Uruguay in Transition: From Civilian to Military Rule

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Transaction Publishers, 1978 - 126 Seiten
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Until the early 1970s Uruguay held a worldwide reputation as a democratic island in Latin Amer­ica, maintaining a collective exec­utive system that acquired for it the nickname of the "Switzerland of South America." The constitu­tional tradition was emphasized by a nonpersonalist and non-authoritarian executive, political stability, a high standard of living, and an advanced educational and cultural level.

The military has shattered this established tradition. Over a two-year period its growing involve­ment in politics ended with abso­lute control over the executive.

The aim of this work is to ana­lyze this transformation and con­sider the major variables that have affected political developments in Uruguay. Internal factors are the respective influences wielded by the United States plus Uruguay's two most powerful neighbors, Ar­gentina and Brazil, as well as polit­ical trends in the Latin American subsystem. Among the external in­fluences are competing elites (the traditional political parties and the left-wing front), interest groups (universities, trade unions, the church, dominant economic sec­tors, and the mass media), and the urban guerrilla movement (the Tupamaros).Kaufman analyzes these factors within the context of the Uruguay­an economic and political struc­ture, and shows their significance through their effects on the per­ception of the military elite.

In addition, he attempts to de­termine whether the army's deci­sion to assume absolute power was strategic or a cumulative result of tactical decisions. Finally, he utilizes the accumulated data to test various hypotheses related to military intervention as an inde­pendent variable.

 

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Inhalt

1 Methodological Outline
1
External Setting
7
THE UNITED STATES
9
THE LATIN AMERICAN SUBSYSTEM
12
ARGENTINA AND BRAZIL
15
Internal Setting
21
THE ECONOMIC SITUATION
23
COMPETING ELITES
26
IMPLEMENTATION AND FEEDBACK
67
The Military in Power
73
INTERNAL SETTING
77
EXTERNAL SETTING
82
PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
87
6 Testing Hypotheses
93
EXTERNAL SETTING
97
7 Concluding Remarks
103

THE TUPAMAROS AND COMPETING MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS
34
INTEREST GROUPS
38
The Army Generals
55
COMMUNICATION
60
ATTITUDINAL PRISM AND ELITE IMAGES
62
Sequence of Events
109
Bibliography
119
Index
125
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