue to Crushed in between the Boiana and the be enlivened by an interchange of shots, castle rock is the bazaar, a network of whenever the members of families which narrow streets, each one of which is dehave blood between them encounter one voted to a separate trade. The bazaar another.
serves the men of Scodra instead of a But the subject is too vast for consider- club. Every man has his little shop ation at this moment; let us, before we go whether he does any business or not, and any further, try to realize what kind of a there he sits and gossips with his friends, town it is we are in. For this purpose the smoking cigarettes and drinking coffee till best thing to do is to ascend the low hill about half an hour before aksham, when just under the castle, for from that point he rises, shuts up his shop, and returns we shall be able to see the country all to his house, leaving the bazaar and its round us and the city at our feet. Looking wealth to the care of the night-watchers out to the north-east, we see a wide plain only: hemmed in on all sides by lofty moun. They do things in leisurely fashion at tains: the great Lake of Scodra stretches Scodra. There are no startling advertiseaway from the base of the castle rock to ments, no flaming posters. If a merchant the mountains of Montenegro, the steep knows you, he will offer you coffee and cliffs springing directly from the water on cigarettes as a matter of course. its western shore, but with a broad flat press him, he will show you his goods, plain between the lake and the mountains but he will not worry you to buy; nay, if to the east. Below us lies the city, the he has nothing to your taste, he will tell wide, low, red-tiled roofs of its houses you of a friend or neighbor who may perhalf hidden by the thick foliage of its haps be able to supply your wants. He trees. Every house stands by itself, shut never sells at an alarming sacrifice, nor off from its neighbors by a high wall, and even considerably under cost price; but surrounded by its garden, except in the what he does sell is thoroughly good, and Christian quarter, where the houses are well worth what he asks for it. It seems generally smaller, and in many instances incredible at first to a visitor coming from without gardens. Here and there is an Europe or from Greece; but Albania is a open space, dotted all over with white land of surprises, and therefore, gentle tombstones, carved at the top to represent reader, we will note things while they are a turban; and from among the trees the fresh and strange, and before the novelty tall, slender minarets of some thirty has had time to wear off. mosques shoot up into the air. Nearly in
From St. James's Gazette. a painted window has recently been fitted, ST. MARGARET'S, WESTMINSTER.
the gift of the printers of London - a UNDER the shadow of Westminster Ab- happy and becoming tribute ; while the bey is to be seen a homely-looking edifice laureate, who has given abundant work to of Churchwarden's Gothic. Near to it printers all over the globe, has supplied will be noted the single tomb tolerated, to these lines :the memory of one Alexander Weir Da. Thy prayer was “light, more light while time vies, from whor it is said, the Grosve
shall last;” nors inherited their most profitable estates. Thou sawest a glory growing on the night, Uninviting as is the exterior of St. Mar. But not the shadows which that light will cast garet's, its interior is most interesting and Till shadows vanish in the light of light. suggestive. Restored not many years ago with excellent taste and reserve, it has Some of these side windows are poorish been gradually beautified under the direc. and thin of tone, as if they were done in tion and encouragement of the rector, Can water-colors.
The rich depth and gor. on Farrar; so that, small as it seems, a geousness of the great window — as of old couple of hours may be profitably spent in wine seen deep down into the glass – viewing it.
eclipses the rest. There is also a window The interior is of the collegiate pattern, to the memory of the ill-fated Lord Fredwith a fiat pannelled roof supported by erick Cavendish. The inscription is not airy and elegant columns with delicate particularly, happy, and his fellow-victim mouldings. The walls have been judi
is described as "Mr. T. N. Burke.” Anciously left to display the outlines of the other commemorative window is that of the stones, which furnish good detail and back. Jubilee, with the queen in the centre, in ground. No church of its size, perhaps,
full view of her great ancestor Elizabeth. is so rich in tombs and tablets, all of which Here Mr. Browning furnishes the verse : are more or less interesting; and they are Fifty years' Aight! Where should he rejoice so disposed as to heighten the general Who hailed their birth, who as they die deeffect. Some are fitted into the light col cays? umns, shield-like, and bent to the mould. This — England echoes his attesting voice, ings. Most of the memorials are of one Wondrous and well, thanks, Ancient Thou of formal kind; a bust or medallion in the
days! middle, a pediment above, and below a There is also a Milton window — his wife black marble slab or tablet with the in- and daughter are buried here — given by scription. The marbles are mostly of rich another amiable American, Mr. Childs, russet tones or of a plum-tint.
with an inscription by Whittier:The idea of making all the painted win. dows illustrative of the story of eminent The New World honors him whose lofty plea, persons connected with the place or parish For England's freedom, made her own more is a happy one ; for it enriches as well as Whose song, immortal as its theme, shall be beautifies the church. The legends, more. Their common freehold while both worlds enover, have been supplied by distinguished dure. poets. Oce great window, which displays its brown and amber glories in honor of The last line seeming rather prosaic, the Queen Elizabeth and Sir Walter Raleigh, author good-naturedly offered to substiwas a present from the Americans ; and tute “ heirloom" for freehold.” But freeMr. Lowell has written these lines forhold stands. Another window celebrates it:
Sir Erskine May, whose severe thoughtful
face is portrayed in various Scriptural attiThe New World's sons, from England's breast tudes-e.g., as the faithful steward, with
we drew Such milk as bids remember whence we came; faithful servant."
the legend - Well done, thou good and Proud of the Past from which our Present
The old tablets with which the walls are grew, This window we erect to Raleigh's name.
encrusted have an interest from the origi
nality of the style and the richness of maThe window is a handsome one, and is terial. Here we find the rather grim richer and deeper in its tones than its fel- likeness of the worthy Palmer, and of Jows. Long ago a meagre white tablet Emery Hill, whose aimshouses and with a bold inscription was placed there schools are still to be seen in Westminsby the Roxburghe Club, to commemo- ter. Many court ladies find rest in the rate the name of Caxton. Over the tablet church ; such as Lady Dorothy Stafford,