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.“ It has been most happily and ingeniously suggested by a gentleman interesting himself with the late researches in this country, that the instrument to which the name of triquetra has been given, is in reality a grappling-iron, a hook-áprayos,—that the Persian general, finding himself governor of a district in which his language was as yet not spoken, and desiring to make his name known as the lord of the district in all the cities which owed him allegiance, and in which his followers took up their abode, instead of engraving his name or his portrait, put a symbol upon his coins, which must immediately remind all employing the coinage, and acquainted with the Greek language, that APIACO was the governor.”” Vol. ii. pp. 56, 57. These inscriptions, therefore, are nearly of the same period with the cuneiform inscriptions which have been lately interpreted by Major Rawlinson. 'Unfortunately, however, the Lycian language differs to so great an extent from that of the arrow-headed writing, that but little light is thrown by the one upon the other, and our only resource is to wait patiently till further information shall enable us to decipher a document which cannot fail to illustrate a portion of ancient history at present very obscure.
Besides its antiquities, Lycia presents many other attractions for the traveller. Sir Charles Fellowes gives his testimony that the most beautiful scenery he had ever met with is to be found there. His ride to Pinara is described as having been amidst well-grown fir trees, and enriched with underwood in bloom,the white and the lilac cistus eclipsing many of the more beautiful flowers of the vetch tribe which blossomed beneath their bushes. His temporary residence in the neighbourhood of the ruins commanded an extensive view over a country thickly planted with bushes of pomegranate, while the middle distance of wooded hills added richness and beauty to the more distant view of the valley of the Xanthus, with its lofty barrier of mountains rising to the height of the ancient Massicytus, which is perpetually capped with snow. Olives, lemon and orange trees, figs and quinces, perfumed the air with their fragrance, or delighted the eye with the varying tints of their foliage. The hedges are composed of the native vegetation of the soil allowed to remain for the protection of the fields which have been cleared beyond them: they vary therefore at every bush, the predominant shrub being the myrtle, next the small prickly oak; the pomegranate, the orange, the wild olive, oleander, and gum storax; these are matted together by the vine and the clematis, while in the fields are left standing for their shade as well as their fruit, the carob, the fig, and the oak. “ The mere mention of mountain scenery,” he says, speaking of the valley of the Arycandus, “cannot give any idea of the mountains here, which are broken into sections forming
cliffs, whose upheaved strata stand erect in peaks many thousand feet high, uniting to form a wild chaos, but each part harmonized by the other, for all is grand yet lovely. Deep in the ravines dash torrents of the purest water, and over these grow the most luxuriant trees; above are the graver forests of pines upon the grey cliffs, and higher than these are ranges of mountains capped with snow, contrasting with the deep blue of the cloudless sky.” Let us add a sentence or two from the work before us:
“A gigantic ravine wound a serpentine course into the very heart of Cragus, its mural sides formed of enormous precipices, their summits crowned with pines, and their faces strangely streaked, like painted giants, with bright yellow and jet-black. They towered above us to the very snow, in some places overhanging, whilst a great gulf opened beneath the narrow path or ledge on which we travelled. For two hours our road lay through this grand scene.” Vol. i. p.
20. “ On waking in the morning we found that, in the darkness of the night before, we had come unawares upon a scene of surpassing grandeur. Beneath our dwelling sank a tremendous ravine cleft down to the very sea, the waves of which were dashing against the margin of a small flat plain, buried in the gloom of the abyss. Immense masses of rocks, torn, rent, and broken up, lay scattered and hanging on every shelving ledge, while tremendous precipices towered upwards to the snow-crowned summit of Anticragus, which rose majestically over this wondrous gulf seven thousand feet above the sea, the waves of which and the mountain-top were visible to us at once from the same spot. There seemed no passage to the other side, and none but a native of this rugged solitude could have guessed where a route might be. A way there was, however, but a dizzy one, and in places the horses could scarcely get along, sometimes clambering over slippery ledges not two feet broad, sometimes bending under gigantic impending blocks, which had fallen from above, and been arrested in their descent. One of the great boundary precipices presented a most singular aspect, in consequence of being partly formed of beds of shale, contorted so as to show as many as fifty doublings, which Jay pressed. as it were, between great masses of horizontal strata of scaglia. There is not in all Europe a wilder or grander scene than this pass through the Seven Capes of Cragus.” Vol. i. pp. 22, 23.
The following is a description of the view from the ruins of Tlos:
“ In front was a flat grassy court-yard, being the levelled summit of the acropolis. At sunset, the view from this platform was surpassingly beautiful. The distant snow became tinged of the brightest crimson, and rested on mountains of the deepest purple. The valley which lay outspread far below seemed a sheet of dark golden green, through which wound tortuously the silver thread of Xanthus. Cragus, towering between us and the sun, was a mass of the darkest blue. In the far distance lay the golden sea; and the few clouds which hung in a sky of azure above and gold below, were like fire altars suspended in the heavens. Poor Daniell, whose spirit was deeply imbued with the love and appreciation of art—the friend and enthusiastic admirer of Turner-would sit and gaze with intense delight on this gorgeous landscape ; and, eloquently dilating on its charms, appeal to them as evidences of the truth and nature which he maintained were ever present in the works of the great living master, whose merits he thoroughly understood.” Vol. i. pp. 37, 38.
The inhabitants availed themselves of this beautiful scenery in a way which rather startles our modern conceptions. Each of the cities had its theatre, generally built of massive masonry, but sometimes partly hewn out of the rock, and always in a position to command the finest prospect in the neighbourhood; and if the situation of the city did not permit of this, then looking forth on the broad expanse of the ocean. Some of these theatres were very large; that of Myra is 360 feet in diameter; and they contain sometimes from thirty to forty rows of seats, the upper rows being divided from the under by a diazoma or broad passage giving access to both. On such a stage, open to the heavens, were the works of the Greek dramatist performed, and our classical readers will not fail to recal passages which seem to have been written with the view of being thus represented. When reading the description of one of them, the soliloquy of Prometheus vividly occurred to our remembrance.
Ω διoς αιθηρ και ταχυπτεροι πνοαι, ,
Aesch. Prom. Vinct. I. 88.
We can hardly doubt that this interesting country is destined to become better known to the western world. Commerce is beginning to return to its ancient routes. Steam navigation and railroads have already made the discovery of the passage round the Cape of Good Hope of minor importance. And when the wealth of India is poured into Europe, as in former ages, the natural channel of the Mediterranean, Lycia must rise to its former importance, its cities be again the marts of trade, and its harbours resorted to by ships of burden. The appointment of a British consul at Adalia, is a significant indication of greater things to come. Even at present there exists an export trade to Egypt in the commodities of the country, consisting of wood, corn, tobacco, honey, and wax. The timber is large and fine, and fitted for masts and building; but for convenience of transport is cut into lengths of from ten to fifteen feet, and carried by mules from the mountains to the coast, where it is shipped for Alexandria, and supplies a great part of the material used in that city;* and so much was Phineka formerly frequented by the Sultan's ships running between Constantinople and Alexandria, that a bakery was established there by the orders of the Capitan Pasha for their service. The interior parts of the country are not destitute of resources. Cibyra was formerly the Birmingham of Asia Minor, and it is an interesting fact that while in Lower Lycia the stone is carved in imitation of woodwork, many of the remains in Cibyra have been cut to resemble designs executed in iron. The trades of tanning and dyeing are still prosecuted at Almalee, and vast quantities of grain and of leeches are exported from that upland though fertile region. Nor do the natives display that apathy which is the prevailing character of the Turks in other places. They are active, industrious, and gentle, and obliging in their manners. In short a better government and the introduction of capital into the country is all that is wanting to cause Lycia to assume a prominent place in the future history of nations.
We must not omit to notice, in conclusion, the exceedingly valuable and well-executed memoirs which this work contains on the land and fresh water animals of Lycia, on the zoology of its coasts and seas, and on its botany and geology. Our limits will not permit us to do more than notice them, and indeed it is hardly to be expected that the joint labours of three enquirers can be adequately dealt with by a single reviewer. Such a triple Chimeara would require another Bellerophon.
Art. V.-Life and Correspondence of David Hume. In two vols.
By J.H. Burton, Esq. Edinburgh: 1846.
SECOND ARTICLE. We repeat it, that it would have been better not to withdraw David Hume from the abeyance into which he had profoundly sunk. At the very best, a man of mere ambition, governed by the love of fame, and making renown his only goal and endabsorbed in himself, and without charity, set upon leaving a trace in his country's history—but caring not whether it should be a bleeding wound, or a fertile furrow, is a man of low mark. It is a pity, even should his name live. His remembrance is not salutary-is not vital—and to extinguish it, would be a patriotic service. But was not Hume such a character? He had an athletic mind, but the product was frivolous and evanescent, if
• Vol. i. pp. 87, 145, 172, 193.
not pestilential, for the most part. He was capable of important results, but accomplished nothing with which his name will be gratefully connected. He cherished the full belief that he would construct a celebrity for himself, equal to what the most distinguished philosophers had won; yet it is long since cotemporaneous reverence and awe were exchanged for respectful neglect. Men continue yet to speak of his name, but his works are not studied. His volumes contribute to swell the bulk of our literature, but it cannot be said that we owe aught that is useful, or magnanimous, or national, to his speculations. Unfortunately he preferred subtlety to strength—and as is the case with all who require more thought than they impart, it is far more common to possess Hume's works, than to be acquainted with Hume's philosophy.
Every thing considered, therefore, we must insist that the world could have done without a further Life, and still more emphatically, without an elaborate panegyric of David Hume. But tastes differ-and since Mr Burton has anew challenged us to place him in the balance, we will not shrink from recording our opinions.
Beyond all doubt, the most favourable point of view from which to look at David Hume, and estimate his services, is as a political economist. So early as the year 1734, and while his mind was as yet casting about on all sides for subjects of speculation, he went to Bristol in the employment of “a considerable trader,” and though his residence here was of no greater duration than “ a few months,” we can easily imagine it having an effect in awakening his mind to an interest in political philosophy. At all events, it is manifest, that whilst he was just entering manhood, he had begun to draw together materials for an inquiry into national resources, and was even then finding his way to the grand principles of the science. It may not be amiss to quote one or two of those “memoranda," which indicate the current of his mind in this direction.
“ No hospitals in Holland have any land, or settled residence, and yet the poor are better provided for than anywhere else in the world.” “The governments north of Virginia interfere most with us in manufactures, which proceeds from the resemblance of soil and climate.” “Men have oftener erred from too great respect to government than too little.” “Ninety-five thousand seamen in France-only sixty thousand in England." “ After the conquest of Egypt by Augustus, the price of every thing was double in Rome.” “ The Romans were very exact in their book-keeping, in so much that a crime, such as bribery or poisoning, could be proved or refuted from their books.” “ The clergy in Venice are chosen by a popular call.” (I. 132.)