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mathematics; and, for the same reason, they will all be encouraged in some degree by the treatment of common arithmetic in a mathematical way.

I ought to add that the difficulty of teaching arithmetic will be in no respect increased by this plan. Symbols look difficult when they are presented for the first time as a whole, but they are learnt without effort if one is taught at a time, as each rule is taken up in succession. When a thing is learnt just at the moment in which it is wanted, and when there is an obvious use for it, it is sure to be remembered.

I shall be glad if the experience of any other teachers enables them to confirm mine, or to add any hint to these brief remarks, in the next number of the Record.



BRISTOL. TEACHERS' SOIREE.—A very interesting gathering of teachers, pupil-teachers, and committees of various public schools in this city, took place on the evening of December 31st, in the Friends' School-room. Every preparation appeared to have been made by the managers of the school for the enjoyment and amusement of the numerous visitors. The school-room was splendidly decorated with evergreens, and brilliantly lighted with gas, and had a very captivating appearance. Tables were arranged down the centre of the room, and on them were displayed valuable cases containing specimens of British moths ; rare curiosities of various kinds; some valuable prints; and a choice collection of ferns and other plants: the walls being also set off with prints, pictures, &c. Telescopes, microscopes, stereoscopes, and other sources of amusement were liberally provided. In the course of the evening an excellent paper was read by Robert Charleton, Esq., who said that the subject of his remarks was suggested to him partly by what he had seen in connexion with the management of the Orphan House, on Ashley Down. In viewing that establishment he thought no one could fail being struck with the remarkable example which it afforded of earnest religious faith, combined with sound practical wisdom. On the part of the teachers there was a profound and habitual sense of dependence on the Divine blessing for whatever measure of success might be granted to their labours, whilst there was at the same time as much of sedulous attention to every point of practical detail, by which success might be secured and failure prevented, as if that success depended on their own efforts alone. Mr. Charleton then alluded to what was done at the Orphan House to secure the health of the children,-such as ample ventilation in the day and sleeping-rooms, a suitable temperature throughout the building, a good supply of wholesome though very plain food, great personal cleanliness, and proper exercise in the open air,—and urged teachers to pay greater attention to the principles of sanitary science, and apply them not only to the schools under their care, but also to themselves personally. He alluded to the greater necessity of this, on account of the teacher's occupation being far from a healthy one; and as a means of preserving their health, he urged them to take exercise in the open air, and never to sit down to study or write with cold feet; to sponge the body all over every morning with cold water ; to secure proper ventilation in their sleeping-rooms; not to give themselves up so much to study as to leave no time for physical exercise, and to avoid the use of intoxicating drinks, and also the very bad habit of smoking. He concluded by reminding them also, that whilst caring for the health of the body they should not neglect that of the soul, but so live that at any time they might be prepared to give an account of their stewardship.

Several pieces were sung during the evening, and the company separated about nine o'clock,

A similar gathering of teachers took place on the evening of February 19th, at the Red Cross Street School-room. About three hundred persons were present, a very large proportion of whom were young persons engaged as pupil-teachers and assistants. A number of beautiful paintings were kindly lent by Mr. Sampson, of Park Street. Stereoscopes, microscopes, and a great variety of illustrated books, were distributed about the room. Some instructive pneumatic experiments were performed, which interested the young people very much. Joseph Bowstead, Esq., explained the prize scheme recently formed for the county of Gloucester, the examinations for which are to take place in the approaching summer. The party separated at halfpast nine, highly gratified.


BRISTOL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. The Annual Meeting of the Bristol Teachers' Association was held on Saturday, February 13th, at the Red Lodge Reformatory School, Park-row. Nearly forty teachers of schools, chiefly British, in and around Bristol, were present. After the report of the Association had been read, and the accounts presented, the officers for the ensuing year were elected. Mr. Gough, of the Counterslip school, then read a useful paper on

The Advantages of the Interrogative Method to both Teachers and Pupils," which was followed by remarks on the same subject from Mr. Baxter, Mr. Clements, Mr. Seaton, and Mr. Turner. After tea, the girls of the Reformatory were introduced and placed on the gallery, to whom Mr. Clements, of the Friends' school, gave an address on the nature and advantages of “Industry.”' Miss Carpenter subsequently added a few judicious and pertinent remarks on the religious motive to industrious habits. The meeting was a very gratifying and seful one.

BIRMINGHAM. The teachers of the various schools in this town conducted on the Society's principles were invited to meet Mr. Baxter at tea on the evening of the 10th of February, and to spend a few hours in mutual conference on the varied details of school instruction and management. The invitation was numerously responded to. Some of the managers of the schools also favoured the meeting with their presence, and others sent letters of apology for their absence, with expressions of good will. After tea, the teachers were addressed on several matters relating to the great design in educating the rising generation, and the address was followed by much useful and pleasant conversation between the managers and teachers of schools and himself. The evening was a most agreeable one, and gave promise of one still better. It is hoped that the next assembly of the kind will embrace the British teachers of the outlying district, as well as all those in the town.

PETERBOROUGH. The first meeting of “The Northamptonshire and South Lincolnshire Teachers' Association” was held in the Boys' British School-room, Peterborough, on the 20th of March. There were eight teachers present.

Miss Plant gave a lesson on “Rome," which was afterwards favourably criticised.

Mr. Smith read a carefully prepared essay on “Methods of Teaching Elementary Reading.” A most instructive discussion followed, and the hearty thanks of the meeting were given to Miss Plant and Mr. Smith. The prospects of the Association were considered to be highly favourable.

It is hoped that other teachers in the neighbourhood will join before the next meeting, which is to be held June 12th.


The following arrangements have been made for the current quarter :-

Monthly meetings are held on the second Saturday in every month, and are open to all teachers, whether male or female. April 10th.-Essay, “How can the functions of the Schoolmaster be most efficiently exercised for

the Prevention of Crime,” Mr. Roberts. Lecture, “ The Physiology and general Pathology of the Circulating Organs, considered

as Intruments for the Distribution of the Blood,” Dr. Bletchley. May 8th. - Tea Meeting at Radnor Street School. The business will commence at half-past Three.

Tea at Five o'clock precisely; after which a Paper will be read by Mr. J. G. Fitch (Principal of the Normal College, Borough Road) on “Dr. Arnold : his Life, and

the Lessons it offers to Teachers.” June 12th.-Essay on “Scriptural Teaching,” Mr. Munns.

Lecture, “Structural Physiology and Pathology," Dr. Bletchley. July 10th. Essay, “Social Economy: its relative importance in School Instruction," Mr. Gover.

Lecture, “The Physiology and general Pathology of the Nervous System,” Dr. Bletchley. Dr. Bletchley will deliver two more Lectures, which will be announced on the next programme. Mr. Langton's Latin Class will meet at Two o'clock, before each monthly meeting. Each teacher is expected not to occupy more than half-an-hour. There will be half-an-hour devoted to discussion upon the subject at the close. Teachers desirous of becoming members may obtain particulars from the Honorary Secretary, Mr. T. Gover, Mitre School, Limehouse.

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MALE CANDIDATES. First Class Scholarship of £23, with a personal Allowance of £4. NOTE.-The names printed in italics are those of candidates who, not having been pupil-teachers, are

admitted to compete for scholarships under the Minute of 2nd June, 1856. Name of Candidate.

Name of Candidate.

Job, William Tavistock.

Corder, Frederick H. Hadleigh.
Rogers, Edward

Derrick, George T.... Bristol, Lewin's Mead.
Cove, John

Bishop, John

Great Yarmouth, Culbert, John Plymouth.

Whitford, Thomas Somers Town.
Wilson, Charles Sudbury.

Adkins, James... Chichester.
Rider, Thomas......... Bristol, Redcross-street. Stiuchcombe, Joel E. Corsham.
Knowles, John Bradford Borough, West. Arnold, John E. ...... Halstead.
Wormell, Richard Leicester, IIill-street. Tipper, Joseph .........
Gladman, FrederickJ. Bushey.

Wroot, Charles Wisbeach.
Dunkerley, Thomas . Manchester.

Matthews, George H. Chichester.
Jones, John

Noake, Alfred Sherborne.
Dawson, Charles J.... Banbury.

Wilimett, Benjamin . Constantine.
Brown, Elmit R....... Louth.

Clarke, J. J.........
Child, James Bradford Borough, West. Griffiths, Goodman... Ruthin, B.S.
Bettenson, John Tiverton.

Gill, George............ East Coker.
Knott, Charles J. Dukinfield.

Mason, William Roberts, James Constantine.

Reed, John Henry Louth. Jackson, John ......... Warrington.

Seddon, Edward Salford, NewJerusalem,S. Badcock, William Abingdon.

Hopper, William H.. Plymouth.
Second Class Scholarship of £23.—No personal Allowance.
Gendle, William J.... Plymouth.

Fairbairn, John Pill.
Revell, Noah E. Plymouth, Public Free S. Hutton, David.......... Manchester.
Davies, William

(Jones, Humphrey Festiniog. Williams, William Llangefni.

Inkpen, John

......... Chichester. Smethurst, Robert ... Manchester

Sammonds, Thomas . High Wycombe. Clinker, Edward Alton.

Stiff, Edward Spitalfields. Taaffe, Charles Liverpool.

Hemingway, William. Manchester. Bermingham, Philip. Manchester.

Green, Thomas Bromyard. Mumby, George Hull.

Gale, Edwin

Blay, Daniel............

Hall, George G. Bridport.
Sykes, Daniel New Wortley

(Saville, William Sa Walden. Harding, Joseph .. Melksham.

Clarke, James Llangollen. Fulford, John Croydon.

Revill, John S.......... Ilkestone. Kempthorn, Robert . Falmouth.

Jones, Richard Festiniog (Reynolds, Richard T. Brynmawr.

Bardsley, William

Lees. Kirby, George T....... Whitby.

Fletcher, Thomas Manchester.



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First Class Scholarship of £17, with a personal Allowance of £3.
Name of Candidate. School.

Name of Candidate.

Wainwright, Ann E.. Manchester,St.Saviour's, Farquhar, Elizabeth, Liverpool.
Carr, Isabella


[N.S. Barmingham, Hannah Cartman, Mary Anne Brentford.

Stroud, Emma......... Plymouth.
Simpson, Anne

Harrison, Emma

Thomson, Jessie

Burnett, Martha...... Bethnal-green, Abbey-st. Walker, Lydia......... Borough-road.

Henry, Sarah

Cambridge. Jones, Harriet......... Birmingham.

Platts, Phæbe Webster Sarah Jane. Manchester.

Chiswell, Maria Camberwell,Crawford-st. Dutton, Mary ......... Spitalfields, Wood-street. Poole, Sarah A.

Wotton-under-edge. Allen, Frances Jane . Alton.

Hill, Anne

Manchester, Marshall-st. Riley, Mary.

Walton, Eliza

Woof, Ann
Darlington, B.S.

Briggs, Hannah Shrewsbury.
Looney, Marianne Liverpool, Hope-street. Caddick, Rebecca Wolverhampton.
Ferguson, Susanna... Chorlton-on-Medlock. Hardwidge, Christia. Bristol, Lewin's Mead.
Freeman, Sarah ...... Cambridge.

Hill, Matilda

Second Class Scholarships. Gardner, Eliza Lambeth.

Butter, Eliza Morcomb, Eliza Truro.

Parish, Elizabeth Borough-road. Williamson, Sarah S. North Shields.

Stubbs, Ellen Ravenshead. Penrose, Mary.. ......... Truro.

Edwards, Jane P. Borough-road, B. S. Bennett, Sarah H.

Murch, Eliza A. ......

Limehouse. Patten, Sarah ...... Bridport.

M'Ewen, Sarah ...... Chorlton-on-Medlock, Lowne, Ann M. ...... Brentford.

Kearns, Sarah ......... Ravenhead. Benson, Lucy Biggleswade.

Burton, Emily M. Bridgwater. Dare, Emily J.......... Saffron Walden.

Erans, Mary Ellis, Emma............

Probert, Joanna...... Plymouth.




STUDENTS IN NORMAL COLLEGE, BOROUGH ROAD. Of the Sixty-one MALE STUDENTS who presented themselves for examination,

Sixty were classed as follows :STUDENTS OF THE SECOND Dennison, Benjamin.

Birkby, Thomas Simpson.
*Ferguson, John.

Dakin, Edwin.
First Class.
*Good, Thomas Walter.

*Griffiths, Matthew Egbert. *Brown, John Stanley.* *Griffey, William Henry.

*Hicks, Thomas Perry. Davis, Dan. Isaac. *Mann, Samuel.

Jones, Hugh. *Jones, Ebenezer Lloyd (D). *Mellor, George Edward.

*Newham, Joseph. *Ogden, Thomas. *Northrop, Wilkinson.

*Prosser, William. *Pearce, Alfred James (D). *Rogers, Charles James.

*Reeves, Stanley.
*Sharpe, Alfred.

*Smith, Daniel
Second Class.
Worth, Thomas.

*Tanner, Thomas John. *Allen, Thomas Painter (D).

Second Class.

Viccars, Thomas. *Catchasides, William (D). *Uren, Harry Francis. Ball, Henry.

Schedule. *Webb, Frederick John.

*Birkett, Joseph Whitehead.
*Harris, William.

Bainton, James.
Third Class.
*Hitch, David.

Buckley, John.
*Balchin, Richard.
*Hooper, Robert.

*Davies, Evan. *Collett, John. * Mitchell, Isaac.

*Griffith, William. *Pressley, James Thomas. *Newman, William.

*Hughes, David. *Rees, William.

*Jones, Lewis. STUDENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR. Roch, Henry

*Leetham, William.
First Class.
*Savage, Edwin.

Mayo, Thomas.
*Young, Thomas.

*Miles, Henry. *Browning, Walter.

Roberts, John.

Third Class. *Cole, Isaiah.

*Solomon, William Robert. *Cooper, William.

Beddow, Samuel.

*Whereat, Edwin Walton. The Fifty-three FEMALE CANDIDATES were classed in the following order :STUDENTS OF THE SECOND STUDENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR.

Second Class,

First Class.
Second Class.

Aitken, Jane,
Barmingham, Anne.

Betts, Lucy.
Lightfoot, Hester Ann.
Bell, Isabella.

Bullen, Alicia.
Marshman, Emma
* Burroughs, Caroline.

Collins, Anne.
Parry, Jané.
Evans, Eliza Blethyne.

Dungey, Mary.
Roach, Elizabeth Ann.
Fleming, Rosana Sarah.

Edbrooke, Jane.
Third Class.
Gordge, Sarah Hopkins.

Else, Frances.
*Ings, Ruth.

Evans, Mary. Cresswell, Clara. *Jarratt, Annie.

Fox, Drusilla. *Keey, Louisa. Taylor, Jemima.

France, Elizabeth.

Harper, Ellen.
Williams, Eleanor.

Longuey, Hannah.
Hyde, Sarah.
Wood, Anne.

Roe, Esther.
Moss, Jane.

Savery, Charlotte Matilda.

Third Class. Potter, Emily Murray.

Varey, Emily Emett.
Robinson, Caroline.
*Bates, Naomi Ruth.

Selkirk, Jane Hayton.
Chapman, Frances.

Baxter, Theresa.
Tucker, Jane.
Coles, Mary.

Bell, Elizabeth.
*Watson, Mary Anna.
Henderson, Sarah.

Carter, Frances Harriett. Weller, Ellen. Hoare, Emily

Davies, Mary Anne. *Wigley, Martha. Killerby, Eliza Edwards.

King, Emma. * * The letter (D), after a student's or teacher's name, indicates that he has obtained a Memorandum of Competency as a Teacher of Drawing.-(Minute of 24 February, 1857.)

+ A prize for proficiency in drawing has been awarded to every candidate to whose name an asterisk (*) is prefixed.


The following are the successful Candidates :A.-TEACHERS ABOVE 35 YEARS OF AGE. Palmer, John Alresford, Hants, B. S. Second Class.

Rossiter, William Castle Madoc (near Brecon) Nicholas, David

Schofield, Thomas Styal, The Oak B.S. [B.S. Kidwelly B. S.

Tait, James

Crook Peases West B. S. Third Class.

Thomas, Daniel Cwm Ivor B. S. Black, Thos. Russell. Cleator Mills B. S.

Weatherby, Thomas. Hackney.road, Adelphi
Cooke, William
Newtown B. S.

Chapel, B. S.
Goulding, William ... Padiham Wes. S.
Norris, Alfred.......... Hoddesdon B. S. [B.S.
Winterton, William Cefn Coed, Merthyr Tydfil,


First Class.

Second Class.
Potter, Thomas Lidget Green, Bradford, Lloyd, Charlotte ..... Kilvey Infant S.

York, B. S.
*Scotson, James ...... Manchester, New Jeru. S.

Third Class.
Second Class.

Bailey, Sarah

Kilvey, Girls' S.
Calvert, John Smales Leicester, Hill-street, B. S.

Pryor, Anne............ Hoddesden B. S.
Lloyd, George Chas.. Moreton-in-Marsh B. S.
Smith, George......... Manchester, Lower Moseley-


Third Class.
Whippey, Joseph Weston-super-Mare B.S.
Third Class,

Talmedge, Lydia C... Norwich, Miss Martineau's

Industrial S.
Buckley, John .........
Ripon Wes. S.

Williams, Ellen Liverpool, Prince Edwin-st. Firth, Timothy New Malton, York, B. S.





DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 1. Give an account of milk and its products.

2. Compare the following articles of food with reference to the nourishment they afford-wheat, barley, rice, Indian corn, and pease. Give receipts for cheap and wholesome preparations of these articles.

3. Give instances of waste of food commonly occurring, and explain the uses which ought to be made of what is called refuse, in some of these cases.

1. Compare the advantages of boiling, roasting, and stewing.

2. Show the necessity of purifying water, and explain the best modes of doing this for various purposes.

3. Explain clearly why rain water is preferable to spring water for washing purposes.

1. Describe exactly the practical instruction you have received in domestic economy at home, at school, or in the Training College; and state what plan you intend to adopt with Pupil Teachers, should


have any residing with you. 2. Discuss the possibility of combining industrial training with the usual work of an ordinary Girls' School. What expense would your plans entail, and what practical results do you consider would be attainable ?

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