Elements of Physics Or Natural History

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Appleton, 1877 - 873 Seiten
 

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Force of cohesion varies withdistance
28
Three states of matter solid liquid gas determined by cohe sion and heatmotion
29
Varieties of cohesive manifestation
30
illustrations petrifaction
31
specific gravity
36
Crystallization a result of a molecular polar cohesion
40
Section ILPhenomena or Motions of the Universe 41 Analysis of the section
41
Motion and force defined 101
42
Uniform motion or velocity 105
45
The amorphous state of bodies
46
Uniformly accelerated or retarded motion 107
47
Mohrs scale tempering
48
Ruperts drops annealing
52
elastic limit
54
asbestos
58
metallic leaf
59
Table of Contents PAGE
61
platinum wire
62
resistance of materials to stretching table
64
limpid and viscous liquids
68
Porosity density and elasticity of liquids
71
examples
76
watchspring
77
adhesion in solids and liquids
78
Solution due to adhesion
81
Adhesion between liquids
82
rise of liquids in fine tubes
84
Chemical kinetic and potential Energy
95
9 Kinetic and potential heatenergy
98
Correlation of Energies or Forces
99
toi Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
101
Conservation of Energy
102
PART II
103
Practical method of finding the Centre of Gravity
104
Centre of Gravity of homogeneous mass Of any two connected masses Of a triangular plate or rods
105
Of a pyramid and of a cone
106
Centre of gravity tends downwards
107
Illustrations of this tendency
108
Stability of position and structure
109
resultant
113
lift Examples of stable and unstable equilibrium HI Attitudes of animals illustrate this 114 Seasickness
114
Vegetable forms illustrate this subject
115
Parallelogram of motions or velocities
116
of oscillation
117
components
118
The Simple Machines 119 Aualysis of the section The mechanical Powers
119
illustrations
120
Force a compound of matter and motion
122
its real use examined
123
Actual and potential force
124
gravitation cohesion chemical attraction heat magnetism electricity light
125
measure of force examples
126
examples
127
Composition and Resolution of force
129
their measure
131
examples
132
Gravity a uniformly accelerated force
133
compound and bent levers 129 Wheel and axle capstan windlass
134
Kail of bodies in vacuo
135
Attwoods machine
136
Extension of the term Mechanical Power
138
Laws of falling bodies
139
the kneejoint the lazy tongs 140 ii Cumulative machines flywheels
140
Measure of gravity
141
and rotary into straight
142
the eccentric 144 Parallel motions simple Watts Peaucelliers
144
illustrations
145
First Law
147
examples
149
Angles of Repose
150
perpetual motion impossible
153
celestial motions
154
All natural motions retarded
156
examples
158
girders tubular bridges
160
examples the centrifugal railway Saturnsring experiment
161
The strength of the arched form illustrated
162
Newtons Second Law of Motion
165
action and reactionillus trations
167
Concussion of elastic bodies
170
Interference of pendulum vibrations and of vibrating magnets
171
The principle of Energy
172
measure of work workpower
174
Footpound Kilogrammetre
176
Relations of Energy to Velocity
179
Different Forms of Energy
182
centre of buoyancy 324
191
lifepreservers Boytons lifesaving dress 325
199
specific gravity of liquids and gases of soluble solids of powders 335
201
Nicholsons hydrometer 341
203
Specific gravity of spirits milk c 343
205
Analysis of the section
207
rACtt ART 248 The Law of Charles 413
247
The weight of the atmosphere 414
248
Capillary depression 88
264
liquid gas
293
Fundamental property of fluids
294
The hydrostatic paradox
297
the hydrostatic bellows the Bramah Press
298
illustrations
301
Liquids press in all directions
304
Horizontal surface of liquids at rest
306
Liquids seek their own level
308
Illustrations of this law
309
the spiritlevel
310
the Suez canal
311
Geological effects of liquids seeking their level
312
the Nile Rhone Rhine Ganges c tides inundations
314
Artesian wells
315
Liquids of different densities
316
liquid buoyancy the conditions of floating
317
PACK ART 318 The stethoscope 487
318
its measure its variation with
319
oss of weight in water
320
hydrostatic paradox
322
History of the science
346
Law of liquids issuing by an orifice
347
The vena contracta
349
Frictional resistance to moving fluids
350
The flow of liquids through orifices
352
Liquid friction
355
height form the bore of a river
357
law of liquid resistance
360
Applications to navigation
362
Aerial resistance
364
Limit to velocity through air and other fluids
365
Fluid resistance influenced by shape of solid
367
undershot breast and overshot
369
the waterhammer
370
levigating geological action of liquids winnowing
373
Oblique fluid actionof wind on a sailing vessel
375
gun rifling
377
feathering of an arrow
381
22S The screwpropellerits power due to oblique action
383
Mechanical theory of Heat 565
384
bucketwheel chainpump ropepump
387
The source of Solar Heat 572
388
Persian wheel
389
Volcanoes 575
390
Barkers mill Turbine Centrifugalpump
391
Analysis of the sectipn History of the science
395
its distance measurement of celestial dis tances 1019
396
Airits lightness and elasticity
398
condensing syringe the airpump
400
Law of gaseous elasticity
403
airgun
404
the fireengine divingbell
406
The Cartesian diver
409
Heros fountain
410
Pressure of fluids in all directions
411
Kinetic theory of gases
412
the Magdeburg hemispheres
415
Torricellis experiment
418
The sucking or lifting pump
419
the syphon
420
Kxamples of the syphon principle
422
Atmospheric pressure illustrated
423
cupping
424
Physiological effects of airpressure
426
The Barometer
427
Different fonns of the barometer standard syphon and wheel
428
Bourdons barometer
429
rains and storms
430
the barometric gradient
432
cyclonic motions of storms
433
Measurement of mountains by the barometer
434
fall of the barometer as we ascend
435
Airpump gauge
436
Use of barometer to find specific gravity
437
Use of barometer in mines
438
Effects of atmospheric pressure
439
balloons
441
modern ascents the Paris siegeballoons
443
flame and smoke
445
fireplaces and stoves causes of smoky chimneys
447
Wet bulb thermometer
448
the tradewinds the seabreeze and landbreeze of the tropics
449
Formation of Glaciers and Icebergs
450
cyclones typhoons
451
Expansion of bodies by heat
453
The pneumatic trough and gasometer
454
Increase of bulk in solids
455
laws of liquid diffusion
456
its laws
458
Expansion of liquids
459
osmometer endosmose exosmose
460
dialysisits medical uses
462
Latent Meat of oodies
463
experiments operation of osmose
464
Boiling point of water
469
Spheroidal state of liquids
470
Analysis of the section Sound is motion
471
influence of form on vibration of a solid
473
wavemotion chainwaves amplitude
475
Superheated steam
476
power of air to trans mit mechanical shocks explosions
477
sensitive flames
479
the vocal Memnon seashells
482
sympathetic sounds
483
Velocity of sound in hydrogen and in air
484
whispering galleries
500
The different Scales
501
the speakingtrumpet acoustic deceptions
503
Differential thermometer
504
Pyrometers
505
Table of high and low temperatures
506
Passage of Heat into Light
507
Musical sounds and noises
508
Chemical effects of Heat
509
Means of producing musical sounds
510
Influence on germination and incubation
511
The three elements of a musical sound
512
its cause the syren its construction and use
513
octaves
515
Numerical relations between the notes of the scale
517
incandescence
518
Length of musical airwaves
519
its physical explanation
520
Heat and light of combustion
521
the phonautograph
522
Nature of flame
523
Helmholtzs view overtones
524
Products of Combustion
525
Helmholtzs resonators
527
harmonies of a string sKolian harp
529
ventral segments
532
keynote melody harmony time
535
Temperature of the bodies of animals
536
Heat borne by man and animals
537
the tuningfork
539
540 Source of animal heat
540
Chladnis soundfigures
542
Vibrations of rods and wires
543
Kundts experiments
544
organpipes their mode of vibration reedpipes the voice the glottis
546
Mechanical equivalent of heat
548
the chemical harmonicon
551
Musical glasses
552
perception duration direction intensity of sounds ventriloquism
553
Heat Light Electricity and Magnetism
554
The material and dynamic theories
555
Sources of Light 557 Light from the
556
ight from Combustion
558
Heat the supporter of Animal and Vegetable Life
559
Influence on climate
560
Heat and Temperature
561
Separation of Light and Heat
562
3S1 The Radiometer
563
Nonluminous bodies
564
Light proceeds in straight lines
567
Photometry and Photometers
569
Velocity of light
571
Transparent and opaque substances
573
Refraction of light
574
Atmospheric refraction
578
Polar currents in the Atlantic
579
Fata Morgana 582 Decomposition by refraction
580
Physical states of matter dependent on heat
582
Gases and vapours the result of heat
583
Liquefaction and solidification of gases
584
Action of Lenses
585
equalization of temperature
588
Heat and Cold relative terms
589
Conduction of Heat
590
Relative Conductivity of Solids
591
Optical Instruments
592
Conductors and Nonconductors
593
The structure of the
594
clothing
595
Phenomena of Vision
596
Natural coverings of animals
597
Influence of Snow and Ice
598
Conducting power of the Earth
599
Retention of Heat by bodies
601
Action of Heat on Glass
602
Annealing and Tempering of solids
603
Estimation of sensible Heat
604
Influence of Clothing
606
Principles of the safety lamp
607
Convection of Heat
610
Warming by circulation of hot water
612
Gulf Stream
613
Climatic changes
614
Ventilation of dwellings
616
Heat transferred
617
Radiation of Heat
618
Radiation Absorption and Reflection of Heat
621
Reflection of Heat rays
624
Diaphanous and Diathermanous bodies
626
Formation of dew
628
Chiaroscuro
629
Temperature of space
632
Capacity of bodies for heat
633
Specific heat
635
Principles of the Stereoscope
636
Line of perpetual snow
638
Humidity dependent on Temperature
641
The Telescope 647 The Microscope
642
Reflection of Light
649
Concave and Convex mirrors
655
The Camera Lucida
659
The Rainbow
660
Solar Spectrum and Spectrum analysis
663
Fluorescence
665
The Spectroscope
667
Constitution of the Sun and Stars
672
Chemical properties of Light
673
Emission and Wave theories
676
Phenomena of Interference
679
Polarization of Light
683
6S8 Polarization of Heat
688
Old and New Theories of Light
689
Electricity
691
Nature of Electricity
692
Illustrations of its production
694
Conductors and Insulators 697 Electrical Machines
697
Electrical Induction
701
The Electroscope
702
The Electrophorus
704
PAi E 706 Holtzs Induction Machine
706
The Leyden
708
The Electric Battery
709
Velocity of the Electric flash
713
The Electricity of the Atmosphere
714
Current or Voltaic Electricity
716
Voltaic batteries
719
Daniells battery and its varieties
721
Groves and Bunsens Batteries
722
Manipulation of Batteries
724
Galvanic deposition of metals
726
Electrolysis
727
Decomposition of Water
728
Magnetism
731
the Loadstone 732 Magnetism a polar force
732
Magnetic Induction Magnetization of iron
734
The Electromagnet
736
Diamagnetism
737
Terrestrial Magnetism
738
Variations of the Compass
739
Magnetic charts
740
Electromagnetism
741
Galvanometers
743
Electrodynamics
745
Electromagnetic Engines
746
Electric clocks
747
Induced Electric currents
748
Ruhmkorffs Induction coil
749
Magnetoelectric induction
752
Thermoelectricity
756
The Thermopile
757
The Electric Telegraph
758
The Morse Telegraph
763
Submarine Telegraphs
766
Duplex Telegraphy
768
Rapidity of transmission
769
Solar Telegraphy
770
PART V
773
773 774
774
779 Definition and Divisions of Astronomy The roundness and size of the earth The roundness caused hy gravitation IOII 101a 1017
779
Instruments of the Astronomical Observatory 1030
794
The Earths annual revolution about the Sun 1032
796
The Laws of Kepler 1034
798
Mechanical View of the Earths revolution 1035
802
The Moons revolution about the Earth 1039
806
The Tides 1044
810
Precession of the Equinoxes 1045
812
Nutation of the Earths Axis 1047
813
Bodies composing the Solar System 1048
816
illustration of distances 1050
819
determination of its Form Size and Density 1056
822
Transit of Venus 1057
825
Asteroids 1060
827
Uranus 1063
828
Comets 1065
829
Constitution of Comets 1066
830
Constellations 1068
831
Distance of the Stars 1069
832
Conductibility of solids 485
835
Constituents of the body 1074
836
The form of the skull 1075
838
S39 The spinal column 1077
839
The ribs and chest 1078
841
Construction of the arm bones 1079
844
Muscular force 1085
846
Constituents of bone 1086
849
Circulation of the blood 10S8
851
Plan of the circulation
852
Constituents of the blood 1089
853
Products of the blood 1090
854
Chemical and vital processes 1091
855
Motion of the blood in the arteries 1092
856
The Capillary circulation 1093
857
Circulation through the veins 1094
858
Effects of gravitation on the blood 1095
860
The nature and cause of the pulse 1097
862
Life dependent on the heart 1098
863
The number of pulsations 1100
864
Respiration or breathing 1102
865
Capacity of the lungs 110S
871
Aspiratory force in breathing 1109
872

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