Clitics: An Introduction
In most languages we find 'little words' which resemble a full word, but which cannot stand on their own. Instead they have to 'lean on' a neighbouring word, like the 'd, 've and unstressed 'em of Kim'd've helped'em ('Kim would have helped them'). These are clitics, and they are found in most of the world's languages. In English the clitic forms appear in the same place in the sentence that the full form of the word would appear in but in many languages clitics obey quite separate rules of placement. This book is the first introduction to clitics, providing a complete summary of their properties, their uses, the reasons why they are of interest to linguists and the various theoretical approaches that have been proposed for them. The book describes a whole host of clitic systems and presents data from over 100 languages.
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accent adverbial affixes agreement allomorphy analysis Anderson andthe appear approach argument auxiliary clitics auxiliary verb behave behaviour Bulgarian Chapter clause clitic cluster clitic doubling clitic forms clitic placement clitic pronoun clitic systems complement complex consonant gradation constituent constraint construction coordinated Czech dative defined direct object discourse discourse particles discussion elements enclitic English European Portuguese examples expressed ezafe feature Forinstance full form function words grammar host HPSG idiosyncratic instance inthe inwhich Jovan Klavans lexeme lexical linguistic Luiseño Macedonian Maria marker means morphological morphophonological morphosyntactic negation nominal noun phrase nounphrase ofclitics ofthe onthe overt Paradigm particle phonological phrasal affixation plural possessor predicate prefix preposition PREVERB proclitic pronominal clitics properties prosodic reflexive Romance languages rule second position semantic Serbian/Croatian simple clitics special clitics stress structure subject clitics suchas suffix syllable syntactic syntax tense thatthe theclitic theverb Thisis tothe trigger types verb form vowel Wackernagel Warlpiri wewill withthe Zwicky