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dom is a luxury which every man cannot of evidence to show that Knox and his allow himself.” “Every State must rec- friends were acutely conscious that outognize that its peace and security rest on side a narrow area they had a scanty folits own sword." “In a year and a half lowing, A wide democratic franchise much evil inay be done, but not much would probably have arrested the Reforgood.” “One' is willing enough to be mation; and we shall see as we proceed protected, but not to pay for the protec- that, had the Scots been left to fight it out tion.” “A peace never fulfils all wishes, among themselves, Mary would have been and is never just to all rights." "Let us queen till she died. Maitland was devoted learn to respect fidelity to conviction in to his mistress; but knowing that with opponents." "In European disputes, England actively hostile, her ultimate sucwhen no competent court of appeal exists, cess was impossible, he strove to disarm right is only to be enforced by the bay- its hostility. He would have welcomed onet." "There are plenty of candidates the closest union; but when friendliness for the chancellorship, because it is such was no longer to be looked for, he only an easy post to fill."

asked to be let alone. These are only samples of the proverb The historian should as far as possible ial philosophy of which Prince Bismarck's keep his mind clear of theories; but the Parliamentary speeches are full. What historian who recognizes in the Run-aboutespecially distinguishes his sententious Raid, the Rizzio murder, the Darnley utterances is their palpable spontaneity. murder, the Bothwell catastrophe, a uni. Some of his wisest, wittiest, and weighti- formity of motive -- the animosity of Knox est sayings have owed their origin to sud- and the duplicity of Elizabeth, as well as den inspiration prompted by the irrespon- the indiscretion of Mary — will be able to sible ejaculations of dissentient hearers or maintain his thesis by many cogent arguthe dialectic slips of opponents in debate. ments.

While the virulence of Knox was mainly polemical, Cecil's hostility was serious and statesmanlike. An English minister

was entitled to hold that, while the wave From Blackwood's Magazine. of Conservative reaction was sweeping MARY STUART IN SCOTLAND.

over Europe, Mary was a constant danger THE CONSPIRACIES OF THE NOBLES. to England. It is the methods of the En.

glish government that are fairly open to

criticisin. We hear enough of Mary's RIZZIO.

bad faith ; but Mary's bad faith was pelFrom the time of the Run-about-Raid lucid candor when compared with the - as Moray's rising was named - till rank dishonesty of her cousin. Hardly, Mary's faction on Maitland's death was indeed, in the whole annals of diplomacy finally stamped out, the history of Scotland can a parallel be found for the unblushing is hopelessly monotonous. The persistent mendacity of Elizabeth. efforts of Cécil and Knox to discredit the Maitland was not easily discouraged; queen were ultimately attended with suc- but he was ill at ease after the Lennox cess, though Mary's power of recovery marriage. He was not misled by Mary's was really surprising. The contest, in- rapid progress and brilliant peremptorideed, was not so unequal as it might ness. She had spoken with the spirit of seem; for there can be little doubt that, a queen; neither France nor England, she till the very last, the mass of the Scottish had declared, should come between her people were warmly attached to their and her revolted subjects; and he could sovereign. Unhappily for her cause the not but admire the force and independence political force of the country was prac- of her bearing. But it was not diplomacy. tically concentrated in “Fife and the He knew that on these lines no solid or Lothians.” The Fife gentry, the Lothian permanent success was to be looked for. burghers, were stout soldiers as well as Mary could not afford the luxury of huardent “professors," and a summons from miliating her formidab rival ; had she Moray and Morton could bring together a been discreet she would have held her couple of thousand men "weill bodin in tongue, and preserved, while she went her feir of war" in eight-and-forty hours. It own way, a show of amity with England. was England, however, that turned the But she was a woman-an angry woman scale against Mary. Without the aid of with weak and evil counsellors at her Cecil

, Moray and Morton would unques- side. It appeared only too probable that tionably have failed. There is abundance Darnley and Rizzio between them would

I.

drive Elizabeth, irresolute as she was, into who shall have credit to do good offices active intervention. Maitland looked on betwixt them. I am sorry that any occa. anxiously; but the queen was still cold sion to the contrary has been thought to and suspicious. It was alleged that he have fallen out. Yet, praised be God, was well affected to the rebels. Letters nothing is on either part so far past, but came to him from Moray. So, though he all may be reduced to the former estate if continued to attend the meetings of the the right way be taken. Marry, I see no Privy Council, his advice was seldom certain way unless we chop at the very asked. It was at this time that Randolph root; you know where it lieth, and so far wrote: “My old friend Lethington has as my judgment can reach, the sooner all leisure to make love; and in the end, I things be packed up, the less danger there believe, as wise as he is, he will show is of any inconveniences. The bearer can himself a very fool and stark staring mad.” declare to you my opinion, whom I pray (Whether it was love or politics that was you to credit. This letter shall only serve to drive him out of his senses, does not as a gage of my correspondence to your clearly appear.) When Tamworth went disposition in all things that may tend to down to Scotland at the time of the Run- quiet the two Realms, and unite the two about-Raid, Maitland, however, was still Queens in perfect accord. As occasion in close attendance upon the queen. shall serve, I will make you overtures to Mary gave him permission to see the En- that end, desiring you to do the like unto glish envoy, to whom he spoke with his ine; and by that means renew our old usual frankness. “Upon Sunday last, at intelligence, which shall bring forth fruit night," Tamworth wrote, “I arrived here when it shall please God to prosper our in Edinburgh, very weary by reason of a counsels. In the mean time let us omit number of evil horses that I'found by the no lawful means, and remit the success to way. The next day I reposed myself, as Him who hath their hearts in His hand, well to consider upon those matters com- and shall move them as pleaseth Him. mitted to my charge, as by the advice of Many considerations do move me to write Mr. Randolph to talk with the Lord of thus earnestly, which I am assured your. Lethington, who durst not have to do with self will approve. So I take my leave." us, until such time as he knew the Queen So much for Maitland. The other act. his mistress's pleasure. Having obtained ors in what was rapidly becoming a leave of her Grace, he came to us, with strangely exciting and tragic story were whom he could not have so much talk as widely distributed and variously occupied. we desired; but thus much in effect by Moray and his friends were in England; him we did understand, that there was Morton and Ruthven, who had fallen very little hope of any reconciliation be away from them, were with the court; so tween the Queen and the Earl of Moray. were the nobles personally and politically By him also do we find that so great mat- attached to the queen, -- Huntiy, Athos, ter of misliking hath proceeded from the Bothwell, Sutherland, Caithness. Knox Queen, the Earl of Lennox, and Lord Darn- had ventured to remain in Edinburgh, and ley towards the noblemen of this country, preached occasionally in St. Giles's. Bethat there is entered such a hatred into fore the close of the year 1565 Darnley their hearts, and such mistrust,” that no and Rizzio had ceased to be allies; and communication was possible. "She re- Rizzio, as the only official at Holyrood maineth always in mind to pursue them who could conduct her foreign correspondto the uttermost.” This was in August; ence, was becoming indispensable to the throughout the winter Maitland remained queen. There had been rumors of contenat his post -ill at ease, as I have said ; tion between husband and wife, - amanyet it is clear from the terms of the letter tium iræ, as Randolph said, — and the he wrote to Cecil early in 1566, that he feeble and petted lad, who owed every. had begun to hope that more friendly re- thing to Mary, was already plotting against lations were being established. “I'was her. It was also rumored - before the glad to understand by your letter sent to year was out, indeed, it was widely known me with our herald, your good continuance that in a few months Mary would be a in your accustomed disposition to nourish mother. amity betwixt the two Queens and Realms. When Moray was driven across the I am assured there is no amity so profit. Border, the revolutionary faction had able for both ; as also, if any breach come been foiled for the moment. But with at any time (which God forbid), it shall be Moray at Newcastle, Cecil at Westminsmost dangerous to both. And therefore, ter, Morton at Holyrood, and Knox in St. happy may the Ministers be accounted, Giles's, there was plenty of explosive ma

terial about. No experienced statesman, diately; but anything more meanly abject no friend of orderly government, could than Moray's bearing when overtaken by venture to hope that the clouds had been evil fortune it is surely difficult to image finally dispersed. The storm had failed ine. to clear the sky; the air was still charged But though Moray was disowned in with electricity. The stress of the polit- public, the English ministers, whose hosical situation' indeed might not inaptly tility to Mary had not been disarmed, was have been described in the words of the in fact keener than ever, were in close and great English poet; for though “ the van- constant communication with the exiled ward clouds of evil days had spent their lords. Before the new year was far admalice,” yet

vanced, Elizabeth, recovering from her The sullen rear

panic, had urged Mary to pardon the noWas with its stored thunder laboring up.

blemen whose excessive zeal for religion

had led them astray. Mary would proba. Moray's rôle during his exile was not bly have turned a deaf ear to these someone that any man of spirit would have what dictatorial entreaties, in so far at cared to play. There are scenes of broad least as Moray was concerned; for the burlesque in “Lear” and “ Macbeth ; ingratitude of her brother had stung her and the tragedy which was so close at to the quick. She had replied with spirit hand was preceded by a farce, in which to Elizabeth's remonstrances at a far more the clown's part was taken by Moray. The critical period; the hypocritical pretences ambassadors of the Catholic powers had of the English ministers had then been not hesitated to accuse the English queen ruthlessly exposed; and we may be tolerto her face of fomenting civil war in Scot- ably sure that now, when her enemies had land. The ill success of the rebels had been scattered like chaff, her answer by this time dismayed Elizabeth; and would have been not less incisive. But when Moray came to London to remind the letters were never delivered; Bedford her of her engagements, she induced him detained them at Berwick on the ground to declare on his knees, in the presence of that “a matter of no small consequence the ambassadors, that she had given the was intended in Scotland,” by means Lords no encouragement. " But unto my whereof, he explained, the banished lords Lord of Moray, she said, Now you have would be brought home "without further told the truth, for neither did I, nor any in suit from Elizabeth.” my name, stir you up against your Queen. The matter of no small consequence" For your abominable treason may serve was the plot which ended in the murder of for example to my own subjects to rebel Rizzio and the return of Moray. Though against me. Therefore get you out of my Morton and Ruthven, who were closely presence, — you are but unworthy trait- related to Darnley, had fallen away from ors.” Elizabeth's transcendent mendacity Moray when he appeared in thé field rose at intervals into genius ; and on this against his sister, the friendly intimacy occasion she outshone herself. But if which had previously existed between Elizabeth lied, as was her habit - what is them had been only temporarily suspendto be said for Moray? Elizabeth was not ed. The division was accidental; the a “ professor;” she sneered at Cecil and differences were superficial ; there was no “his brothers in Christ ;” but Moray was reason, apart from Darnley, why the old the leader of the “precise Protestants, allies — Knox and Moray and Morton and and the austere propriety of his life and Ruthven — should not shake hands, and conversation had supplied a text for many be friends again. a fervid discourse. The interview with The earlier historians of Scotland were Elizabeth was bad enough - one would only permitted to call a spade a spade have fancied that he could not have fallen when no reflection on Knox and his further — yet, if we are to believe Melo friends was intended. A fairer estimate ville, there was a lower depth which Mo is now possible; and it will be admitted ray had yet to sound. “Rizzio appeared by not a few that Moray's conduct at this also to have been gained. My Lord Mo-juncture was singularly base. We have ray had sued to him very earnestly, and seen that he had perjured himself to satmore humbly than could have been be- isfy Elizabeth, and had pled with Rizzio lieved, with ihe present of a fair diamond for pardon. But these were comparatively enclosed within a letter, full of repentance venial offences, - matters of taste, so to and fair promises from that time forth to speak, where private inclination might be be his friend and protector." How these consulted. The broad earldom of Moray, “promises ” were kept will appear imme. I which a year before had cost him the

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friendship of Knox, was in jeopardy, and captured as they hurried past Kinross the temptation to retain it by any means during the previous summer, the queen, "fair or foul” was probably irresistible. it is known, would have been imprisoned Yet what he now did, justified though it in Lochleven. Since then the situation has been by those who maintain that Mo- had been materially modified. Mary was ray, like Arthur, was a stainless gentle- now within a few months of her confine. man, well-nigh exceeds belief. He had ment. The probability that a violent men. risen in arms against his sister - he had tal or physical shock' would be attended shaken her throne — because she had with serious consequences, might be folelected to marry Darnley. He returned lowed by her death, cannot have been to make Darnley king, in fact as well as absent from the minds of the conspirators. in name. The terms of the treaty between Randolph's sinister auguries were like these singular allies were reduced to writ. enough to be realized. "I know that ing, in accordance with the fashion of an there are practices in hand contrived beage which combined lawless violence with tween the father and the son to come by legal pedantry. These are the articles of the Crown against her will. I know that the “band” which Moray signed: “ The if that take effect which is intended, David Earl of Moray shall become a true subject shall have his throat cut within these ten and faithful servant to the noble and days. Many things grievouser and worse mighty Prince Henry, King of Scotland, than these are brought to my ears, yea, of

- shall be the friend of his friends and things intended against her own person, the enemy of his enemies. He shall at which because I think it better to keep the first Parliament after his return grant, secret than write to Mr. Secretary, I speak give and ordain

the Matrimonial Crown to of them but now to your Lordship.” What the said noble Prince all the days of his then would follow ? Chatelherault was in life. He shall fortify and maintain the exile; Darnley was incapable of governsaid noble Prince in his just title to the ing. Cordially supported by Elizabeth, Crown of Scotland, failing of succession of Moray was sure to become a formidable our Sovereign Lady, and shall justify and candidate for the throne. Cecil had said set forward the same to the uttermost. years before that the lord James was like And as he has become true subject to the to be a king soon; and — Mary once out said noble Prince, so shall he not spare of the way - a parliament filled with life or limb in setting forward all that may fanatical partisans would have little diffitend to the advancement of his honor. culty in finding that he was legitimate. Darnley on his side undertook that Moray These then were the confederates. Moand his complices.” should be recalled to ray and his companions at Newcastle, Scotland; that their treason should be Bedford and Randolph, the agents of forgiven; and that the Acts of the Estates Elizabeth, at Berwick, Morton, Ruthven, by which their honors and estates were to and Knox at Edinburgh, were leagued be forfeited should be immediately with with the worthless Darnley and the undrawn.

grateful Lennox. There was little delay, A more shameful bargain was never They did not linger over their work. By the struck. The fanatical passion of Knox 6th of March the preliminaries had been may be held to excuse his complicity. completed. The capital was filled with the The chosen people had no scruple in put- angry zealots of the Congregation. Juditing the unpopular favorite of an idola. cial precedents selected from the bloodiest trous ruler to death, and Mary was the passages of Hebrew history had fanned Jezebel of the Reformer's disordered im- their fanaticism into a flame. During a agination. For the cold and scrupulous week of fasting and humiliation they had Moray no such apology can be found. fed upon the atrocities recorded in the Had it not been established by indisputa- earlier books of the Bible. These grim ble evidence, the allegation that the vir enthusiasts streaming out into the High pietate gravis of the “precise Protes- Street from the great church where Knox tants” of Scotland was ready to cement in had told them how Oreb and Zeeb had been Rizzio's blood an alliance with Darnley, slain, how the Benjamites had been cut off, would have been deemed incredible. how Hainan had been hanged, were in the

The assassination of Rizzio, the return mood for murder. On the last day of the of Moray, the proclamation of Darnley, week in the winter twilight two hundred were only the accidents of the conspiracy. armed men wearing the livery of Morton The plot had a wider scope. It was un- and Lindsay surrounded the palace. The questionably directed against the queen attack being utterly unexpected there was herself. Had Mary and Darnley been no resistance. The gates were closed

and barred; the courtyard was occupied ; | and called for drink for God's sake; so a while Ruthven with some score of his Frenchman brought him a cup of wine, friends, guided by Darnley, stole noise. and after he drank, her Majesty began to lessly up the narrow stair which led to the rail at him, saying, Is this your sickness? private apartments of the queen. It was He answered, God forbid your Majesty about seven o'clock — Mary was at sup- had such a sickness. Then the Queen per. Darnley entered first; but he had said, if she died of her child or her Combardly uttered a word when the queen monweal perished, she would leave the looking up beheld a ghastly apparition at revenge to her friends to be taken of the the open door, Ruthven in complete Lord Ruthven and his posterity.” At last armor, but pale and emaciated, for he was she broke down. " Then the Lord Ruthsuffering from mortal illness, and had ven perceiving that her Majesty was very risen from his death-bed to direct the mur-sick, he said to the King it was best to der, – the man whom with a true instinct take leave of her Majesty, that she might she had always loathed. “The Queen take her rest.” So they left her with her cannot abide him, and all men hate him.” ladies and gentlewomen. “ The gates be

Of the miserable tragedy which fol. ing locked, the King being in his bed, the lowed enough has been written. The Queen walking in her chamber, the Lord outraged queen standing undauntedly be. Ruthven took charge of the lower gate fore the craven creature who clung in and the privy passages; and David was abject terror to the skirt of her robe, and thrown down the stairs from the Palace whose worst crime had been his devotion where he was slain, and brought to the to herself - the brief unseemly scuffle in Porter's lodge, who taking off his clothes, almost absolute darkness, for the table said, This was his destiny. For upon this with the lights had been overturned, and chest was his first bed when he came to the Countess of Argyle had picked up a this place, and now he lieth a very niggard single taper – Mary dragged aside by and misknown knave. The King's dagger Ruthven, and thrust roughly into Darn. was found sticking in his side. The ley's arms — the victim hustled across the Queen enquired at the King where his fócr — the shrill cry for mercy, the dagger was? who answered, that he wist clash of arms on the stair-head; it is a not well. Well, said the Queen, it will be lurid picture never to be forgotten. Ruth- known hereafter." ven was the leading actor; and there are Was Maitland one of the conspirators ? some sentences in his curiously unimpas- Was he directly or indirectly implicated sioned narrative which are yet startlingly in the plot? The allegation of his comvivid.

plicity, so far as I can judge, rests upon “ Then her Majesty rose upon her feet, circumstantial evidence only. His name and stood before David, he holding her is included in Randolph's list of the conMajesty by the plates of her gown, lean- federates; and Darnley assured Mary that ing back over the window, his dagger her secretary had taken an active part in drawn in his hand; and one of the cham- the conduct of the plot. He was the ber began to lay hands on the Lord Ruth- friend of Ruthven; he was the friend of ven, none of the King's party being there Moray. He disliked and suspected Rizpresent. Then the said Lord Ruthven zio, who was his political, if not his perpulled out his dagger, and defended him. sonal, rival. Rizzio, he knew, was doing self until more came in, and said to them, what he could to embitter the relations Lay no hands on me, for I will not be between the queens. The English allihandled. At the coming in of the others ance (his own handiwork) had been put in the Lord Ruthven put up his dagger; and peril; but if the Italian secretary were with the rushing in of men, the board fell removed, the danger might be averted. to the wall, meat and candles being there. There is an enigmatical and ambiguous on, and the Lady of Argile took one of letter addressed by him to Cecil, in which, the candles in her hand. At the same as we have seen, some radical cure is not instant the Lord Ruthven took the Queen obscurely hinted at. When he declared in his arms, and put her into the King's that there was no certain way unless they arms, beseeching her Majesty not to be chopped at the root, had Maitland the afraid; and assured her that all that was violent removal of Rizzio in view ? It done was the King's own deed.” Then need not surprise us, in short, that grave after David had been dragged away, “the suspicion should have attached to him. said Lord Ruthven being sore felled with Circumstanced as he was, it was impossihis sickness and wearied with his travel, ble that he should have escaped suspidesired her Majesty's pardon to sit down, cion.

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