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besi which drains that narrow inland sea. party with the mission-house, thus reinJust as in the romances, all goes well with forced, numbers seven whites, with sixty the travellers at the beginning of the jour- guns, and about fifteen hundred friendly ney. They enter the lake with a favor- natives, including many women and chil. ing breeze behind them, and speed fast dren. With a sense of the proper way to over the clear blue waters which reflect play their part, to be highly commended, the noble outlines of the hills that shut the Arabs for three weeks try by every them in. A ten-hours' sail brings them in possible sort of provocation to make the sight of two steamers, the Illala, in which mission party take the initiative in the they had determined to make the round attack. This provocation, however, is of the lake, and a boat belonging to the resisted, though the constant insults and Union Mission. The news that the travo ingenuities of annoyance indulged in by ellers hear, however, soon changes their the enemy make the period of waiting plans. Arab slave-hunters, they learn, as very hard to bear. At last, however, the they board the steamer, are threatening attack comes. With the dawn of Novemthe English station of Karonga, at the ber 24th, five or six hundred of the enemy north end of the lake, and have already organize a furious assault upon the mis. attacked a friendly tribe. Two English sion, hoping to carry it by a rush. The missionaries are shut up in the station. three weeks of grace, however, have been Help has been demanded from Consul used in strengthening the fortifications ; Hawes, and from the manager of the Afri- and all idea of taking it by assault is can Lakes Company; but it may be long abandoned after an experience of the fire coming. If we were reading one of Mr. poured from the works in the hour during Haggard's romances, we should not, after which the first attack lasts. A steady this, hesitate for a moment to predict siege then begins, the Arabs, just as in the what action would be taken by the nar- romances, showing by their manner of rator and his companion. Fortunately, conducting it that they had among them the English race has still a dash of hero- men trained in some measure to warfare, ism in real life as well as in books, and and accustomed to attack fortified posts." the prediction need not be withdrawn Doubtless all the defenders were great when we force ourselves to remember that readers of tales of adventure. Imagine, we are not reading a novel. “It seemed then, their delight when so correct a clearly our duty to collect what men were symptom of the situation developed itself available, and render what assistance we as this. Then, too, another very familiar could at once.” Has not the reader seen friend appears to them in the shape of the such a phrase a hundred times in books of storehouse, unfortunately left outside the adventure ? No less familiar is the declines, proving a great danger to the belaration, “Dr. Tornory, of the London sieged, and of the heroic native “who Church Mission, was willing, and an ele- dashed out, torch in hand, under a hot phant-hunter, a Mr. Sharpe, had declared fire, which we returned with interest to his readiness to come.” The casual ele- cover him," and successfully sets it in a phant-hunter, who joins the party quite blaze. Surely there is an incident of this “permiscus,” with rifles, no doubt, like sort in “ Masterman Ready," or if not, young cannons, is a delicious touch. (It then it is the account of the means taken is quite impossible to criticise the narra- to get water which is matched in that most tive like a record of facts, though it is excellent of books of adventure. Indeed, obviously true in every line and every it may be said that the siege of the misword.) We are sure that if the story is sion-house of Lake Nyassa illustrates by ever written out at length, Mr. Sharpe a real incident something or other not only will prove the humorous hero who is al. in all Mr. Rider Haggard's works, but in ways doing some act of quaint daring almost every book of the kind that has which makes us at one and the same time ever been written. One great cause of laugh at him and love him. Of course, heart-searching in most books of the ad. after this, the next step is for the narrator venturous order, is the fact that none of to order the steamer to get up steam, and the white men, in spite of all the fearful in twenty-four hours the expedition has fighting, ever get killed. We, of course, started. By steaming night and day, they are in one sense always immensely dereach Karonga — the threatened mission lighted at this ; but yet, at the same time,
"just in the nick of time” (that, of we feel a little doubtful whether it can be course, was inevitable), as the missionary true, and whether in reality we ought not, in charge explains, for the Arabs had that however bitter the pang, to have sacrificed day made a hostile demonstration. The I the gallant young man with the blue eyes
who acts as second in command, or per. | fault. It is far too short. All that he haps even the humorous hero who always does give, however, is as good as can be, does the deeds of superhuman daring with and reflects as much credit on his powers a twinkle in his eye. After such harrow- of seeing and describing, as his acts in ing doubts, it is an immense consolation organizing the relief and defending the to find in the real thing that, after five mission-house do upon his courage and days of a furious fusillade from the Arabs, great-heartedness. not a single member of the gallant little After a proof of Mr. Haggard's genugarrison is killed, and only two are slightly ineness such as that we have just been wounded. We cannot recount here, dwelling on, who will be surprised if some though it would prove our point still fur- day or other we hear that one of those ther, all the sorties for food for the cattle, wonderful swords, with the back of the and all the night attacks. We must re- blade cut out in fretwork and inlaid with frain, too, from telling how during the gold, which Mr. Mackenzie showed to whole night the whites patrolled the ram. the astonished Allan Quatermain, is for parts in watches of two at a time, and how sale in New Bond Street, and that an on one occasion an Arab actually crawled expedition is about to set out to discover within thirty yards of the ditch before he the land of Zuvendis ? After all, there was despatched. The end comes in the may well be greater wonders in the heart most approved fashion. Suddenly the of Africa than ever the romancer dreamt firing ceases, and all is still in the Arab of. If we do not find She-who-must-becamp. Of course, a ruse is feared; but obeyed, we may yet discover ruins mightier after some hours of waiting, a sortie is than those of imperial Khor. The palaces made, and the Arab camp explored and of Yucatan, which are just as wonderfound deserted. The enemy had departed moving, were not found till Mexico had in a body. The reasons is not long in been explored for more than two hundred being discovered. In a few hours, the years; and the Cambodian temples had, vanguard of an army of five thousand till the French conquest, escaped even the friendly natives who have come to raise gatherers of rumor. Again, if the Zuventhe siege, appear upon the scene. Into dis race is not made known to us, there the rest of the details of the campaign we may well be a white people somewhere have not time to enter here, nor to remem-in yet undiscovered highlands of Africa ber how the war is carried into the ene- whose history may be none the less mar. my's country, and how one of their vil- vellous because they must be few, and lages is destroyed. Unfortunately, the must have lived a life of perpetual selfnarrator does not give us very many de-defence. The tradition of the existence tails. He makes us long, however, for of such a race is as old as our knowledge Mr. Rider Haggard to describe such of Africa, and such traditions are apt to scenes as the magnificent rush of the Wa have a base of reality. Mwamba warriors over the stockade. Still more do we need such help in the account of the march home after the old mission-house has been reluctantly abandoned. This march ends in the carrying by surprise of another village, this time SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS IN ELEMENTARY
SCHOOLS. that of a hostile native chief. How admi. rably would Mr. Haggard have told us how A VERY remarkable report has been rethe white men crept up to the stockade -ceived by the London School Board from so close that they could see " the people a special committee appointed by it a year sitting round their watch-fires," and hear ago, " to consider the present subjects and " the early risers talking in complete un modes of instruction in the Board schools, consciousness of danger” – how the fire and to report whether such changes can was directed on both faces of the village be made as shall secure that children at once, and how in a few minutes a panic leaving school shall be more fitted than set in, and the whole place was taken prac- they now are to perform the duties and tically without resistance. In wishing for work of life before them.” * Mr. Haggard here, we do not for a mo The committee, of which Mr. William ment intend to insinuate that the narrator Bousfield was chairman, was a strong one, of the Times has not done his work clearly and well. In truth, he has brought the
School Board for London. Report of the Special scenes he describes most vividly before in the Board's Schools, with Appendices. Hazell,
Committee on the Subjects and Modes of Instruction us. His narrative, indeed, has only one Watson, and Viney, 52 Long Acre.
representing well the various sections of be developed for senior scholars through. the London Board. It has produced a out the standards in schools, so as to supreport of twenty-one folio pages, including ply a graduated course of manual training no less than thirty-one recommendations, in connection with science teaching and and foliowed by voluminous ininutes of object-lessons." evidence given by scientific men and These, then, are the two main directions others, who have paid attention to ele- of progress that are indicated, — the knowl. mentary instruction, teachers of special edge of nature and the power of work; subjects, inspectors, employés of the the development of the perceptive faculBoard, working-men, representatives, and ties, and the education of the senses others.
and these two are to go hand in hand. This important document is the out Object-lessons are common in elemencome of several movements. The Lon. tary schools, but much is said, both in don Board has, throughout its existence, the report itself, and in the evidence of endeavored to promote the teaching of Sir John Lubbock and other witnesses, science by means of systematic object-les, in regard to their improvement, and the sons; and has made several attempts to importance of good collections of objects. give a more practical turn to the instruc- Yet it appears from the appendix that only tion. In December, 1884, a previous about forty minutes per week on an averspecial committee reported on technical age are actually given to these lessons in education, affirining the principle that it boys’and girls schools, and we know from was not the duty of the Board to attempt the annual reports of the British Associato teach any particular trades, but that it tion on the teaching of science in such was its duty so to direct the education of schools that the present regulations of its scholars that they could easily take up the government code are actually diminany special work afterwards, and suggest- ishing the amount of the teaching of ing various ways by which this might be geography and elementary science. The promoted. Since then the conviction has special committee, therefore, very properly rapidly grown in the public mind that the recommend that application be made to teaching is too bookish ; the supremacy of the education department to grant more the three R's has been rudely assailed ; freedom of choice in the selection of and many people have asserted that other class-subjects; and that the provision for things, such as Lord Reay's three DR's object-lessons, and lessons on natural phe(drill, drawing, and ’droitness), are equally nonema, should be taken into account in important.
boys' and girls' schools in assessing the The report — starting with this defini-merit grant, as is the case at present with tion of education : "the harmonious de infant schools. The Scotch code has velopment of all the faculties, bodily and within the last few weeks allowed that menial, with which the child is endowed either elementary science or English may by nature,” — points out the deficiencies be taken as the first class-subject, which of the present curriculum. It has an ear. is a hopeful sign of progress. The favorite nest paragraph on moral education, and scientific subjects taught at present in the makes various remarks upon the present London schools are animal physiology teaching of history, geography, social and algebra; but the special committee economy, and art. But its main criticism favor the teaching of mechanics and the is “ that the physical or bodily side of fundamental notions of physical science education, including the development of by means of special teachers on the perimuscular strength, of the accuracy and patetic plan; and they recommend "that sense of color and proportion of the eye, the teaching of all subjects be accomand of the pliancy and dexterity of the panied, where possible, by experiments hand, is almost entirely neglected; and and ocular demonstration, and that the that the mental or brain work, which necessary apparatus be supplied to the occupies the great bulk of the time in schools.' schools of all kinds, is composed far too As to manual instruction, it exists in much of appeals to the memory only, re- infant schools wherever Kindergarten exsulting, at the best, in the retention in the ercises are practised, but in boys' schools child's mind of a mass of undigested facts, there is often no practice of the kind exand far too little of the cultivation of intel- cept in writing. In London, and perhaps ligence.” The Kindergarten principle is in most large towns, drawing is generally strongly approved of, and the first recom- taught, and it is universally allowed that mendation is : “ That the methods of this is at the very foundation of technical Kindergarten teaching in infant schools instruction. The committee recommend
“that all manual instruction should be There are two points on which we given in connection with the scientific should have liked to see some recommenprinciples underlying the work, and with dations of a more vigorous character. suitable drawing and geometry.” Draw. The one refers to the teaching of arithing to scale is invaluable for teaching metic, which as laid down by the code is accuracy in work. But drawing does not thoroughly unscientific. The other point give the best idea of form, and there is a is this : there are recommendations in reconventional element about it which puz- gard to evening classes, the more extended zles little children. Hence modelling in use of the pupil-teachers' schools, and the clay is also recommended. The Board grouping together of the upper standards started a class for the use of tools in car. of several schools in poor neighborhoods ; pentry at Beethoven Street School, Ken- but this might have been carried much sal, but the outlay was disallowed by the further, and have included the establishpublic auditor. Six such classes, how-ment of such valuable institutions as the ever, are being carried on at the expense central schools which are doing such good of the City Guilds Technical Institute. work in many of the provincial towns, There is little doubt that the present dis- especially in the north of England. ability will be shortly removed, and that Nevertheless, these recommendations, eventually a work-room or laboratory will if they are all allowed to take effect, will become an essential part of every large mark an era in education. The special Board school. How best to give manual committee are happily able to add: “It instruction is still a matter of discussion is significant that these changes are deand experiment. Good observations about manded alike by educational theorists, it will be found in the evidence of Mr. teachers, men of science, leaders of inHenry Cunynghame, Mr. Davis, of Bir-dustry, and statesmen, and it rests with mingham, and Professors Unwin and the Board to carry them into actual fact.” Perry. Mr. Ricks, one of the Board in. The bill of Sir Henry Roscoe, and that on spectors, has drawn out an elaborate technical education which is promised by scheme for the development of the Kin. the government, must also have an impordergarten system throughout all the stand. tant bearing on the scientific development ards of a school in the directions spoken of. of elementary instruction. We await the
Girls are more fortunate than boys in results of the discussions that must ensue the matter of manual instruction. They with the deepest interest. are taught needlework universally, and very often cookery. The latter may be considerably extended. Domestic economy also in its various branches should
From The Spectator. be taught, through practical work, and with reference to scientific principles
THE CASHIERING OF THE TIN SOLDIER. as in washing, laying fires, and ventilating LET no one from henceforth accuse rooms.
womankind of want of logic. The arguBut how is time to be obtained for the ments propounded by the orators at the introduction of this perceptive and prac. conference in London convened under tical instruction ? On that point the com- the auspices of the Women's Comiittee mittee are very distinct, and there is a of the International Arbitration and Peace singular unanimity among the witnesses Association, prove that if political econthat the attention now paid to spelling and omy has been relegated to Saturn, logic is grammar is excessive, if not educationally safely domiciled in the planet Venus. worthless. There is a curious table, too, What could be more relentless and irrein the appendex, which gives the results fragable than the chain of reasoning which of inquiry as to the subjects of instruction links together the following propositions ? most or least preferred in the various The family is the unit of the nation. The schools. Grammar is so unpopular with child is father to the man, and the man is both boys and girls that it almost always the head of the family. Argal, the warattains that bad pre-eminence. Spelling like child is the teterrima causa, the root or dictation comes second. In face there of the whole evil. Could we but remove is no doubt that the children dislike what the baneful influences which familiarize they feel does not add either to their children while yet in the nursery with pleasure, or their real knowledge. It is scenes of bloodshed and cruelty, als might proposed “that the time now given to yet be well. Wherefore the first speaker spelling, parsing, and grammar generally, suggested that mothers should * sedube reduced."
lously endeavor to instil peace principles
into the minds of their children, and re- for a child who has been in the habit of frain from giving them warlike toys.” In violently compressing the stomach of his this way much might be done towards the toy lamb to produce the desired sound, preservation of peace in the fainily; and will
, on reaching man's estate, be natuwe must never forget that the family is rally inclined to abuse and maltreat all the the unit of the nation.” Pacify the units, live stock that comes in his way. Penny and you will pacify the aggregate. The whistles will also be excluded by the cenwhole affair lies in a nutshell. Following sorship of toys, not because of their shrillon the same lines, a subsequent speaker ness, but on account of their affinity to emphasized the necessity of going to the the bellicose fife. Toy railway trains, at children, " the democracy of the future," first sight, seem unobjectionable ; but the and influencing them in favor of peace spectacle of their demolition may have principles. In America, the pacification given rise to that callousness which is of the nursery seems to be a fait accompli, said to reside in the hearts of
many directfor an American lady who took part in ors. If the upsetting of a toy locomotive the discussion declared - in proof of her were regarded as penal in the nursery, it assertion that peace principles had been is possible that fewer lives would be lost practically adopted there — that although on our railways. The increase in jerryshe had lived all her life in the United built villas is similarly attributable to a States, she was quite unable to describe marked deterioration in the solidity of the the uniform of an American soldier, so structure of dolls' houses; while the intro. rarely had she seen one. We hope we duction of dolls stuffed with sawdust, shall not be accused of an unchivalrous which by their look and feel inevitably curiosity when we say that this ingenious appealed to the disintegrating faculties of declaration furnishes us with a terminus childhood, undoubtedly paved the way for a quo to determine the age of the speaker. the practice of vivisection. The articles It is evident that her personal reminis- hawked in the streets at the present day cences cannot extend as far back as the are of varying value from the educational close of that great civil war in which at point of view. The perambulating porter least a million men were in arms. Miss is admirable. Nothing could inculcate Bowles may have rarely seen a uniform, more eloquently the dignity of labor than but she can hardly have avoided encoun. the spectacle of this alert and vigorous tering amongst her personal acquaintance figure briskly dragging his load without a large number of individuals entitled, by turning to the right or to the left. The courtesy or otherwise, to the appellation waltzers, on the other hand, are deploraof “colonel” – a hateful survival of the ble, the combination - a soldier and a anti-pacific epoch - for it is well known ballet-girl — being typical of brutal militathat in the United States everybody is rism and feminine giddiness. either a judge or a colonel.
The mere suppression of warlike toys, We have strayed, however, somewhat however, is not enough. It is only 'an from the really important lesson to be episode in the campaign, — if the word derived from this debate, - to wit, that campaign can be legitimately used in such the destiny of mankind is determined by a connection. An index expurgatorius the character of his playthings in infancy: will have to be drawn up of all the writers If the nefarious tin soldier, the pestilential who have expended their energies in idealpopgun, and the detestable drum, are re- izing this military instinct in children. sponsible for “the greatest of human vil... Jackanapes," we fear, will be put on the lanies," as one of the other speakers black list, and “The Story of a Short reminded us that war had been aptly de- Life” also. Indeed, Mrs. Ewing's works nominated, it is evident that a judicious are įtainted throughout with this heresy, choice of toys, and a resolute elimination and the mischief she has done to "the of all those of an inflammatory character, democracy of the future” by extolling the must exert a most potent influence upon courtesies and charities of military life is the preservation of peace in the family; terrible to contemplate. In “ The Peace. and whatever happens, we must never for. Egg" we read of a small boy who used to get that the family is the unit of the distract his nurse by playing at soldiers nation. It becomes obvious, again, that in realistic fashion when he ought to have toy animals and dolls of all sorts are ex. been in bed. He insists on being orderly ceedingly dangerous things to let children officer, and on visiting the outposts — play with. Dolls with squeaks, in partic- which consisted of waking up his small ular, should be proscribed by the Society brothers and sisters - and greets her refor the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, monstrances with the calm rebuke that