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One after another of them became Catho. | handwriting clear, precise, and ladylike as lics, one a nun. The family union was in herself. If those who came about her live no way broken for this cause. The grand- as long as she did, or longer yet, it will daughter who ministered to her last days always be among their pleasantest and did the same. She was free as her aunts happiest memories not always, perhaps, had been to act on her honest convictions. possible to make clear to others, since no On her own faith she was reticent, no evidence of what she was will remain doubt believing that "it was that of all that they knew Mrs. Procter, or better sensible people which sensible people still, were honored by her friendship. never tell." But if it be one of the signs of a mind at rest to be sunny and cheerful, then she had such a mind, the outcome of a good life. If Mrs. Procter was interesting as an
From Nature. acquaintance, she was still more valuable THE DISPERSION OF SEEDS AND PLANTS. as a friend. Probably in later years it In a recent number of Nature (vol. was by some accident that any were ad. xxxv., p. 151) I mentioned instances which mitted to this inner circle. One such had come under my observation, in which friend entered into it, owing to an acci- birds had taken an active part in the disdental conversation with her daughter a persion of seeds and plants. Since then few weeks before her death. That the I have come across further notes bearing hand of death was on Miss Procter was upon the subject, which is one of consid. only too evident, but the mother and the erable interest and importance, as it throws daughter each trying to spare the other, a direct light upon some at least of the the subject was avoided.' Miss Procter agencies whereby plant life has been distold a friend how near the end was, that tributed over the surface of the globe. she grieved only for the suffering it would Although birds, from their greater adaptcause her mother, how deep was her own ability to rapid and extensive locomotion, inward peace, and how great the comfort are more concerned than any other aniof her faith. The end came at last sud.mals in the dispersion of plants, they are denly; and Mrs. Procter blamed herself by no means alone in this work. with calm unshrinking bitterness that she It may seem strange, at first sight, to had not told her daughter how near the assert that cattle have been the means of end was. The friend was able to remove distributing the seeds of certain plants the notion that death had been unex- from one country to another, but a statepected, and will never forget the relief to ment is made by Grisebach * respecting the mother's heart, the unforgetting grati. Pithecolobium Saman (N. 0. Leguminotude during the remaining years for so sæ), a large tree native of tropical Amerslight a service.
ica, now naturalized in Jamaica, that the There are other old ladies living in so- "seeds were formerly brought over from ciety, clever and bright, but Mrs. Procter the continent [of America) by cattle." stood alone. She was always transpar- This statement has been carefully exam. ently simple, spoke her whole mind, and ined, and it is fully borne out by facts. was entirely herself. Any transparent Formerly, Jamaica, like Trinidad at pres. artifice was never intended to conceal. ent, was dependent for cattle on VeneIf her hair was not grey, but a blont zuela. The food of the animals during cendré, it was because all women of fifty their voyage consisted amongst other years ago wore a front; never was false things of the pulpy legumes of Pithecolo. hair so completely en évidence. If she bium Saman. The seeds being very hard differed from a speaker she said so; and were uninjured by the process of masticaif she thought him silly it appeared in her tion and digestion, and they were dejected tone, but always with a kindly tolerance. by the animals in the pastures, where they
In her passes away one whom many germinated and grew up into large trees. have liked, and an inner circle have loved, in this instance the seeds were carried who sat at the feet of those who talked across the sea a distance of about a thou. with Johnson and Boswell, and about sand miles, and there is no doubt that the whose chair have gathered most of the cattle were directly concerned in their wisest and most entertaining men who introduction. Indeed, without them the succeeded them — to the poets and the seeds, even if accidentally introduced novelists who are yet young. She wrote amongst the fodder, would not have been next to nothing herself, only bright little letters which will never be published, in a • Flora, British West India Islands, p. 225.
placed under such circumstances as would pressed some surprise that no attempt have enabled them to give rise to plants. was made to utilize urban manure in the In the first place, by being passed through neighborhood of Jamestown, when the the animals the seeds were softened and land was so impoverished and yielded the period of germination hastened. In such poor crops. I was met by the fact the second place, being embedded in the that if such manure was largely used the droppings of the animals the seeds had a land would become overrun with plants of suitable medium to protect and promote the prickly pear, Opuntia Ficus-indica, the germination; and this medium enabled fruit of which is largely consumed by the the young plants to withstand the season inhabitants. There is little doubt that the of drought which is incidental to almost seeds of this plant, like those of the every tropical country, In this instance guava, and I suspect also species of Paswe have cattle not only the means of in- siflora, which are swallowed whole, are troducing the seeds of a valuable tree, but capable of germination after they have also involuntarily instrumental in estab- passed through the human body. Anlishing the tree in a new country, and pro- other instance occurs to me where the viding shelter, shade, and food for their use of manure has been the means of progeny. Those acquainted with the distributing an undesirable plant on cultiguango or rain-tree, as this Pithecolobium vated lands. In many tropical countries is locally called, will fully realize its value a grass known as Para, Mauritius, or as a shade and food tree for cattle, and Scotch grass, and sometimes as waterthey will also appreciate the singular con grass (Panicum barbinode), has been in. course of circumstances by means of which troduced from Brazil, and highly esteemed such a tree was introduced to a new coun- for its rapid growth and nourishing proptry by the very animals which required it erties. It grows well in moist situations, most.
on the banks of streams, and even in soils It is possible there may be some who so swampy as to be suitable for nothing will doubt the possibility of seeds retaining else. In such situations it spreads rapthe power of germination after undergoing idly, and yields abundant food for cattle the processes of mastication and digestion, and horses. Nothing, however, could be and especially in the special case of rumi- worse than this grass for cultivated areas, nating animals. There is, however, very where the land is required to be kept free clear evidence on the subject. It is a from weeds, and where crops of sugar. common occurrence in India to utilize the cane, coffee, tea, and cacao are raised. It services of goats to hasten the germination has been found that where animals are of the seeds of the common Acacia arn- fed on this grass the joints even after bica, known as the babul. This tree be- passing through the animals have been loogs to the same natural order as the known to grow. Hence the manure, if Pithecolobium, and grows in the poorest freshly used, has been the means of estaband driest soils of India. The babul seeds lishing the plant over wide areas. will not germinate readily in the hot In a recent work Mr. Ball has drawn weather, and it is the regular habit, in attention to numerous introduced plants order to save a season, for a person desir. which are met with in South America. ous of a crop of seedlings to make a bar. He naturally mentions the cardoon, the gain with a herdsman or a neighbor who wild state of the common artichoke, which possesses a flock of goats to quarter them is now more common in temperate South for some days in a small inclosure in America than it is anywhere in its native which they are fed on babul leaves and home in the Mediterranean region. Darpods. The droppings of the animals con- win * doubts whether any case exists on tain a certain number of sceds which are record of an invasion on so grand a scale. uninjured, and these now readily germi- Several hundred square miles are covered nate, and give rise to plants the same with this introduced plant, which has overseason. I am informed by Dr. Watt that run all members of the aboriginal flora. in India "several other plants are treated | The introduction of the cardoon appears in the same way." The seeds of the sev- to have been effected directly by man for eral species of cultivated guava are hard the purpose of contributing to the food and do not casily germinate. These, how- supply of cattle; but as regards another ever, are said to germinate more freely widely spread plant the mode of its intro. and readily when they are picked up in duction is not clearly known. night soil.
Mr. Ball states: “As to many of these While on this subject I would mention
• Naturalist's Voyage round the World, by Charles that when at St. Helena in 1883 I ex. | Darwin, new ed., 1870, p. 119.
[introduced South American plants) it ap- seedlings. This corroborates Mr. Ball's pears to me probable that their diffusion statement with regard to Erodium vicutais due more to the aid of animals than the rium. The latter is widely spread in direct intervention of man. This is spe- South America, but only sparingly found cially true of the little immigrant which in other countries under apparently exhas gone farthest in colonizing this part actly corresponding conditions. We canof the earth — the common stork's-bill not say why such anomalies exist. They (Erodium cicutarium), which has made do exist, however, and offer problems itself equally at home in the upper zone which can only be solved by a closer study of the Peruvian Andes, in the low country of the conditions of plant life, and the of central Chili, and in the plains of north interdependence of plants and animals act
Patagonia. Its extension seems to keep ing and reacting one upon the other. \ pace with the spread of domestic animals, The orange-tree was introduced to Ja
and as far as I have been able to ascer- maica more than a hundred years ago. It tain it is nowhere common except in dis. is now found practically wild over the settricts now or formerly pastured by horned tled parts of the island, and the fruit is cattle. It is singular that the same plant exported to the value of nearly £50,000 should have failed to extend itself in per annum. Up to quite recently very North America, being apparently confined few trees were planted. Nearly the whole to a few localities. It is now common in were sown by the agency of frugivorous the northern island of New Zealand, but birds, who carried the seeds from place to has not extended to South Africa, where place and dropped them in native gardens, two other European species of the same coffee plantations, sugar estates, and grass genus are established." *
lands." In such localities the orange-trees Erodium as a genus is separated from grew and flourished, and now a demand the true geraniums amongst other reasons has arisen for the fruit in the United on account of the tails of the carpels being States an important industry has been bearded and spirally twisted on the inside. established, the active agents in which It is possible that these characteristics have been birds. The agency of birds in have enabled the seeds to attach them the distribution of the seeds of plants is selves to the legs and bodies of cattle and too large a subject to be discussed at so effected their distribution over wide length here. A valuable contribution of areas in such situations as are favorable facts in this direction has lately been to their growth.
made by Dr. Guppy in his important work In the island of Jamaica we have a re. on the Solomon Islands. As the most markable instance of the naturalization recent addition to our knowledge of what and wide distribution of an introduced takes place in oceanic islands at the presplant in the case of the Indian mango. In ent time it deserves careful attention. It an official report, published in 1885, I will suffice only to quote one or two senstated that to the mango, possibly more tences : " Whilst through the agency of than any tree in the island, is due the the winds and currents the waves have reforesting of the denuded areas in the stocked the islet with its marginal vegetalower hills; and as in consequence of the tion, the fruit-pigeons have been unconchanges taking place in the climate mem- sciously stocking its interior with huge bers of the indigenous flora are unable to trees, that have sprung from the fruits and maintain their ground, it is fortunate the seeds they have transported in their crops island possesses in a vigorous and hardy from the neighboring coasts and islets. exotic like the mango the means of coun. The soft and often fleshy fruits on which teracting the baneful effects of deforesta- the fruit-pigeons subsist belong to numertion. It specially affects land thrown out ous species of trees. Some of them are of cultivation, and the sides of roads and as large even as a hen's egg, as in the streams where its seeds are cast aside by case of those of the species of Canarium man and animals. It practically reclothes (ka-i), which have a pulpy exterior that the hills and lower slopes with forest, and is alone digested and retained by the pigit enables the land to recuperate its pow. eon. Amongst other fruits and seeds on ers under its abundant shade-giving foli- which these pigeons subsist, and which age.t It is strange that in Ceylon, which they must transport from one locality to is so much nearer the home of the species, another, are those of a species of Eleothe mango does not spread by self-sown carpus (ton), a species of laurel (Litsen), a
nutineg, (Myristica), an Achras, one or Notes of a Naturalist in South America, by John more species of Areca (palır), and probably Ball, F.R.S., London, 1887, pp. 164, 165.
† Annual Report, Public Gardens and Plantations a species of another palm, Kentia.” Jamaica, for the Year 1884, p. 45.
Fifth Series, Volume LXII.
No. 2286. – April 21, 1888.
THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. By Karl Blind, Westminster Review,
Temple Bar, VIII. DOMESDAY BOOK,
Gentleman's Magazine, IX. Swiss FOREST Laws,
Nature, X. THE NEEDED COMPLEMENT TO TOLERANCE, Spectator, XI. AFGHAN CHIEFS' IMPRESSIONS OF INDIA,. Times, XII. GENIUS AND DOMESTIC LIFE,
Spectator, XIII. THE SILENT NUNS,
170 175 178 181 184 187 188 190 191
POETRY. ARSINOE's Cats, .
130 Hush, THE LETTER OF FREDERICK III. TO J. W. INCHBOLD, PRINCE BISMARCK,
130 | THE RECALL,
130 130 130
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HUSHI “The following translation, by Graham R. HUSH! for the red leaves are drifting; Tomson,” says Mr. Andrew Lang in Long Strive not to sweep them away; man's Magazine, “is from a Greek 'epigram' Stir not the air by complaining that should have settled the old dispute, Had A sweet hope lies dying to-day. the Greeks cats ? Clearly, as this epigram proves, cats were exotic animals in Greece. Hush! while the clouds on the hillside The lady whom her lover laments actually Are gathering sullen and grey; threw him over because he did not, and one Ask not for vanishing sunlightNicias did, bring her cats from Egypt.”
A great trust lies dying to-day. Arsinoë the fair, the amber-tressed,
Hush! while the low winds are moaning, Is mine no more;
Like a sigh from a heart we betray;
A first love lies dying to-day.
Hush! Fate and Nature are comrades : Snapt are my viol-strings, my flowers are They rule; what avails it to say faded
That hope, trust, and love made our life My love-lamp dies.
Since all are laid dying to-day? Yet, once, for dewy myrtle-buds and roses,
All The Year Round. All summer long, We searched the twilight-haunted garden
closes With jest and song. Ay, all is over now - my heart hath changed
J. W. INCHBOLD. Its heaven for hell;
(DIED JANUARY 23RD, 1888.] And that ill chance whichjall our love estrangèd,
BLEAK is the wind and all the woods are bare, In this wise fell.
No rist of blue gladdens the wintry sky;
But Nature mourns her lover with a sigh, A little lion, small and dainty sweet,
Hiding beneath a snow-white veil her care; (For such there be !)
Ah! well he wooed her when her face was fair With sea-grey eyes and softly-stepping feet, In the warm summer, 'midst his Yorkshire
She prayed of me. For this, through lands Egyptian far away, And dear to him the music of her rills, She bade me pass;
And dear the stillness of the moorland air. But in an evil hour, I said her nayAnd now, alas!
O loyal painter ! steadfast to thy vow, Far-travelled Nicias hath wooed and won
Scorner of men who make art merchandise ! Arsinoë
O loyal friend! weak though these words be With gifts of furry creatures white and dun
now, From over sea.
Sweet are the memories that bedim my eyes; Farewell; God's love has called thee to thy Bless'd are the pure in heart and thou are
blest! THE LETTER OF FREDERICK III. TO
JOHN DENNIS. PRINCE BISMARCK. “Not caring for the splendor of great deed
And strife for glory, but with this content
That some day graven on my monument The humblest child of Fatherland may read,
THE RECALL. He who the glorious Kaiser did succeed
RETURN, they cry, ere yet your day Was sworn to Peace - his rule beneficent,
Set, and the sky grow stern: He served his people on their welfare bent
Return, strayed souls, while yet ye may And sowed for generations hence Faith's
But heavens beyond us yearn;
Of stars that eyes discern.
Makes toward her viewless bourne
A. C. SWINBURNE.