The Kinematics of Machinery: Outlines of a Theory of Machines

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Macmillan, 1876 - 622 Seiten
 

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Inhalt

G Temporary Centre the Central Polygon GO 7 Centroids Cylindric Rolling 03
63
The Determination of Centroids
65
Reduction of Centroids
70
Rotation about a Point
76
Conic Rolling
77
Most general Form of the Relative Motion of Rigid Bodies
78
Twisting and Rolling of Ruled Surfaces
79
Pairs of Elements 8G 14 Different Forms of Pairs of Elements
86
The Determination of Closed Pairs
87
Motion in Closed Pairs
92
The necessary and sufficient Restraint of Elements
96
Restraint against Sliding
98
Restraint against Turning
103
Simultaneous Restraint of Sliding and Turning
112
The Higher Pairs of Elements
115
Higher Pairs Duangle and Triangle
116
Pointpaths of the Duangle relatively to the Equilateral Triangle
121
Pointpaths of the Triangle relatively to the Duangle
125
Figures of Constant Breadth
129
Higher Pairs of Elements Equilateral Curvetriangle and Rhombus
131
Paths of Points of the Curvetriangle relatively to the Square
133
Paths described by Points of the Square relatively to the Curvetriangle
139
General Determination of Profiles of Elements for a given Motion
146
First Method Determination of the Profile of one Element that of the other being arbitrarily assumed
148
Second Method Auxiliary Centroids
152
Third Method Profiles described by Secondary Centroids
155
Fourth Method Pointpaths of Elements used as Profiles
156
Fifth Method Parallels or Equidistants to the Roulettes as Piofiles
157
Sixth Method Approximations to Curved Profiles by Circular Arcs Williss Method
160
Seventh Method The Centroids themselves as Profiles of Elements
163
Generalisation of the foregoing Methods
164
Incomplete Pairs of Elements
169
ForceClosure in the Rolling of Axoids
171
Flectional Kinematic Elements
173
Springs
176
Closure of a Pair of Elements by a Kinematic Chain
178
Complete Kinematic Closure of the Flectional Elements
183
CUAFrr R V Incomplete Kinematic Chains
186
Passage of the Dead Points by ChainClosure
188
Closure of Kinematic Chains by Pairs of Elements
191
Sketch of the History of Machine Development
201
The Development of the Machine from a Kinematic point of view
226
The Growth of Modern Machinery
232
The Present Tendency of Machine Development
242
Kinematic Notation
247
Former Attempts
248
Nature of the Symbols required
251
Class or NameSymbols
252
FormSymbols
253
Symbols of Relation
255
FonnulsB for simple Kinematic Chains and Mechanisms
258
Contracted Formula
263
Formulas for Compound Chains
264
Formulas for Chains containing Pressureorgans
268
Contracted FormlueB for Single Mechanisms
270
Kinematic Analysis
274
The Mechanical Powers or Simple Machines
275
The Quadric Cylindric Crank Chain
283
Parallel Cranks
287
Antiparallel Cranks
290
The Isosceles Cranktrain
292
The Cylindric Slidercrank Chain
294
The Isosceles Slidercrank Chain
302
Expansion of Elements in the Slidercrank Chain
304
The Normal Double Slidercrank Chain
313
The Crossed Slidercrank Chain
318
Recapitulation of the Cylindric Crank Trains
323
Chambercrank Trains from the Swinging Slidercrank
371
Chambercrank Trains from the Turning Double Slidercrank
374
Chnmbercrank Trains from the Turning Crossblock
375
8fi Chambercrank Trains from the Levercrank
378
Chambercrank Trains from the Doublecrank
382
Chamber Trains from Conic Crank Mechanisms
384
Chambergear from the Conic Turning Doubleslider
386
Chambergear from the Conic Swinging Crossblock
391
Chambergear from the Conic Turning Crossblock
393
Review of the preceding Results
400
Analysis of Chamberwheel Trains
402
Fabrys Ventilator
409
Roots Blower
411
Pay tons Water Meter
414
Evrards Chamberwheel Gear
416
Repsolds Pump
417
Darts or Dehrens Chamberwheel Gear
420
Eves Chamberwheel Gear
422
Other Simple Chamberwheel Trains
424
Compound Chamberwheel Gear
425
Epicyclic Chamberwheel Gear
427
Analysis or the Constructive Elements of Machinery
436
Screws and Screwed Joints
438
Keys Cutters e and Keyed Joints
441
Rivets and Riveting Forced or Strained Joints
443
Pins Axles Shafts Spindles
444
Couplings
445
Plummer Blocks Bedplates Brackets an1 Framing
447
Ropes Belts and Chains
451
Frictionwheels Belt and Ropegearing
452
Toothedwheels Chainwheels
453
Levers Cranks Connectingrods
454
Clickwheels and Gear
455
Reversed Motion in Free Clicktrains
459
Ratchettrains
461
Brakes and Brakegear
467
Engaging and Disengaging Gear
468
Recapitulation of the Methods used for Stopping and Setting in Motion
472
Pipes Steam and Pumpcylinders Pistons and Stuffingboxes
473
Springs as Constractive Elements
480
Thb Analysis of Complete Machines 48G 129 Existing Methods and Treatment
486
The Tool
490
Kinematic Nature of the Tool
493
The Receptor
497
Kinematic Nature of the Complete Machine
502
Primemovers and Directactors
505
The Principal Subdivisions of Complete Machines Descrip tive Analysis
510
Examples of the Descriptive Analysis of Complete Machines
516
The Relation of Machinery to Social Life
522
Kinematic Synthesis
527
Direct Kinematic Synthesis
528
Indirect Kinematic Synthesis
529
Diagram of the Synthetic Processes
531
Synthesis of the Lower Pairs of Elements
532
The Simpler Higher Pairs
533
Synthesis of Toothedwheel Pairs
535
Cam Pairs
537
Recapitulation of the Pairs of Rigid Elements
538
Paire of Elements containing TensionOrgans
539
Pairs of Elements containing PressureOrgans
542
Recapitulation of the Pairs containing Flectional Elements
544
Determination of the Simple Chains
545
The Screw Chain
546
CylinderChains
549
Notes
585
Alphabetical Index
615

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Seite 599 - Indians with their most peculiar and valued ornament — a cylindrical, opaque, white stone, looking like marble, but which is really quartz imperfectly crystallized. These stones are from four to eight inches long, and about an inch in diameter. They are ground round, and flat at the ends, a work of great labour, and are each pierced with a hole at one end.
Seite 35 - A machine is a combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motions.
Seite 5 - I have only tried it in a slight model yet, so cannot build upon it, though I think it a very probable thing to succeed, and one of the most ingenious simple pieces of mechanism I have contrived, but I beg nothing may be said on it till I specify.
Seite 9 - In earlier times men considered every machine as a separate whole, consisting of parts peculiar to it; they missed entirely or saw but seldom the separate groups of parts which we call mechanisms. A mill was a mill, a stamp a stamp and nothing else, and thus we find the older books describing each machine separately from beginning to end. So for example Ramelli (1588) in speaking of various pumps driven by water-wheels describes each afresh from the wheel, or even the water driving it, to the delivery...
Seite 11 - (The science of mechanisms) must therefore not define a machine, as has usually been done, as an instrument by the help of which the direction and intensity of a given force can be altered, but as an instrument by the help of which the direction and velocity of a given motion can be altered.
Seite 604 - Powers, are certain simple instruments, commonly employed for raising greater weights, or overcoming greater resistances, than could be effected by the natural strength without them. These are usually accounted six in number, viz. the Lever, the Wheel and Axle, the Pulley, the Inclined Plane, the Wedge, and the Screw.
Seite 5 - I have got a glimpse of a method of causing a pistonrod to move up and down perpendicularly by only fixing it to a piece of iron upon the beam, without chains or perpendicular guides or untowardly friction, arch heads, or other pieces of clumsiness ; by which contrivance it answers fully to expectation.
Seite 599 - Tushaina wears as the symbol of his authority, for it is generally of the largest size and is worn transversely across the breast, for which purpose the hole is bored lengthwise from one end to the other, an operation which, I was informed, sometimes occupied two lives.3 Stevens and Lubbock refer to this.4 Prof.
Seite 599 - ... it around the neck. It appears almost incredible that they should make this hole in so hard a substance without any iron instrument for the purpose. What they are said to use is the pointed flexible leaf shoot of the...
Seite 47 - Such a kinematic chain is called a constrained closed (or simply a closed) chain. In itself a closed chain does not postulate any definite absolute motion. In order to obtain this, a similar method must be adopted to the one employed above with pairs of elements: namely, to hold fast or fix in position one link of the chain relatively to the portion of surrounding space assumed to be stationary. The relative motions of the links then become absolute. Л closed kinematic chain of which one link is...

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