« ZurückWeiter »
coarse and unrefined. There are a great many expressions which, without being positively bad, are unmeaning, loose, and tasteless, and these should never be used in the hearing of the children. A teacher is more bound to be cautious as to the grammatical accuracy of his sentences, and the choice of expressions, than any one else. He should use none which he would not wish imitated; for it is quite inevitable that he will be imitated, in spite of any precepts to the contrary. Let him not forget, even in regard to the growth of his own character, that to choose words discreetly is to think carefully, and that refinement of speech and refinement of mind generally go together. In the school, and out of it, he should be as careful to talk with dignity and propriety as if he were a clergyman, or a university professor.
Lastly. It will be found quite compatible with the maintenance of authority for the master to be courteous and polite in all his intercourse with children. It is true zne is their master, and as such must command them ; but there is a coarse, magisterial, pompous tone of command, which is as injurious to children as it is offensive to men.
The truest government, and the best, always the least demonstrative. He who can govern while appearing to persuade, who can enforce what he only seems to recommend, and who can rule without making any display of authority, is not only the wisest ruler, but the most efficient. All the best-governed schools we know, are perintended by gentle and modest men. The loud voice and imperious gestures, the rule of one who is always talking about ruling, and protesting " that he will be master," are never successful; they never really obtain influence over the minds of men or children. And while, as a matter of policy, for the sake of placing his own authority on a sound basis, it is well for a teacher to cultivate a calm, gentle, and self-possessed bearing in the school; it is of still more consequence to the children themselves. If they daily witness the behaviour, and see the countenance of a hard, coarse, impatient and uncivil man, they may, perhaps, be making great progress in arithmetic and geography; but they are nevertheless in a bad school, and under vicious training. They are losing more than it is possible that they can ever gain. Whatever of delicacy and courtesy is in their nature will be rubbed off, and their own characters will be ir some measure degraded for life.
We have known teachers, who in their whole intercourse with their charge contrived to unite gracefully the dignity of the master with the tenderness of a parent ; who have found it possible to treat even children with respect, without losing their own influence; who always thanked the little ones, carefully and courteously, for handing them any article, or for any small personal service ; who having first learnt the art of self-government, have found the government of children not only easy but delightful; whose daily conduct, especially in school, exemplified forbearance and politeness. These persons were of course loved by their scholars, and were really influential and honoured in their respective neighbourhoods. It is impossible to estimate the good which such men and women may indirectly effect. If teachers knew their own power, and the extent to which it lies in their hands to promote the civilisation of a town or village, we think they would take more pains in regard to this subject.
But, although it is mainly by the influence of a teacher's own example that courtesy and politeness are to be most effectually taught, other means are open for the attainment of the same end. Every schoolmaster should establish rules for the behaviour of the scholars entering and quitting the room, and enforce these rules steadily. He may show the boys, by his own behaviour when he meets them in the streets, that he expects a friendly and respectful salutation, and that he has pleasure in returning it. He can watch their corduct towards each other, and take especial care to point out discourteous and unkindly acts. He may seize upon every opportunity of making them helpful to one another ; may put the clever to assist the dull, and the strong to help the weak. In a hundred ways he may find means, if he only tries to do so, of leading the children to feel dependent on one another, and of encouraging little acts of forbearance, and offices of friendship. Occasionally, too, he should take advantage of an incident in the school history to give a short address, or lesson, upon some point of conduct which he may see requires attention. Many Bible lessons will afford incidental illustrations of that charity " which seeketh not her ," and that self-denial which lies at the fouudation of all true Christian character. A good teacher will not allow one such lesson to pass unheeded, or miss one opportunity of bringing his influence to bear upon those minor points of morals which we have referred to.
QUEEN'S SCHOLARS. By the arrangement explained in the following minute, it will be seen that for the future all candidates for Queen's scholarships, who are placed in the first class at the examination, will receive a small sum of money in aid of their own personal expenses. We are glad to announce this regulation, and commend it to the attention of pupilteachers generally. It is proposed that it shall come into force at Christmas next.
“Their Lordships having before them the minutes of 21st December, 1846, 25th July, 1850, and 20th August, 1853, relating to Queen's scholarships, and having considered whether such exhibitions might not be made more conducive to the encouragement of pupil-teachers in entering normal colleges, and in remaining there for two years,
" RESOLVED“1. That from and after 1st January, 1856,* the payment to be allowed for all Queen's scholars be uniform, viz.-£23 in case of males, and £17 in the case of females.
“2. That in consideration of this payment the normal colleges, on admitting any Queen's scholar, be understood thereby to agree to provide tuition, lodging, board and washing, and medical attendance for such Queen's scholar, without further charge.
"3. That to Queen's scholars of the first class there be allowed the following personal payments in aid of their travelling and private expenses, and of the purchase of books.
“4. That these personal payments be made by half-yearly instalments, in postoffice orders, to the Queen's scholars themselves; the first half-yearly payment to be made at Lady-day, and the second at Michaelmas, in each year.
“5. That the personal payments be made to depend, like the rest of the exhibition, upon quarterly certificates by the principal of the Queen's scholar's good conduct, attainments, and skill in the pursuit of his or her
ession. “6. The present minute leaves unaltered the minute of 28th June, 1854.”
"Only one quarter of the financial year, ending 31st March, 1856, will be affected by this minute, which, in the meantime, requires no supplementary estimate."
We are frequently asked to furnish specimens of a time table of the daily routine in a British School. That printed on the opposite page describes the arrangements of one of the most successful and flourishing schools in the North of England. It is a mixed school, containing about 240 children, boys and girls. The table is designed especially for a school with five pupil-teachers; though, with slight modifications, it might be adapted to one with either a greater or a smaller number. The school premises consist of three rooms. No. 1 is an ordinary British School
No. 2 is a Class Room, with parallel desks; No. 3 is a Class Room, with a gallery. The numbers in brackets refer to the room in which the section is employed during the time stated.
Lessons and exercises conducted by the master are indicated thus*; those in which he is assisted by the pupil-teachers thust; those which he conducts in rotation thus I; and those in which he occasionally examines the scholars thus g.
.(a) During the first half-hour three pupil-teachers are engaged in examining the exercise books of the scholars in the first and second sections. On Monday, grammatical exercises are written ; on Tuesday, answers to geographical questions ; on Wednesday, grammatical exercises ; on Thursday, an abstract of the collective lesson on history; and on Friday, two or three sums are entered.
(6) All the scholars, who can read in books, learn to spell at home, daily, a certain number of words, chosen from their reading lesson. From six to ten lines. are appointed, and the words, difficult and easy, are spelt, consecutively,
(c) This time is devoted to learning and reviewing the tables, so that the master and pupil-teachers may be able to examine the sums which the scholars have done at home on the previous evening. A few of the most competent scholars assist them in this examination.
(d) A sewing-mistress attends from half-past two to half-past four, to instruct the girls in sewing, knitting, &c.
SAMUEL'S VISIT TO JESSE'S HOUSE.
CHAPTER TO BE READ BY THE CLASS. 1 Samuel xvi. 1 to 13.
INTRODUCTION.—The people of Israel, after their settlement in the promised land, were ruled by judges, under God's immediate direction ; afterwards they desired to have a political system like the neighbouring nations, and demanded a king. By the Divine command Saul was chosen ; a clever man, stately in his person (chap. ix. 2), skilful as a leader of armies ; at first, modest and unambitious (chap. ix. 21, and x. 27), gentle in his treatment of enemies (chap. xi. 13), and possessing many kingly qualities; but in the after part of his reign wilful, hasty, proud, and disobedient (chap. xiii. 9, 13, and xv. 9.) And now he had displeased God, his descendants were to be for ever excluded from the royal office, and his successor was to be appointed.
WORDS TO BE EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED.--Sanctify, i. e., prepare, purify, and be in a proper condition to approach God. See Exodus xix. 10, 14 ; Joshua iii. 5. Elders, the city magistrates. Numbers xi. 16; Deuteronomy xix. 12. Anoint, to consecrate and set apart to a holy office, by the ceremony of pouring
oil on the head; e. g., Aaron and his sons, Exodus xxviii. 41, xxix. 7. Saul, 1 Samuel x. l. Solomon, 1 Kings i. 34. See also 1 Kings xix. 15 and 16.
(Note.—The texts should be first referred to, and then the meanings of the words elicited by questions.)
INCIDENTS IN THE NARRATIVE to be specially noted :- Samuel's fears, arising from Saul's sullen, angry temper. The visit of so important a person to Bethlehem, a small place, and to Jesse's family, an obscure one, surprised the chief men of the town, and somewhat alarmed them. The introduction of the seven sons, the first tall and kingly in appearance; all, perhaps, interesting and promising young men. Samuel's first mistaken impressions. David overlooked, and busy with the sheep. His selection by the Divine command.
(Note.—Partly by lively description, but principally by questions, these several scenes should be pictured out vividly before the children.)
CHARACTERS TO BE EXAMINED.-1. Samuel. A priest (chap. iii. 1, and vii. 9.) A judge or chief magistrate (chap. vii. 15.) A prophet or seer (chap. iii. 20, and is. 9.) Not a foreteller merely, but a special messenger and minister of God, by whom His will was conveyed to the people (chap. viii. 10 and 21, chap. xii. 17 and 18.) Now an old man, worn out by age and anxiety, who had already resigned much of his political power (chap. xii. 2), but was employed upon this mission, because it was one of special importance. Notice particularly his affectionate anxiety about the people's welfare (chap. xii. 23), his grief at Saul's misconduct (chap. xv. 35), his unquestioning obedience to God's directions (verse 4), and his readiness to yield his own judgment (verses 6 and 13.) Contrast Balaam (Numbers xxii. 21), and the prophet who went to Bethel (1 Kings xiii. 19.)
2. Eliab, the eldest son (the rest of the family are named in 1 Chronicles ii. 13), handsome and pleasing; probably the father's favourite, and very attractive in the prophet's eyes (verse 6), but arrogant, envious, and passionate (chap. xvii. 28), with faults in his inward character which God could see (verse 7), and which unfitted him to be a king. “ He only is fit to be God's champion who is first victor of himself."-BISHOP HALL.
3. David, the shepherd boy and future king, the father of a long line of sovereigns, the ancestor of the Saviour himself. (Luke iii.) Observe the description given of him in verse 18. I. Cunning in playing ; i.e. clever as a performer on the harp, &c. (Nebemiah xii. 36; Amos vi. 5.) II. A mighty, valiant man, (chap. xvii. 34 and 35.) III. A man of war; i.e., one suited for military employment though not yet engaged in it, qualified by his bravery and strength to lead armies and to contend with difficulties (chap. xvii. 50; xviii. 7; and xxx. 17); also, 2 Samuel v. 7, and x. 18. IV. Prudent in matters ; i.e., wise and cautious in affairs of business, of sound judgment, and practical skill (chap. xviii. 14; 2 Samuel viii. 15). V. A comely person ; i.e., handsome and graceful (ver. 12.) VI. And the Lord is with him. Note this fact as the crown of his gifts, the one blessing which adorned and sanctified all the rest. (2 Samuel v. 12.)
(Note. At this point the main facts of the lesson should be rapidly recapitulated.)
Lessons TO BE DEDUCED.-1. The necessity for simple, implicit obedience.Saul was rejected because he wished to have his own way, and to interpret God's commands in the manner most agreeable to himself. Contrast this behaviour with that of Samuel and David: the one full of experience and honour, yet going humbly to Bethlehem to act as God directed; the other young, suddenly lifted into great importance, distinguished above his brethren, yet returning to his sheep (ver. 19), obeying his father, and waiting on his elder brothers (chap. xvii. 20); probably saying little about his future dignity, but like Mary (Luke ii. 51), hiding the thing in his heart, and waiting for the time when God should exalt him.
2. God alone looks at the heart.-The true test of character lies very deep, out