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The labour of the righteous is in holiness, and its fruit is therefore life eternal. The labour of the wicked is in sin, and its fruit is therefore death; “ For the wages of sin is death."
We have now, perhaps, given quite enough as a specimen of inferential parallelism. There are other interesting points that might have been taken up, and on which little has been written. Such are, 1. The connection in which one proverb stands to the foregoing. 2. The shades of meaning where proverbs are repeated in different places. 3. The spiritual application of the proverbs—and connected with this, 4. How far Christ, as the pattern of holy conduct, is meant to be pointed out in many of these sayings. But we do no more than indicate these inquiries; for were we to attempt to carry them out, we might find ourselves led on to others; for there are “ veins of ore” in every book of Scripture, and not least in this one, which “the farther traced” enrich and reward the inquirer, by opening on his view new subjects of meditation, and pleasant, wholesome, holy research.
Art. IV.-Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, in com
pany with the late Rev. E. T. Daniell. By LIEUTENANT T. A. B. SPRATT, R.N., F.R.S.; of the Mediterranean Hydrographical Survey; and PROFESSOR EDWARD FORBES, F.R.S.; of King's College, London, and the Geological Survey; late Naturalist to H. M. Surveying Ship Beacon. In two volumes. London: John Van Voorst. 1847.
There are abundant proofs of the early civilization of Lycia. Even at the remote era of the siege of Troy, it was the seat of more than one flourishing kingdom, and the Iliad bears witness that among all the allies of the Phrygian monarch none were more distinguished than the Lycians who fought under Glaucus and Sarpedon. But at a more remote period still we read of a Lycian poet, Olen by name, who, along with religious rites and hymns, seems to have carried the seeds of civilization into Greece. It was probably to its geographical position that Lycia owed its early colonization. The busy swarms of adventurers who issued from the Phenician coast were not likely to overlook that part of Asia Minor which stretches farthest towards the south, abounding as it does in excellent harbours. Long before the Trojan war their colonies had been established in Rhodes and Crete,* and ‘many of the Lycian names betray a similar origin. The commerce and prosperity of the country must have rapidly increased, as its
* Heeren's Researches.
harbours lay directly in the course of vessels bound to Egypt or Syria, from any part of the coasts of Greece or Italy. As familiar examples of the fact, we may quote the voyage of the apostle Paul from Ephesus to Tyre, in which he changed his vessel at Patara in Lycia,* and also his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, in which he was carried first to “ Myra, a city of Lycia," where the centurion found a ship of Alexandria sailing into Italy.t Or if we would go back for our illustration to the fables of a remoter antiquity, it was on the top of Solyma, a snow-clad Lycian mountain, that Neptune was resting, on his passage from the Ethiopian feast to Aegae, when casting his eye across the Grecian continent, he spied Ulysses making his voyage to Phaeacia or Corcyra.
Τον δ' εξ Αιθιοπων άνιων κρειων Ένοσιχθων
TIOVTOV ÉLT Aelwy. Odyss. V. 282. That an extensive commerce was carried on at an early period between Lycia and Egypt is evident from the fact that Phaselis was one of the four Dorian cities which contributed to the building of the Hellenium in Egypt, and appointed officers there for the regulation of their commerce. We possess notices which prove that in an age even earlier Lycia was distinguished for its fertility. Sarpedon reminds Glaucus of their rich possessions at home.
Και τεμενος νεμομεσθα μεγα Ξανθοιο παρ' όχθας
Il. XII. 313. Homer's usual epithets are-Auxins &Ti trovi Onew or Aurins guesias, and both of these are confirmed by modern observation. " What would be the produce of this plain,” (that of Phineka or Limyra) says a modern traveller, “under the management of an active and industrious people! The extreme luxuriance of the soil can alone account for the multitude of cities of the ancient inhabitants, who, if I remember rightly, looked for little produce from foreign nations, and themselves supplied armies larger than ever assembled from other parts of the earth.”|| Passing from the coast to the interior of the country, there are found on the sides of the hills artificial terraces, the evidence of cultivation in an age when the district was better peopled than it now is. But it is still more to our purpose to observe that after ascending between 3,000 and 4,000 feet above the level of the sea, the traveller arrives at a vast expanse of table land. “Here," says Fellowes, - we found a large lake three or four miles wide and ten long," (the ThaFEN
aspern probably of Choerilus quoted in a subsequent page)" and a plain of three times that size covered with corn, without a tree to break the perfect monotony of the level:" the largest tract of corn lands, he adds, and the best cultivated which he had seen in Asia Minor. We find also from the work before us, as Homer's description would have led us to expect, that the vine is extensively cultivated in this region.* This plain takes its name from Almalee, a town of the district, and almost the largest in Asia Minor, and to the eastward of it, a few hundred feet higher in level, lies another plain many miles in extent, and likewise covered with corn, while extensive valleys stretch from it to an immense distance, all under cultivation. This whole district, from Almalee eastward, is the ancient Milyas. To the westward again is another series of cultivated plains, separated from the former by a mountainous district of no great extent, and being in fact tablelands on a level with the top of the mountains which form the eastern boundary of the valley of the Xanthus.* This is the district of Cibyratis, in earlier times known by the name of Cabalia, I which according to our travellers far surpasses Milyas in fertility. To these plains unquestionably Virgil alludes when he speaks of Lycice flaventibus arvis.s But indeed we scarcely needed the direct testimony of ancient authors to the abundant produce of Lycia. We might safely have gathered this from its mythological history. The pagan deities, like the monks of later days, had a marvellous talent for selecting as their favourite abodes the richest and loveliest spots, and the fact that Apollo was fabled to divide his time between Delos and Lycian Patara, is of itself a sufficient guarantee for the allurements presented by this highly favoured region. The poets love to sing of the preference felt by the god for Lycia.
_ Mihi Delphica tellus
Ovid. Met. I. 576.
Hor. Carm. III. Od. 4.
Æn. IV. 1. 345.
Apoll. Rh. I. 307.
* Vol. i. p. 289.
+ Fellowes' Lycia, p. 228, 229, 232. Strabo, however, makes the Cabalians and Solymi the same; but he gives the situation of Cibyratis by saying that Tlos was situated in the passage that led to it. Vol. i. p. 263.
Æn. vii, 120.
Λυκιας ναον εμβατευων Απολλων.
Rhes. V. 224.
Tibi Pateræ sic ministros nuncupant
Auson. Herodotus informs us that the earliest name of Lycia was Milyas, and that a colony settled there under Sarpedon from Crete, which at that time was peopled by barbarians, that is to say by Phenicians, or those at least who did not speak Greek. The previous inhabitants of Milyas were called Solymi, but those who came over with Sarpedon retained the name which they brought over with them, and were even in the days of Herodotus called by their neighbours, Termilae. We shall hereafter see that this name still occurs in inscriptions. The Lycians properly so called were a later colony from Athens under Lycus son of Pandion.* The Solymi then were plainly the earliest inhabitants of the country, who, being driven from the more fertile districts, retired into the fastnesses of the mountains called by their name, and there maintained a stubborn contest with the new settlers. For Homer tells us that to vanquish them was one of the labours imposed upon Bellerophon by the king of Lycia.
Αλλ' ότε δη Λυκιην ιξε Ξανθον τε βεοντα
II. Z. 172.
Il. Z. 204. The locality of the Solymaean mountains is determined by the existence in the chain that overhangs the eastern coast of Lycia of the ancient Chimaera, still burning clear and vivid as in the days of Homer. It is a jet of inflammable gas issuing from the soil, and so bright as to be visible from a considerable distance. Such phenomena are by no means uncommon in other parts of the world, but it is certainly remarkable, that in this instance the appearance should have remained unchanged during so many ages. Nevertheless there seems to be an uninterrupted chain of historic testimony to its continued existence. With respect to the triple form of the Chimaera, Sir C. Fellowes informs us that lions are still to be met with among the mountains, and that he was particular in his inquiries, and could not be mistaken. The authors however of the work before us throw doubt upon the correctness of his information. However the case may be in the present day, the frequency with which sculptures of the lion occur on the ruins is a proof that the animal must have been well known in ancient times. Nor is the other element of the Chimera wanting, for snakes of a large size are frequently met with. We may however notice in passing that Bochart derives the fable of the Chimaera from the names of the three gods of the Solymi, which have been preserved by Plutarch. Arsalus, which according to him signifies in Phenician “a goat,” Argus “ a lion," and Trosibis, which with less success he interprets as meaning a
* Herod. i. 173. We subjoin the origival, as the translation in the work before us (vol. ii. p. 39) seems defective and confused. Oi de Auxion éx Kentus Tugturos γεγoνασιτην γαρ Κρητην ειχαν τοπαλαιον πασαν βαρβαροι ... Οι δε επικοντο της 'Ασιης ες γην την Μιλυαδα. την γαρ νυν Λυκιου νεμονται αυτη τοπαλαιον ήν Μιλυας, δεν δε Μιλυαι τοτε Σολωμοι εκαλεοντο. τεως μεν δη αυτων Σαρπηδων ήρχε. οι δε εκαλεοντο το τερ τι ήνεικαντο ουνομα, και νυν έτι καλεονται υπο των περιοικων δι Λυκιοι, Τερμιλαι.
serpent's head.” The memory of Bellerophon, his combats and his winged horse, seems to have been fondly cherished by the grateful Lycians; and bas-reliefs of a far later age among the ruins of the ancient cities still embody the traditionary story.
The origin of the name Milyas, given by Herodotus to the country of the Solymi, is altogether unknown.* But the position of the district is accurately defined by Strabo, who says it extended from the pass of Termessus to Sagalassus, both of which places, as we shall see, have now been identified. The Milyans may have been a different race from the Solymi, or, more probably, they may have been the same nation, the one being properly the name of the country and the other of the people. This is confirmed by the fact, that the Milyans are mentioned as serving in the army of Xerxes accoutred with short spears and Lycian bows, their vests fastened with clasps, and leathern helmets on their heads; while Choerilus the Samian poet describes the Solymi as serving in the same army similarly attired.
Των δ' όπιθεν διεβαινε γενος θαυμαστον ιδεσθαι. .
Next came a tribe of aspect terrible,
• Bochart derives it from goby loca exce'sa.
+ Herod. vii. 77.