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such an organization is possible, having In Uri, however, £120 is given, and in regard to the differences in position and Glarus and a few other places as bigh as ideas of the various cantons. At the pres. £160 per annum. Cantonal forest inspectent time each canton possesses in a meas ors receive from £120 to £180 a year, ure its own scheme of forestry organ. besides allowances, which are always given ization. There are, however, two main to the higher officials when travelling on systems in existence in the federal district, Guty, ranging from 5s. to 8s., with the cost the first of which prevails in the central, of the journey. eastern, and southern parts of Switzerland. Each canton is divided into districts of from 17,500 to 35,000 acres each, and over each district the canton places an officer who has received scientific train.
From The Spectator. ing; under him are the keepers and dep
THE NEEDED COMPLEMENT TO uty foresters, chosen by the owners from among the students of the local forestry That the age is tolerant, — tolerant to school, and paid by them. Each deputy a degree which could hardly have been has about 3,000 acres to take care of, and conceived by the largest-minded Englishhas but to carry out the orders of his man fifty years ago, no witness of Mr. superior as to felling, clearing, and re. Bradlaugh's triumph of last week in the planting. In the next, however, a differ- House of Commons, can for a moment ent system obtains. Here the country is doubt. There the lifelong representative far less mountainous, and the inhabitants of the most coarse and forbidding form of industrial rather than agricultural in their what our ancestors would have regarded, pursuits. In these cantons the district almost unanimously, as a blasphemous forester has from 7,500 to 17,500 acres denial of both natural and revealed reliunder him, and in this district he marks gion, scored a great victory over the repout all the fellings to be performed, and resentative of what they would have called in fact does everything but the manual wicked Popery. Yet the champion alike labor, which he leaves to his inferiors. of the one and of the other was listened to This district includes, ainong other can with deference, while the decision went tons, Zurich, Berne, Lucerne, and Neuf. for hiin who claimed to have absolute and châtel, where timber being very high in total unbelief accorded the same rights price, and the opportunities of sale being even in a court of justice, as are accorded numerous, the country is frequently reaf- to him who thinks that the violation of an forested by private individuals, while in oath will, if unrepented, issue in eternal the other cantons the State is forced to suffering. The Papist who a few years do nearly everything. The cantons not ago could hardly have got into the House within the control of the federal law differ for any English constituency was listened from those here spoken of in their organi- to with the respect due to pious conviction zation. In Bâle Campagne with its 37,000 by all except perhaps a few of his brother acres of forest, 75 per cent. of this being Papists from Ireland, who were disposed public, there are no officials whatever. to interrupt him not because he was a Laws have been passed, but the people Papist, but because he had committed the set them at naught; and similarly in horrible offence in their eyes of denouncThurgovie there is the greatest opposition ing Home Rule; and the avowed atheist to any interference with what the people was listened to with the esteem due to a consider to be their ancient rights; and manly and frank Parliamentary career here also there are no officials, except one which has gained for him, in spite of his who has the care of three hundred acres atheism, a certain considerable measure of State forest.
of confidence in the House of Commons. The salaries of the forest officials vary | Thus the tolerance of the new age is pervery much in the different cantons, but fect. The religion which used to be deeven in the best-paid districts the remu. nounced fiercely as the most un-English neration is very modest. Under-foresters of base superstitions, no longer excludes receive sometimes a fixed salary, some from public recognition ; and the irreligion times only daily wages when employed. which would once have been thought of as If the foriner, the sum varies from £24 to wilful depravity, cannot now so handicap £48 ; occasionally it reaches £60. If the an able man as to shut him out from a fair rate of pay is per day, which is unusual, it share of political honor. is generally fixed at 4s. District foresters Is there no cause for anything but satusually receive from £88 to £112 a year. I isfaction in the result? On the contrary,
we should say that, with all the satisfac-| competence of the human mind to reach a tion which, on the whole, it ought to fill true belief, and therefore continues to hold us, there should be blended a conviction his own faith with a hesitating and provis. that there is a heavy set-off of conse- ional sort of air, as a traditional inheritquences anything but good. It is impos. ance rather than with the contidence and sible to feel perfect tolerance for faiths joy of personal conviction. Nor can this and repudiations of faith all of which you process go on in relation to religious conthink perverted, without running a consid- viction without affecting also moral conerable risk of attaching less importance viction. The two are so closely bound up than you did before to the faith which you together, that it is impossible for any decay think divine. You cannot admit all opin- in the one to occur without being followed ions equally on the subject of religion to by a decay in the other. The politician a provisional and external equality of whom you have taught yourself to respect treatment, without endangering the im- as upright and manly, if he be an absolute portance you have hitherto attached to the unbeliever, is not in all probability simply differences between false religion and an unbeliever. He is pretty sure to found true. If you show the utmost courtesy on his unbelief a claim for man to regulate first outwardly, and then, as unmitigated his own actions with a complete indiffertolerance teaches you to do, inwardly, to ence to the moral instincts and anxieties men of all creeds, you are very likely to which religious men regard as the witness imbibe something of the attitude of the of God's spirit. He regards these warn. soul which sat “as God, holding no forming instincts solely, perhaps, as the rude of creed, but contemplating all.” It can remains of some all but extinct superstihardly be doubted that when men of a tion, and proceeds to ignore them as comconsiderable number of different creeds pletely as a biologist would ignore the are constantly mingling with each other vestiges he finds in his own organization on equal terms, and are subject to the of the lower animal life which man has same rules imposing on them mutual con- outgrown. Nor can we wonder at a con. siderateness in action, a certain weakness vinced materialist's treating as mere su. may easily creep into the individual reli- perstitious scruples all that mysterious gion. And this is very apt to affect most reluctance to act upon the guidance of seriously the religions which are most mere earthly prudence, which a religious exacting in their claims on the heart and inan, like Socrates, treats as the voice of conscience. It may be said, and more or some higher nature speaking within him. less it is true, that atheists and unbeliev- To one who thinks that man is the highest ers, under this equal treatment, will learn being in creation, his own opinion of the to respect the high and conscientious faith moment, untrustworthy as he must know of those with whom they come to be con- it to be, may very fairly be regarded as a stantly associated. And that is one of the far safer guide than a scruple the nature best aspects of an age of tolerance. Un- of which he can neither justify nor underdoubtedly it tells in favor of convincing stand, though such a materialist would, if unbelievers that there is something more sincerc, willingly admit that in every case, in the principle of faith than they had the best guide man can have is bad enough, thought; that it gives strength, and disin- even though it be the best. We cannot terestedness, and magnanimity, and self-doubt, therefore, that if universal tolerance control, and hope, to those who without it often undermines more or less the confi. might be weak, and selfish, and sensitive, dence of men in their religious principles, and passionate, and despairing: But then, it will undermine also, and very seriously, in order to have that good effect on the the confidence of men in their moral prin. unbeliever, tolerance must not eat away ciples also. That is why we maintain that the firm foundations of the faith which as a necessary consequence of the univerfinds itself confronted with so many para- sal tolerance which is coming into vogue, doxes of the spiritual life. And the effect there will be a considerable loss of the old of our new tolerance is, very often indeed, firmness of conviction as to the good and to eat away those foundations. For the evil not only of the various creeds of the man who finds a score of different and day, but even of the various standards of inconsistent faiths and unbeliefs round moral principle which compete with eac! him, all perhaps appearing compatible with other for our reverence and loyalty. a fair amount of honorable conduct, of The needful complement, then, to the kindly consideration for others, and of tolerance of the day, if the tolerance of the external respectability, becomes insen- day is not to dissolve all the masculine sibly more or less disposed to doubt the strength of character which was afforded
partly by the prejudices and preposses and unbelief continued to exist. St. Paul, sions, partly by the much less fuid prin. it is clear, was not at all afraid of cultivat. ciples of an earlier age, is, in our opinion, ing cordial relations with the Gentile a steady limitation of our intimacies, world. He trusted, and trusted legitiwherever that is possible, to those in mately, in those days, to the scorn feli by whose principles of conduct, in the deep- the Greek or Roman for such a supersti. est sense of the term, we can feel perfect tion as that which he had adopted as the confidence; and we cannot say that, in truth, to keep the mutual regard from our opinion, it is possible to feel hearty growing too close, except in cases where confidence in any principles of conduct he saw his way to effecting the great which are not fortified by some definite change he desired in the hearts of his religious belief. That tolerance, in the Gentile friends. But the difficulty became sense of a frank and courteous recognition much greater when the converts themof social and political equality, has now selves began to fall away from the faith, become one of the most genuinely ap. and then we find St. John warning his proved rules of English civilization, can- disciples against even intimate social re. not be denied. Even the strictest Roman lations with such sceptics. “Whosoever," Catholics admit this provisionally, and he said, “goeth onward and abideth not give up the effort to subject to any sort of in the teaching of Christ, hath not God. public or social disqualification those who : . . If any one cometh unto you, and differ from them in religious opinion only, bringeth not this teaching, receive him however deep and wide may be that dif- not into your house, and give him to ference. But a frank and courteous recog- greeting; for he that giveth him greeting nition of social and political equality is partaketh in his evil works.” That is a one thing; while intiinacy of the deeper very severe injunction, which was probkind ought to involve much more than ably justified by the character of the de. this, – namely, real sympathy as to the generacy showing itself amongst some of ideal standard by which life should be the first Christians, but which not the measured, and a genuine and unremitting severest teachers of the modern Church effort on both sides to be faithful to that would act upon in such a day as the pres. standard. Here is the only antiseptic, as ent. Evidently it is a precept not suited it seems to us, by which the legitimate to the circumstances of our time, and is tolerance of the day can be prevented one of those the authority of which defrom deteriorating into the easy laisser pends entirely on the particular circumfaire which involves the rapid decompo- stances of the period in which it was sition, first of all religious convictions, given. But we hold that the principle at and next of anything like deep moral prin- the bottom of this severe injunction is ciple. More and more as political and still good so far as it warns men against social equality grows, is it necessary that the kind of intimacies by which their own there should be a very wide practical dif- deepest and most operative beliefs may ference recognized between kindly ac- be worn insensibly away: This at least quaintanceship and genuine intimacy, is clear, - that the religious and moral the kind of difference which would render standards of conduct in our own day are it easy to maintain one's own principles in all the more important for the widely their integrity without that terrible strug. prevailing difficulties and doubts and degle which always takes place where the composing influences by which they are closest bonds are formed, as they often threatened ; that men cannot waste their are, and in the case of close kinship and a whole career in reviewing again and again few other rare cases sometimes must be, the deepest principles by which their life between persons of totally different and is moulded, and that, therefore, they perhaps even opposite spiritual aims. It should cleave to these ultimate moral and is obvious that in the first age of the spiritual assumptions with something like Christian Church, the serious character the obstinate fidelity with which a son of the difficulty which has now again cleaves to his parents, or a husband to his cropped up amongst us was deeply felt. wife; that we cannot do this if we allow The missionary character of the Church ourselves to enter into the closest possible compelled the Christian teachers to form relations with persons who ignore our relations in some sense cordial with the principles, and act upon a wholly different outside Gentile world; and when these code ; and therefore that it is of the first relations had been formed, the difficulty importance in our modern society, that arose as to how far they ought to be car- the easy and friendly tolerance of our ried while the great chasm between faith political and social relations should not
From The Times.
be allowed to endanger the soundness of chante, and were truly astonished by the that inward circle of deeper principles on big guns and by everything on board. We which we rely not only to guide our own never saw such things before. No other lives, but to enable us to estimate aright government could ever make ships like the characters and aims and self-judg. that. The chiefs wanted to distribute nine ments of our nearest and dearest friends. hundred rupees among the crew for show
ing all these wonderful things; but the captain of the ship said the sirkar would be very angry at their accepting a pres
ent. The chiefs again wanted to give AFGHAN CHIEFS IMPRESSIONS OF INDIA. that they could not be allowed to do so,
the sailors a present; but were told CERTAIN Afghan chiefs in the charge as what had been shown to them had of the Khyber Pass have lately visited been shown for their own amusement. Calcutta as guests of the government. When we went down in the hold we saw The following interesting account which the men's tables spread in a minute and has been given by one of their number again taken up, their beds put down and of the impressions derived from his visit is taken up – all done in a minute - and in sent by the Calcutta correspondent of the a moment the ship was made ready for a Times: “ This is a king's country; every fight. The big guns were fired, but only one ought to be astonished at seeing all with fuzes. We saw the sailors going up the wonderful things to be seen in it. The the rigging very quickly, at the double, thing which has most astonished us is the and run up the masts and remain quiet regularity with which everything is con- there. We have never seen these things ducted. During our railway journey we before. We were presented to the lord arrived at the different stations and left sahib of the sea, who was very kind to again with great regularity, as arranged. us. We were taken to Dum-dum, where There is nothing like this in our country. we saw a small-arms manufactory and the A country which is ill-governed is not a workmen making cartridges and bullets. good country. We arrived at Calcutta Another day we visited the Englishman early in the morning, and being tired newspaper office, and saw them printing stayed in our lodgings the whole of that and also making lead letters. One of us day. On the day following we went to wrote a verse in Persian. A sahib then Howrah to see the railway stations and took paper, and with a machine which workshops. We saw all the engines at cut like a very sharp knife into some white work. There is nothing like these in our stuff he wrote it. Then lead was poured own country, which is a poor country. on, and in a few minutes they were printWe were then taken to the Mint, and saw ing the verse some copies of the the pice and four-anna pieces that are be- Englishman, which were presented to us. ing coined there. The Cabul rupees are We also spoke through the telephone. only worth twelve and a half annas; they Some of us were at the Englishman are stamped with a die and a hammer. office and some at Messrs. King HamilThere is nothing to equal this government ton's, and we recognized each other's either in its silver or anything else, or in voice. Then we visited the telegraph its management of the country. We vis. office, where we spoke with a friend at ited the fort next day, and considered it Peshawur - all in a few minutes. One of very strong. We saw all the cannon and us asked a relative at Peshawur how he big guns there. They are very good guns. was, as he had been suffering from fever. We were then taken to the Botanical Gar. He replied, •Quite well; how's your dens in a steam-launch. This is the first boil ?' * Now these words astonished us time we have been on board a steamer, very much, because none of us knew that and we enjoyed the trip very much. The this man had had a boil — only his relagardens are by far the finest we have ever tive in Peshawur. Great are the ways of seen. We were then taken to the Zoolog. the sirkar ! We were then taken to a ical Gardens and to Mateabruz, the palace jute-mill, where we saw the manufacture of the late king of Oude, which is a very of gunny-bags and cloth. The Maliks fine place. We saw all the animals at the admired this more than anything else, as Zoological Gardens. Some of the ani- they had never seen cloth made in such a mals here we had seen before at Cabul ; way before. The sight struck them as but some of them we have never seen be- much as the Bacchante and the way in fore, and they greatly astonished us, as which that monster could be got ready we could not tell to what country they be for fighting. One of the last sights we longed. We then paid a visit to the Bac- I have seen in Calcutta is the Bank of Ben
GENIUS AND DOMESTIC LIFE.
a great treasure-house of the sirkar. unfavorable to men of genius in every doThere we were shown great sackloads of mestic light, and to have told his audience rupees, enoug! to buy up the Çabul ba- to regard this as the moral of Coleridge's zaar. India is indeed a wonderful country, career: “ Never marry man of genius; and we are deeply grateful to the viceroy don't be his brother-in-law, or his pubsahib for having brought us down here to lisher, or his editor, or anything that is see such wonders. We would gladly ex: his." That is a truly transcendental genchange our own land for a small slice of eralization from Coleridge's career, and rich Bengal country, and would settle we had always supposed that Mr. Stephen down happily here for life. But this is detests transcendental generalizations. not our fate. We are now setting out on And considering that, as Mr. Traill had a long journey to Bombay, and we go pointed out, the marriages of two sisters trusting entirely to the sirkar, for we do with men of genius produced so marked a not know the way or the country: But we contrast of results, it was, we think, not have Colonel Warburton Sahib with us, quite reasonable in Mr. Stephen to use the and that makes us feel confident. With awful warning which one of these mar. the Colonel Sahib we will go to the end riages had furnished against choosing a of the world, or to Jehanum, if the sirkar man of genius for a husband, without any only gives the order."
reference to the example of domestic happiness which the other of them had fur. nished. Indeed, though in marriages with men of genius, there is always this for
the woman to consider, that if the marFrom The Spectator.
riage is not more than usually happy,
it is more than probable that it will be MR. LESLIE STEPHEN, in his lecture more than usually unhappy, yet the prosupon Coleridge, delivered yesterday week pect that marriage with a man of genius at the Royal Institution, partly borrowed will result in happiness far above the and partly mutilated the criticism which average ought fairly to be taken into Mr. Traill passed upon women's danger account to balance the fear that it may in choosing men of genius as husbands, in turn out, as Coleridge's and Byron's mar. his little study of Coleridge published in riages and Shelley's first marriage cerMr. John Morley's series on English tainly did turn out, one of singular, if not Men of Letters.' " Mrs. Carlyle,” says even calamitous misery. Men of genius Mr. Traill, “ has left on record her pathetic make either singularly good husbands or lament over the fate of a woman who mar- husbands of the most uncomfortable, if ries a man of genius; but a man of genius not of the most disastrous kind. Scott, of the coldly selfish and exacting type of Southey, and Wordsworth evidently made the Chelsea philosopher would probably homes which, as regards the happiness of be a less severe burden to a woman of those who shared them, were far fuller of housewifely instincts than the weak, un- life and fascination and delight than could methodical, irresolute, shiftless being that have been extracted from the experience Coleridge had by this time (1806) become. of a score of average English homes. But After the arrival of the Southeys, Mrs. it is, of course, equally true that ColeColeridge would, indeed, have been more ridge's marriage yielded a real home for than human, if she had not looked with only about six years out of the thirty-nine an envious eye upon the contrast between during which the poet survived his marher sister Edith's lot and her own. For riage; that Carlyle's home was one of this would give her the added pang of great and sometimes even overwhelming perceiving that she was specially unlucky trouble; that Byron's was not a home at in the matter, and that men of genius all, but a source of something like perina. could (“if they chose,' as she would prob. nent anguish to the wife who had hoped ably, though not quite justly, have put it) to brighten it; and that Shelley was the make very good husbands indeed. If one real cause of his first wife's suicide, what. poet could finish his poems and pay his ever excuses may be found for him. tradesmen's bills, and work steadily for There are not a few other instances, the publishers in his own house, without Dickens's marriage, for example, is one in the necessity of periodical fittings to vari- point, — where it is clear that the genius ous parts of the United Kingdom or the of the man told very much against the Continent, why so could another.” But happiness of marriage, at all events with Mr. Leslie Stephen appears, if we may the particular wife chosen. Nor does it trust the Times's report, to have adopted need any particular discrimination to see only that part of this criticism which is that any quality not purely intellectual, but