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WORKS BY W. J. MACQUORN RANKINE, LL.D., F.R.S.,

Late Regius Professor of Civil Engineering in the University of Glasgow.
A MANUAL OF APPLIED MECHANICS: Comprising the Principles

of Statics and Cinematics, and Theory of Structures, Mechanism and Machines.

With numerous Diagrams. Crown Svo, Cloth. SEVENTEENTH EDITION. 128. 6d.
A MANUAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING : Comprising Engineering

Surveys, Earthwork, Foundations, Masonry, Carpentry, Metal Work, Roads, Rail.
ways, Canals, Rivers, Waterworks, Harbours, &c. With Illustrations. Crown Svo.

TWENTY-SECOND EDITION. 16s.
A MANUAL OF MACHINERY AND MILL-WORK: Comprising the

Geometry, Motions, Work, Strength, Construction and Objects of Machines, &c.

With nearly 300 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Cloth. SEVENTH EDITION. 12s. 60.
A MANUAL OF THE STEAM ENGINE: With a Section on Gas, Oil,

and Air Engines by BRYAN DONKIN, M.Inst.C.E. With Folding Plates and

numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Cloth. SIXTEENTH EDITION. 12s. 6d. USEFUL RULES AND TABLES: For Architects, Builders, Engineers,

Founders, Mechanics, Shipbuilders, Surveyors, &c. With Appendix for the Use of

Electrical Engineers by Professor JAMIESON, F.R.S.E. SEVENTH EDITION. 10s. 6d. A MECHANICAL TEXT-BOOK: A Practical and Simple Introduction

to the Study of Mechanics. By Professor RANKINE and E. F. BAMBER, C.E. With

numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, Cloth. FIFTH EDITION. Os. MISCELLANEOUS SCIENTIFIC PAPERS: Part I. — Papers relating

to Temperature, Elasticity, and Expansion of Vapours, Liquids, and solids. Part 11.
- Papers on Energy and its Transformations. Part III.- Papers on Wave Forms,
Propulsion of Vessels, &c. With Memoir by Professor TAIT, M.A. Edited by W.J.
MILLAR, C.E. With fine Portrait on Steel, Plates, and Diagrams. 31s. 6d.
The “Mechanical Text-Book” was designed by Professor RANKINE as an

Introduction to the above Series of Manuals.

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6s.

VALVES AND VALVE-GEARING: A Practical Text-Book for the

l'se of Engineers, Draughtsmen and Students. By CHARLES HURST. FOURTH

EDITION, Re-written and Eularged. 108. 6d.
A MANUAL OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. By W. F. PETTIGREW

and A. F. RAVENSHEAR. SECOND EDITION, Revised. Fully illustrated. 215.
A MANUAL OF MARINE ENGINEERING. Comprising the Designing,

Working, and Construction of Marine Machinery. By A. E. SEATON, M.Inst.C.E.,

M.I. Mech.E., M.I.M.A. FIFTEENTH EDITION, Revised and Enlarged. 218. net. ENGINE-ROOM PRACTICE. A Handbook for Engineers and Officers in

the Royal Navy and Mercantile Marine. By J. G. LIVERSIDGE, A.M.Iust.C.E.

Fourth Impression. In large Crown Svo.
STEAM AND STEAM ENGINES (A Text-Book on). With numerous

Illustrations, Plates, and many Examination Questions. By ANDREW JAMIESON,

M.Inst.C.E. FOURTEENTH EDITION. 108. 6d.
STEAM BOILERS: Their Defects, Management, and Construction. By

R. D. MUNRO. Illustrated. FOURTH EDITION, Revised. 4s. 6d. BOILERS, MARINE AND LAND: Their Construction and Strength.

By T. W. TRAILL, M.Inst.C.E., F.E.R.N. Fourth EDITION, Revised and Enlarged.

12s. 60. HEAT EFFICIENCY OF STEAM BOILERS (Land, Marine, and

Locomotive). By BRYAN DONKIN, M. Inst.C.E. In Quarto, Handsome Cloth, with

numerous Plates. 258. GAS, OIL, AND AIR ENGINES. By BRYAN DONKIN, M.Inst.C.E.

FOURTH EDITION, Revised, Enlarged, and Re-Set throughout. Very fully Illustrated.

25s, net.

For full descriptive Catalogue of Engineering and Technological Works see at the

end of this Volume.

LONDON: CHARLES GRIFFIN & CO., LTD., EXETER STREET, STRAND.

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WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE,

CIVIL ENGINEER : LL.D. TRIN. COLL. DUB. ; F. R.SS. LOND. AND'Édin.; F.R.9.8. A. ;
LATE REGIUS PROPESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW,

ETC., ETC.

REVISED BY

W. J. MILLAR, C.E.,

MEMBER OF THB EDINBURGH MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY; LATE SECRETARY,

INST. ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS IN SCOTLAND.

WITH A SECTION ON GAS, OIL, AND AIR ENGINES,

By BRYAN DONKIN, M.Inst.C.E.

With Nnmerons Engrabings, Folding-Plates, and a Diagram of

the Mechanical Properties of Steam.

SIXTEENTH EDITION.

LONDON:
CHARLES GRIFFIN AND COMPANY, LIMITED;
EXETER STREET, STRAN D.

1906.
(All Rights Reserved.]

115852 FEB 26 1908 TH

TH

RIL •R R

1906 4

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

69 491899

Some passages

The purpose of this book is to explain the scientific principles of the action of “ PRIME MOVERS,” or machines for obtaining motive power, and to show how those principles are to be applied to practical questions.

It has been deemed advisable to prefix to the Treatise a very brief Historical Sketch, relating chiefly to the Steam Engine, the only prime mover whose history is known.

The body of the work commences with an Introduction, treating of principles, and of mechanical contrivances, which are common to all prime movers, and of the laws of the strength of materials, so far as they are applicable to those machines. in the Introduction are extracted from a previous Treatise on Applied Mechanics, and abridged or amplified as may be required, in order to suit the purpose of the present Treatise. Such passages are indicated by the letters A. M., with a reference to the number of the corresponding Article in that work.

The first part following the Introduction treats of the use of muscular strength to obtain motive power.

The second part treats of prime movers driven by the motion of water and of air, including water-pressure engines, waterwheels, turbines, and windmills.

The third and largest part treats of engines driven by the mechanical action of heat, and especially of the steam engine. It explains, in the first place, the phenomena of heat, so far as they affect, directly or indirectly, mechanical action in engines; secondly, the laws of combustion and properties of fuel, and the principles upon which economy of fuel depends; thirdly, the laws of the action of heat in producing motive power, or “ PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS," as applied to the various engines in which that action takes place, and especially to steam engines of all varieties; fourthly, the nature and action of the parts of furnaces and boilers; fifthly, the nature and action of the mechanism of steam engines.

The fourth part explains the principles of the action of electro

magnetic engines; but very briefly, in consideration of their small importance as prime movers, and absence of economy; the true practical use of electro-magnetism being, not to drive machinery, but to make signals; and the subject of telegraphy being foreign to the purpose of this work.

The principles of thermodynamics, or the science of the mechanical action of heat, are explained in the third chapter of the third part more fully than would have been necessary but for the fact, that this is the first systematic treatise on that science which has ever appeared; the only previous sources of information regarding it being detached memoirs in the transactions of learned societies, and in scientific journals.

The experimental and practical examples used to illustrate the application of the principles of that science, and of rules and tables deduced from them, are, to a considerable extent, taken from the Author's personal observations of the performance of marine engines.

At the end of the book, as well as interspersed through it, are various tables, useful in calculations respecting prime movers, especially the steam engine; and many of those tables contain results which have never before been published.

The Author has endeavoured to the best of his ability and recollection to acknowledge, in the course of the book, the sources from which he has derived information. For much of that information, for opportunities of inspecting furnaces, boilers, and engines, and of making experiments, and in some cases for drawings of engines, which have been reduced to a small scale to illustrate this work, he has to return his most grateful thanks to many engineers, shipbuilders, manufacturers, and men of science.

W. J. M. R.

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PREFACE TO SIXTEENTH EDITION FURTHER revision has been made upon the SiXTEENTH Edition, and additional new matter introduced.

W. J. M. January, 1906.

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