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most scanty and inferior kind. W. D. Hanson, Esq., of Landere, as owner of the property, has offered to give an admirable site, consisting of a quarter of an acre of land, and the Slate Company have also made a liberal offer of material for building, whilst others have proposed contributions in the form of labour, &c. Mr. Baxter has recently visited the place to ascertain its wants and its capabilities, and to advise with the promoters of the school how best to meet them. A public meeting was called, consisting chiefly of working men, over which Mr. Hanson presided, to whom the characteristics and advantages of a good school were pointed out, and their opinion taken as to the desirability of an attempt to establish such an one among them. The feeling of the meeting was unanimous in its favour. A variety of questions were put to the lecturer as to the principles and plans of British Schools, the replies to which appeared to give the fullest satisfaction. Few places more need a good school, and the present movement appears hopeful.




GLOUCESTER. This Association, of which the Earl Ducie is the president, and Lord John Russell, Sir Maurice Berkeley, Mr. Horsman, M.P., the Dean of Bristol, and other gentlemen of influence in the county, are vice-presidents, has just held its Second Yearly Examination. It took place on the 10th June, 1859, at the following places, the different rooms having been again kindly lent for the occasion :-at Bristol, at the Redcross-street British School-room; at Charfield, at the Charfield Church Schoolroom ; at Cheltenham, at the Cheltenham British School-room ; at Evesham, at the Evesham British School-room; at Gloucester, at the Gloucester British School-room; and at Stroud, at the Stroud British School-room. The four examiners of the Association, viz., Mr. Baxter, one of the inspectors of the British and Foreign School Society; the Rev. C. L. Dudley, B.A., chaplain of the Gloucester County Gaol; Mr. James, and the Rev. W. Wheeler, conducted the examinations at Bristol, Stroud, Cheltenham, and Gloucester, respectively, whilst Mr. Dent, the master of Lord Ducie's Middle School, at Cromhall, attended at Charfield, and Mr. Andrew, the master of the Railway Station School at Worcester, performed the same office at Evesham. committee of ladies resident in the neighbourhood inspected and decided on the girls' needlework.

“Mr. J. Symons also examined the papers on Social and Industrial Economy, and Mr. Hyett on Euclid and Mechanical Drawing.

At the last examination 33 schools (boys and girls not being reckoned separately) sent up 86 senior boys, 51 senior girls, 256 junior boys, and 133 junior girlstotal, 526 children ; of whom 45 senior boys, 32 senior girls, 114 junior boys, and 80 junior girls, obtained prizes-total, 271 ; the number last year being 41 schools, sending 521 children, of whom 321 obtained prizes.

We have not room for the detailed statistics of the examination, so far as separate schools are concerned. The most remarkable instance of success appears to have been that of the Wotton-under-Edge British School, which sent up 18 candidates, of whom 17 were successful, and to whom alone prizes to the amount of £19 were awarded. The highest prize attainable for general proficiency is £3, an I was gained by a boy from the Cheltenham British School. The best boys in the senior division received £2 each in money, and those in the junior division £1. Less successful competitors in both divisions received prizes of books, according to their several degrees of proficiency, varying in value from 10s. to 2s. 6d. The children were permitted to select their own book prizes. The Dean of Hereford gives two special prizes of £2 2s. and £1 Is., for the best papers on Social and Industrial Economy; and Mr. Hyett also gives two prizes of £2 each for proficiency in mechanical drawing and in Euclid.

We cannot doubt that an important stimulus has been given by this well-intended scheme to the efforts of the teacħers, and of the elder and more advanced children in the elementary schools of the district. There is always a danger lest special proficiency on the part of the upper classes should be purchased by the neglect or inferiority of the lower. We trust and believe that teachers are alive to this danger, and that they will steadily resist the temptation which these schemes offer, to withdraw tlreir attention from the lower classes, and from the school, as a whole, in order to devote it to those scholars who are likely to obtain prizes in such a competition as this. We should be greatly indisposed to measure the goodness of any school, or the success of any teacher, solely by the position which his scholars occupied at a competitive examination. The real success of a school must, after all, be measured by the average attainments of the pupils, not by the knowledge attained in a few exceptional cases—by the proportion of the whole school, which is well and soundly taught—by its discipline, and by the skill and faithfulness with which all the work, especially the humblest work, of the school is done. If teachers and managers of schools will keep this in view, and take care that the success of a few elder children is not purchased by any sacrifice of the interests of the little ones, and of the general efficiency of the school, we believe that the prize schemes may do very important service; and that leachers, especially, will find them useful in strength. ening their hold on elder scholars, and in promoting a higher standard of attainment than they would otherwise be able to reach.

For the information of teachers and others interested in the matter, we subjoin a few of the Examination Papers which were given on the last occasion, with brief extracts from the reports of the examiners :


Boys and Girls. 1. Who was the father of the Jewish people ?- Write a short outline of the history of the Israelites froin their going into Egypt to their conquest of Canaan. About how many years of early history dues the Pentateuch comprise ?

2. What was the order of the Creation ?-What marked the seventh day ?_Does any, and what commandment refer to this? What duties does that commandment teach? How should that commandment be kept ?

3. Relate the story in which Christ saved Peter from being drowned, and state what lessons it teaches.

4. How and by whom was the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper instituted ?–What is the meaning of it? And what is the obligation to observe it?

5. What siu did Ananias and Sapphira commit?- What was their punishment 2- What duty does their history teach ?-In what different ways may the sin be committed ?

JUNIOR DIVISIOX. 1. What is the book of Gencsis about? 2. Give an account of the life of Joseplı. 3. Mention various occasi ins on which Abraham proved his faith.

4. Write out the story of the Widow's mite, and explain the following passage in it:-“This poor woman latlı cast more in th in all they which have cast into the treasury."

3. What is a miracle ? - Who performed the miracles narrated in St. Mark's Gospel ?-Give an account of the one you remezber best.


Boys and Girls. 1. How many parcels, each containing 3 lb., can be made up out of 4 tons 12 cwt. 3 qrs. of soda :

2. If I buy 7 ib. of bacon for 15. 6d., what ought I to give for 19 cwt. 3 qrs. 6} ib. at the same price?

3. Henry Thompson, Esq., sends an order for the following articles to the shop of Mr. James Hunt:-17. of candles, at 60.; 9 lb. of tea, at 23. 61.; 14 lb. of sugar, at 5d.; 20 lb. of soap, at 710.; 1.2 16), of cheese, at 9fd.; the box for packing is charged ls. 6d.; make out the bill and receipt it.

4.' A man borrows for 3 years £2,500, at 41 per cent. per annum_How much will he have paid to the lender when the amount is returned, and what would he have saved if he could have borrowed the principal at 35 per cent. per annum?

5. Work the last question in pouuds and decimals of pounds. 6. How many square feet are contained in the floor of a school-room, measuring 59 ft. 9 in. long,

28 ft. 6 in. broad, after deducting the entrance lobby, which measures 6 ft. 6 in. by 31t. 2 iu. ? 7. Work the last question in feet and decimals of feet.

JUNIOR DIVisioX. 1. Add together seventy-four, two thousand and sixty, vineteen, one hundred and one, three dozen, ouc thousand and twelve, four score and four, and the half of eigliceu,

2. How many slate pencils would be needed in order to supply 49 schools with ten dozen each ?

3. A bag contains 24,300 nuts. If I take out 3,200 for niyself, and divide the remainder between you and your four sisters, how many will come to your share?

.4. A boy paid 3s. 9d for an excursion ticket, and spent ls. 7 d. during his day's trip, how much did his holiday cost, and liow much had he left out of three half-crowns ?

5. How much should I pay for a half hundredweight of cheese, at 6d. per lb. ?

6. Eigut missionary boxes when opened were found to contain the following sums :-1, Twentyfire shillings and twopence; 2. eighteen pence halfpenny; 3. a half-crown, a shilling, a sixpence, and a threepenny piece; 4. a hali-sovereign and five farthings; 5. two guineas and a fourpenny piece; 6. tliree florins and a sixpence; 1. a sovereign and three-halfpence; and, 8. a five pound note. How much did it all aniount to?

PARSING.-SENIOR Boys. Parse every word in the following sentence :-"As their pastor's funeral procession moved slowly through the street, not an eye was dry, so much beloved was he.”

SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY._SENIOR Bcys. 1. Describe separately the meaning of the “necessaries,” the “comforts,” and the “luxuries” of life, and name one or two of each.

2. What is rent? and to what proportion of a man's annual income ought his house rent to be limited ?

3. What are the reasons which should decide us in choosing a trade or occupation ?

4. What are the benefits of savings? and what uses should be made of them by boys and men respectively?

3. What good results from an exchange of commodities ? and how does money facilitate such exchange? Give examples of the inconvenience which would result if money were not in use.

6. Mention some of the chief benefits which have arisen from the increased use of machinery in manufactures and agriculture, with examples.

7. What is the differeuce between direct and indirect taxation? Give instances of each. Why are taxes necessary ?

GEOGRAPHY._SENIOR Boys. 1. Describe the coarse of the Severn with its chief tributaries. Why was it necessary to cut a canal frona Berkeley to Gloucester?

2. If you were to sail round England from Liverpool to Newcastle, what counties would you pass ? Mention them in the order in which you would piss

them. 3. Draw a sketch of the country described in your answer to the first or second question.

4. What has been done artificially to make communication between distant places in England easier ?_Show how trade and manufactures are benefited by this.

5. What makes the Severn a more rapid river than the Thames ?--How is it that it winds more?What is the cause that the Thames is larger than the Severn?

6. From what parts of the world do we import the following articles :_Timber, cotton, wool, tallow, guld, hemp, sugar, tea, and coffee ?

JUNIOB Boys. 1. Name all the counties that lie on the English Channel, and one town in each county:

2. Name the counties which join Gloucestershire, and their chief towns. --Also write what you know about those towns,

3. In what direction must you go from the place where you now are to get to each of the following places :-London, Portsmoutli, York, Liverpool, Haverfordwest, Land's End ?

4. Name the largest county, the longest river, the highest mountaiu, and the largest city in England.

5. A peninsula, an isthmus, straits, a bay, a cape, a tributary. Explain what each of these terms means, and give examples of any three of them.

6. Leeds, Manchester, Reading, Bristol, Devizes, Winchester, Birmingham. In what counties are these places ?

ENGLISH HISTORY.-SENIOR Boys. 1. What do you understand by the following terms:-" The Reformation,” “the Restoration, and "the Revolution ?”—In what reigns and years did they each take place?

2. What veed was there for the Reformation, and what advantages to the people of England have grown out of it?

3. When dill steam begin to be applied to practical purposes ?-_What great results have been thereby gained ?

4. Describe the attempted invasion of England in Elizabeth's reign. What was its object, and how did it end?

5. State what events you can remember in connexion with the following places:-Bristol, Gloucester, Eresliam, Tewkesbury, and give dates where you can.

6. When were the following battles fouzlit, and what events were decided by them :-Hastinys, Bosworth Field, and Waterloo ?

On the results of the examination on reading and arithmetic Mr. Baxter reports--

" It is my pleasing duty to state that a very large proportion of the reading on the occasion proved to be highly creditable. Whilst it would be impossible to pronounce it excellent, to any great extent, or to say that it presented any striking qualities as to flexibility or style, yet it was generally clear, distinct, fairly emphatic, and well-timed.

“The remainder of my work, in connexion with this examination, consisted in the inspection of the arithmetic papers from all the district.

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“As might have been expected, these presented a very wide diversity in the degrees of intelligence, accuracy, and neatness, which marked the operations. The junior section was presented with a list of six questions, and the senior division with

As the children were not limited as to the number they might attempt to answer, some aimed at more than others, and several even at the whole in the list. In most cases the operations were carried out in the usual methods, but in some instances a more scientific process was resorted to, with different degrees of success or failure.

Mr. Dudley reports on the religious papers, and on those in dictation and grammar of the junior children

“I have no hesitation in saying, that as far as I, individually, am able to judge, a great improvement has taken place among the children connected with this Association. I am not prepared to state whether the Prize Scheme has tended to produce a longer continuance at school; but this I can safely assert, that it has promoted a carefulness and accuracy in teaching and learning which were much wanting before. Last year, instruction appeared to be all in all, and I found that many children's minds were filled with information in the most useless and painful confusion. This year, real education is more conspicuous, and the answers of the children bear testimony to the careful training which they have received. My papers (hundreds in number) are nearly all creditable, and the majority are really very good.”

Mr. James, of the Training College, Cheltenham, to whom was#entrusted the task of assigning the marks for geography in the junior division, and for geograpby, history, and language in the senior, says :

“ In geography I found the answering in general to be satisfactory. The questions relating to the chief places in our island, their commercial importance, and their position, were answered the best. Map-drawing has not received the attention it demands, to judge by the few and the generally imperfect specimens sent in. In some schools I notice that the instruction given in this subject has been mainly oral.

“The composition was decidedly creditable. Faulty constructions, violation of rules of syntax, vulgar colloquialisms, bad spelling, and decidedly bad writing, were exceptional. I have no opportunity of comparing the results with those of last year, but can pretty confidently say, that considerable care has been bestowed during the past year on the particular exercise of writing from memory a passage previously read aloud."

The Rev. W. Wheeler, who examined the papers of the senior girls on domestic economy, and the junior division on religion, reports :

“This examination has left on me a more satisfactory impression of the state of the schools, in the department of education which it has been my dnty to test, than did that of last year.

Though the papers on religion are an improvement on those of last year, they are still far behind what they ought to be. In most of them the replies are scanty, and, where they are copious, they show that the memory is better stored with the letter of Scripture, than the intellect is fraught with its spirit. The Bible is used too much as a mere reading-book, and too little as God's Holy Word, given to heal and elevate the conscience, guide the will, purify the passions, and supply the true elements of moral character. Children are as susceptible of this moral culture as adults, and surely it is the main, if not the sole, utility of Bible-teaching. Nor can a child too early be taught to feel that life is not a sphere of labour, or gratification, or duty merely--but of spiritual culture, righteous discipline, and immortal hopeand that in the Word of God lie the Divine seeds of all true safety, satisfaction, and success."


BANBURY. This Scheme is somewhat more restricted, as it only includes nine schools in the town and neighbourhood of Banbury. It is under the patronage of the Right Hon. and Rev. the Lord Saye and Sele, and Sir Charles E. Douglas, M.P. Mr. Samuelson is the president, and the Mayor is the vice-president. Its object is to induce parents to keep their children at school longer and more regularly than is at present the custom, and to hold out to the children themselves an additional motive for diligence and good conduct.

The following are the conditions of the scheme :

1st. There will be 20 rewards offered of the value of 20s. each, 80 of 10s. each, and 6 special ditto of 30s. each, for attainments accompanied by good conduct. Each reward to be in money, books, or apparatus, at the option of the prize-holder.

2nd.—Candidates for the 20s. and 10s. prizes to be pupils under fifteen, and for the 30s. prizes under sixteen years of age. Paid assistants not to be eligible for examination.

3rd.—No pupil shall receive the 10s. prize who cannot read with correctness and intelligence-write in a fair hand, and correctly from dictation, a simple passage -work correctly any sum in a simple or compound rule- distinguish readily any of the parts of speech-and answer simple questions in geography and English history.

4th.-No pupil shall receive the 20s. prize who shall not be able to read with fluency-write in a good hand, and from memory, with correct spelling, a simple narrative previously read to him slowly--work sums in proportion, practice, vulgar and decimal fractions, * and evince a fair attainment in three of the four following subjects, viz., Geography, grammar, English history and drawing.

5th.—Pupils who have taken a 20s. prize cannot again compete for it; and those who have taken a 10s. prize are disqualified for the same a second time, but may receive a 20s. prize at a subsequent examination. Pupils who have obtained a first class prize at a former examination will be eligible to compete for one of the six Special Prizes of 30s. each. Such pupils to satisfy the examiner in any three of the following subjects : 1st-English grammar and analysis. 2nd-Geography. 3rd-English history. 4th-Higher arithmetic and algebra. 5th-Euclid, two books. 6thPractical geometry and perspective. Girls being at liberty to select “Domestic Economy" for one of the three subjects for examination.

6th.—These rewards will be accompanied with a handsomely-printed certificate of merit, furnishing the pupils with a testimonial, to which reference can be made in after-life as to conduct, regularity, and attainments during their pupilage.

7th.-Candidates will be required to produce a certificate from their teachers that they have attended some school for at least three years, and from the teacher of th school at which they are receiving instruction that they have attended it at least 176 whole days during the twelve months ending the


preceding the examination ; also a certificate from the authorities of the school that they bear a character for truthfulness, industry, honesty, and general good conduct throughout the year ; so that mere ability and cleverness without good conduct shall in no case be rewarded.

8th.—The examiner shall be either the Government Inspector of Schools for the district, or some person appointed by him; and the details of the examinations, with the award of the prizes, shall rest with the examiner.

9th.—Any school situated within twenty miles of Banbury shall be admitted to the benefits of the examination on contributing to the general fund at least £l for every hundred scholars attending it.

EDUCATION IN Brazil.-It appears from recent returns that this great and growing empire of the west, with an area of 3,100,104 square miles, has a population of 7,677,800, in the twenty provinces into which it is divided. There are in all 2,508 public schools or colleges, including 1,571 schools of primary instruction, and 308 lyceums or places of secondary instruction. The total number of pupils is 88,707, of whom 61,620 are in the primary, and the remainder in the higher establishments. Besides these, 17,797 scholars are educated in private seminaries and colleges for the children of the upper ranks.

* In the examination, girls will substitute needlework for vulgar and decimal fractions.

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