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most singular traits in his character, con- | too soon exposed and expelled from all sidering his antecedents,” and it is evi. reasonable natures, namely, that there are dent that he regards it as one of the most such realities as human responsibility, sin, serious blemishes in Macaulay's charac. merit, demerit, and penitence. In a word, ter. Of Madame de Maintenon he writes Mr. Cotter Morison wanted to keep the with even sterner reprobation when he is saintly character without its daily bread, describing what George Eliot called the to keep the “anguish or ecstasy of “other-worldliness ” of her religious ob- spirit” which arises exclusively from the servances: “With reference to spiritual faith in a perfect Being who condemns or affairs, though punctilious about her sal- approves us, without the faith to which it vation, she always treats the matter as a is solely and exclusively due. It was a sort of prudent investment, a preparation very strange state of mind. We can un. against a rainy day which only the thought- derstand the saint, and we can understand less could neglect. All dark travail of the scoffer at saintly illusions. But we soul, anguish, or ecstasy of spirit, were cannot understand the fervor with which hidden from her.” And he marks strongly the man who wants to expose the illusions, his dislike of her “utter lack of all spirit- delights in the spiritual delirium which ual - we will not say fervor, but sensibil. these illusions have produced. ity.” On the other hand, no one can re Certainly it is not easy to explain how proach Mr. Cotter Morison with any want a man with so keen an insight into both of such sensibility, if that is to be called character and history as Mr. Cotter Morispiritual sensibility which seems to covet son's study of Madame de Maintenon, for the feelings of a saint without believing in instance, betrays, could have admired pasany object for those feelings. “The true sionately the type of character which was Christian saint," he says in “ The Service produced by the belief in what he held to of Man" (p 196), “ though a rare phenom- be mischievous superstitions, and could enon, is one of the most wonderful to be have desired to sweep away those superwitnessed in the moral world; so lofty, so stitions while retaining the type. Perhaps pure, so attractive, that he ravishes men's the best explanation of these ardent agsouls into oblivion of the patent and gen- nostics, of these believers in the ecstasy eral fact that he is an exception amongst of a spiritual communion with mere memthousands or millions of professing Chris. ories and hopes, is to be found in the fact tians. The saints have saved the Churches that they are all more or less capricious from neglect and disdain." “What needs in their individual prejudices, men who, admitting, or rather proclaiming, by ag- like Comte, institute impossible devotions nostics who would be just, is that the which make nobody devout, and draw up Christian doctrine has a power of culti- calendars of miscellaneous notables which vating and developing saintliness which are to include some of the saints, and rehas had no equal in any other creed or place the others by persons of very dubi. philosophy. When it gets firm hold of a ous merit. Mr. Cotter Morison, with all promising subject, one with a heart and his learning and all his enthusiasm and head warm and strong enough to grasp its unction, frequently showed traces of a full import and scope, then it strengthens singularly capricious and uncatholic judg. the will, raises and purifies the affections, ment, which accounts in some degree, and finally achieves a conquest over the perhaps, for his admiration of air-fed ideal. baser self'in man of which the result is a ists. Thus, in his little study of Macaucharacter none the less beautiful and soul. lay, he expends much indignant wrath subduing because it is wholly beyond im upon him for repeating to himself a great itation by the less spiritually endowed. part of Milton's “ Paradise Lost" on board The blessed saints are artists who work the ship which was taking him to Ireland : with unearthly colors in the liquid and “The complaint is,” he wrote, “that transparent tints of a loftier sky than any Macaulay's writings lack meditation and accessible or visible to common mortals. thoughtfulness. Can it be wondered at, Clearly there is no lack of religious sensi- when we see the way in which he passed bility here. And the amazing thing is his leisure hours? One would have supthat those saints whom Mr. Cotter Mori. posed that an historian and statesman, son so much admired, not only filled their sailing for Ireland, in the night on that souls with the worship of what he regarded Irish Sea would have been visited by as an empty dream which had no exist thoughts too full and bitter and mournful ence in any world, but trained their hearts to have left him any taste even for the and minds on a firm belief in what he held splendors of Milton's verse. He was about to be a moral delusion which could not be to write on Ireland and the battle of the

Boyne, and had got up his subject with | Morison thought they should, because they his usual care before starting. Is it not did not employ their time in sifting truth, next to incredible that he could have instead. Criticisms like this seemn to us. thought of anything else than the pathetic, to betray the wilfulness and caprice which miserable, humiliating story of the con- have entered as an alloy into the characnection between the two islands ? And teristics of most of the curious group of he knew that story better than most men. men who have been what we have called Yet it did not kindle his mind on such an ardent agnostics. They are men who inoccasion as this. There was a defect of dulge themselves in arbitrary intellectual deep sensibility in Macaulay, – a want of caprices of their own, – in killing the root moral draught and earnestness, - which of what is great, while insisting on keepis characteristic of his writing and thinking the greatness; in lamenting the abuse ing.” Surely there never was a more of some petty habit of thought by which amazing outburst of indignation than this. they lay great store, and attributing to It would seem that Mr. Cotter Morison it a kind of value of which it is wholly wants men of genius always to reflect the destitute. Mr. Cotter Morison strangely reflections which are specially appropriate combined the eloquence and fervor of to the particular situation in which they Christian sentiment with the scornful find themselves; to be in a mood appro- fastidiousness and critical pedantry of a priate to Ireland as they approach Ireland, systematic thinker who sternly rejected and a mood for historical survey as they all that did not fit into his system. “Ag. prepare themselves for the writing of his. nostics,” he boasts, "when smitten by the tory. A more capricious assumption of pe: sharp arrows of fate, by disease, poverty, dantic appropriateness between the mind bereavement, do not complicate their misand its anticipated interests could hardly ery by anxious misgivings and fearful be conceived. Shakespeare might have wonder why they are thus treated by the taught a man of much less capacity than God of their salvation. The pitíless, Mr. Cotter Morison that some of the most brazen heavens overarch them and believ. reflective characters are disposed to joke ers alike; they bear their trials or their when they are on the very edge of the hearts break according to their strength. most solemn experience, and to rise But one pang is spared them, — the mys. lightly, as it were, with wings into the air, tery of God's wrath, that he should visit on the eve of approaching calamity. It is them so sorely." Yes, that pang is spared the mark of a doctrinaire to demand, on them, and the strength which it gives is pain of censure, the mood conventionally spared them also. The Christian knows appropriate for the occasion from such that whether it is retribution for his sins, men as Macaulay. And the same remark or purging for purification, or stimulus may be made concerning Mr. Cotter Mori. intended to give him higher spiritual son's still stranger criticism on Macaulay's strength, the pang which comes from * Lays of Ancient Rome,” — all the more above is full of power. But the ardent remarkable that it is preceded by a very agnostics of our own day want to throw fine and true appreciation of the literary all the ardor of faith into the propagation value of the ballads themselves, — namely, of an agnostic service of humanity, and that it was not " worthy of a serious scholar that is an impossible combination which to spend his time in producing mere fancy only a capricious intellect could imagine. pictures which could have no value beyond You cannot combine Gibbon's cold intela certain prettiness, 'in the prolongation lect with a saint's passion for communion from age to age of romantic historical with the Infinite. You cannot advocate descriptions instead of sifted truth.”” the service of a limited posterity of mor. "Could we imagine,” he asks, “Grote or tal beings with the passion which is due Mommsen or Ranke or Freeman engaged to the regeneration of a world of immortal in such a way without a certain sense of beings; and though here and there, as in degradation?" To which we should cer- such eloquent critics as Mr. Cotter Mori. tainly answer, not merely with an emphatic son, the paradox may seem to be achieved, yes, but further, that if these historians we may be quite sure that either the ag. had the capacity to produce such ballads nostics of the future will cease to be as Macaulay's “ Lays," they would rise ardent, or that the ardent devotees of the indefinitely in our esteem by producing future will cease to be agnostic. them, instead of falling lower in it, as Mr.

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From The Saturday Review. leisure are really better for the student MR. COTTER MORISON.

than those opposite conditions under No shock of painful surprise can have which so much of the world's work has accompanied the regret with which the been actually done. It cannot be said friends of the late Mr. Cotter Morison that in Mr. Morison's case they produced heard the news of his death. For more their commonest and least satisfactory than two years past his health had been effect. There was certainly nothing of declining with distressing rapidity, and the dilettante about him, in the sense, at the disease from which he was suffering any rate, in which dilettantism is only an. was one which seldom or never spares. other name for the literary recreations of Not even the most resolutely hopeful of the elegant trifler. All his work, or all at those who saw him lately could have an- least which he has ever given to the world, ticipated for him any permanent recovery; was eminently of the thorough and conwe believe that to most of them the end scientious kind. But it may be doubted appeared as rear as in fact it was. Could whether his complete exemption from all his life, indeed, have been prolonged in external pressure did not tend to foster the state of physical and mental exhaus- that excessive intellectual fastidiousness tion to which his wasting malady had which is almost as fatal as indolence itself reduced him, the boon, to a man of his to the achievement of such a task as Mr. temperament, would have been a more Morison had set himself. He was an arthan doubtful one. The discovery made dent admirer of Macaulay, and even by the writer of one obituary notice that frequent, though perhaps an unconscious a decline of his intellectual faculties is imitator of his manner; and we all know traceable in his latest work is perhaps a that a writer with unlimited time on his little fanciful ; but few who knew him hands, and a keen appreciation of style, doubted that that work would be bis last, may easily continue polishing epigrams and many must have regretted that neither and balancing antitheses from manhood in it nor in any of his previous writings, to past middle age. It may not be good admirable as in many respects these latter for any man to work always with the spur are, has he left behind him any adequate of necessity in his flanks; but perhaps an monument of his remarkable powers. As occasional touch of that wholesome stimit is, he adds another name to the notulus is necessary for most of us. It is inconsiderable list of writers who pass a not impossible, too, that the brilliancy of good part of their lives in the preparation another gift than that of literary expres. of an opus magnum which is never des- sion may have occasionally exercised a tined to see the light. Mr. Morison had distracting effect upon his work. He for years been meditating an elaborate was one of the most admirable of talkers, history of the growth of French institu. as excellent in manner as in matter, and tions from, it is believed, the time of one of those rare masters of the art who Charlemagne down to the overthrow of seem to use it far more for bringing out of the ancien régime. No one could have the conversational powers of their combeen better fitted by tastes, attainments, pany than for the display of their own. and abilities for such a task than he. In With his store of accurate and varied pursuance of it he was understood to have knowledge, and his unfailing command of accumulated a mass of valuable materials, felicitous expression, with the wit, good and in particular to have devoted a closer sense, and intellectual enthusiasm which and more minute study to the fiscal and he brought to bear upon his subject, he jurisprudential sides of the French polity could not fail to take a prominent part in during the seventeenth and eighteenth any discussion; yet he never left upon centuries than any English scholar had any mind the impression of having apyet bestowed upon them. From time to propriated more than his due share of the time he has whetted the curiosity of the conversation. No doubt there are some literary world by the publication in one or minds which are only braced and quick. other of the periodicals of some brilliant ened for the labor of the study by these fragments of his work. But it never grew exercises of the salon. But there are to its completion in his lifetime, and in again others which find their store of inwhat stage of maturity he has left it we tellectual energy sensibly reduced by are unable to say:

them, and Mr. Morison's may very pos. A review of Mr. Morison's career can sibly have been a mind of this particular hardly fail to revive – it has, indeed, al. order. Distractions of some sort or anready revived - the eternal question as to other there must have been, or the amount whether ample competence and abundant l of his literary production could hardly fail

From Nature.

to have been greater. With indolence in tracted so much notice on account of its the common acceptation of the word it excessive mortality, and which terminated would have been impossible to charge by causing the local mischief which forms him. Nor could he be accused of that the ground of this article. improvident dissipation of the mental ac. It will be remembered that in 1884 rativities which sometimes results from a bies began to increase in the London and wide variety of intellectual interests. It home counties districts. No notice being could not be said of him that he had “ too taken of its spread, it soon produced a many irons in the fire.” He confined severe effect, when in 1885 the numerous himself pretty closely, so far as is known, deaths (twenty-seven) among human beto that work of historical and historico- ings caused a popular panic, and led the literary criticism in which he felt that his authorities to institute measures for its true strength lay; and it was assuredly repression. The authorities in the Lonnot from attempting too much that he don district having provided for the meraccomplished so little. Other causes, ciful extirpation of stray dogs, the familiar some of which we have conjecturally indi- vehicle of the disease, secured the noncated, must be sought to account for the transmission of the virus by enforcing the fact that the work of his pen should have use of muzzles. The result of their work fallen so curiously short of the power of during 1886 has been seen during 1887, in his mind, and that the public can now the practically total immunity of the popnever be expected to share that high esti. ulation of this great city from this the mate of his abilities which was universal most justly dreaded of all diseases. Let among his private friends.

us not forget to add in passing that as was pointed out at the time of the expiration of the local regulations by those acquainted with the malady, that the measures being but local could only produce a temporary

relief from the evil, since the metropolis RABIES AMONG DEER.

was continually being infected from disThat all domesticated or semi-domesti-tricts beyond the reach of the regulations, cated mammals succumb to inoculation and that though it could be kept free for a with the virus of rabies has long been as time, yet reintroduction of the virus would serted, and examples of its occurrence certainly occur, and the work would have have been duly recorded. The possibility, to be done all over again. This is actuhowever, of the disease affecting half-wild ally now happening, though not yet offianimals seems to have been lost sight of, cially declared. The disease has reapand it was therefore with much surprise peared (as it has usually done) in the on the part of the public that the announce southern suburbs, and is gradually making ment was received last year of the deer in its way into the metropolis. Richmond Park being attacked by the But' to return. The epidemic of 1885 malady.

terminated in the London district with the Apart from the general interest attach- infection of the roe deer in Richmond ing to the welfare of the public using the Park, resulting in the extermination of parks in which these animals are kept, and several hundreds of these valuable and beyond the special interest felt by the vet- pretty animals. From Mr. Cope's interesterinary profession in the clearing up of the ing report it appears that the first to be diagnosis of this strange and novel condi- seized was a doe which had a suckling tion, the outbreak was of importance as fawn, and as we learn from the very valuaffording a fresh opportunity of investi- able evidence of Mr. Sawyer, the headgating the character of the malady under, keeper of the Park, it seems that under as it were, new circumstances, and hence these circumstances a doe will attack a we find in the reports of this epizooty re- dog attempting to worry the herd, as a cently furnished to the Privy Council by rabid dog passing through the park would Mr. Cope and Professor Horsley, many do. Fortunately in the Richmond case points which fill up certain blanks in our no instance occurred of the transmission scientific information on the subject. of the disease from the deer to man

The prevention of rabies in all animals through the dog as in an outbreak rewe have shown before to be the simplest corded in 1856 at Stainborough. Had this task imaginable for the health authorities happened, the deaths of the deer would of this country to undertake, and nothing not have been attributed to varicus canses, illustrates this more clearly than the lis- poisoning, etc., as they now were until tory of the recent epidemic, which at-I the remarkable aggressiveness of the

LIVING AGE. VOL. LXII. 3176

affected animals led to a thorough inves- features are sometimes widely separated. tigation by the veterinary advisers of the The paralysis may set in so soon as to government. Rabid deer were sent for obliterate aggressiveness, and thus a disobservation to the Veterinary College, tinct form (dumb) of rabies be produced, and the symptoms noted. The exact de though of course the aggressive form of termination yet remained to be made, and, the disease always ends in paralysis if not thanks to the recent researches of M. suddenly arrested by syncope. In the Pasteur, this was now possible. Portions deer the combination of the two symptoms of the central nervous system from these seems to bave been very equal. For even animals were sent to thé Brown Institu- when the animal liad fallen down from pation, and there inoculated by Professor resis (of the hind limbs more especially) it Horsley into rabbits by the subdural would nevertheless spring up and attempt method. These animals died after ex- to seize and worry with its teeth every hibiting the characteristic symptoms of person or object coming within its reach. rabies, and after death the usual post mor. The complete metamorphosis of the usual tem appearances were duly discovered. temper of the animal is of course only to More infected deer were sent also to the be explained by profound mental disturbBrown Institution, and the extraordinary ance, exactly as seen in the human being. changes effected by the disease more We have alluded to the mode of transmis. closely studied. This kind of deer, natu- sion of the disease – viz., through the rally gentle and timid, was transformed saliva. This mode was put to direct exinto a fierce and savage animal, rivalling periment by an infected animal being the rabid horse almost in its attempts to placed with a healthy one which had been do mischief. The early symptoms, as in isolated for some time, and the incubation all animals, appear to have been indicative period was determined in this instance to of mental hallucination, for the animals be nineteen days, the comparative shortwould stop feeding, hold up their heads, ness of the period being no doubt due to sniff the air, and then, without the slight- the very numerous points of inoculation. est reason, burst into a gallop. When An interesting and confirmatory circumplaced in confinement the least noise at- stance of the reality of this method of tracted their attention, and later - i.e., on transmission was afforded by the fact that the second and third day - caused them so long as the bucks retained their horns to charge in the direction of the sound. they were able literally to stave off infec. The mental perversion which leads a rabid tion, but as soon as these natural means of dog one moment to lick with almost fran- defence fell off at the usual periods, both tic energy a healthy dog placed with it, sexes suffered alike. and then the next moment violently to bite The mode of death seems in all cases if, finds its parallel in the deer similarly to have been ultimately cardiac failure, affected, for these animals in a like man- which supervened frequently before the ner licked their companions, and then fero- customary coma, the final stage of paralyciously attacked them, seizing them with sis, was developed. Relatively, syncope their jaws (usually about the shoulders) occurred much more frequently than it and tearing off hair and pieces of skin. does in the human subject, and a fortiori The points thus inoculated with the virus than it does in the dog, a circumstance after cicatrization became, as is almost in- explicable by the necessarily extremely variably the case, the seat of intense irrita fatiguing nature of the fits of excitement tion when the disease actively showed to which deer are evidently specially liable itself; hence one of the most prominent in the early development of the disease. signs presented by the animals was that of According to Professor Horsley's pathotheir rubbing themselves with such force logical report, both macroscopic and mias to make these parts raw. In connec-croscopic appearances of the affected tion with the differences which are now tissues revealed the usual lesions which known to be characteristic of the same are symptomatic of rabies. This last fact disease in different classes of animals, it is a healthy sign of scientific progress, for is interesting to note that in all large ani- any layman who has sought to obtain from mals, whatever be the previous tempera- books or verbal statements made by those ment, the course of the malady is closely justly recognized as being qualified to identical; thus in the horse, the ox, the speak with authority on this subject must sheep, the pig, the deer, etc., the illness have been disappointed with the uncer. is rapid, there is great aggressiveness, and tainty of knowledge which has prevailed yet early paralysis. It is of common respecting the morbid anatomy of rabies knowledge that in the dog these two latter up to the present time. The obscurity

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