Railroad Engineers' Field-book and Explorers' Guide: Especially Adapted to the Use of Railroad Engineers on Location and Construction, and to the Needs of the Explorer in Making Exploratory Surveys...

Cover
J. Wiley & Sons, 1894 - 358 Seiten
 

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Inhalt

Running the Line to Grade
49
Table of Grades and Grade Angles
50
Transit Work
51
Latitudes and Departures
52
Azimuth Observations g + c e s is e e s e a e s a e t
54
A Maximum Elongation of Polaris
55
B Observation of y Cassiopeia and Polaris
56
Observation of Alioth and Polaris
57
58 Convergence of Meridians
59
Simple Triangulations e
60
Levelling
61
Precision of a Line of Levels
62
Locating by means of Contour Lines
64
Levels and Curvature
66
Value of Topography e a t t e s e s t e a t t e e e s e e e e a t e a e
67
66 Tangents and Curves
68
Balance of Cuts and Fills
69
70 Estimating by Centre Heights
71
Corrections for 50foot Chords
72
Length of Curves
74
Fundamental Formulae
75
PROBLEMS IN SIMPLE CURVES 76 To lay out a curve by deflection angles
78
To locate a curve when the apex is inaccessible
81
To locate a curve by offsets from a tangent
82
Ditto if the apex P C etc are inaccessible
83
To locate a curve by offsets from the chords produced
85
To locate a curve by ordinates from a long chord
87
Ditto by midordinates
88
To pass a curve through a fixed point I being given
89
Given a simple curve ending in a tangent to connect it with
95
Method II
104
System of Drainage Ditches
110
SEC PAGE 107 Reference Points 6 e e e e e s e e s
115
Setting Out Bridge Foundations
116
Setting Out Trestlework
117
Setting Out Tunnels
118
Giving Grade and centres
120
Difference of Elevation on Curves
121
24
125
Locating by Offsets
127
Example
129
Curving Rails
132
The Cost of Earthwork and Rockwork removed by Carts
133
Ditto by other means
136
The Calculation of Earthwork
137
Areas of Crosssections
138
The Pyramid Wedge and Prismoid
139
The Prismoidal Formula
140
The Method of Average Endareas
143
The Method of Equivalent Level Sections
146
The Method of Centreheights
147
Correction for Curvature
148
Contents of the Toe of a Dump
149
General
152
Eliminating Instrumental Errors t t t 4 1 w
162
The Chronometer t d e is a 9
164
Barometers
165
Barometric Formulae
166
Reduction of Errors of Gradient
168
Taking Readings e e e g t e e e a
169
The Cistern Barometer
170
Reading the barometer
171
The Aneroid Barometer
172
Elevation Scales t e e ſ e e
173
EXPLORATORY SURVEYS 159 Division of the Subject
174
To find the distance apart etc of two inaccessible points
175
The Threepoint Problem 76
176
Positions fixed by bearings
178
Refraction of the Air
180
Reciprocal Angles
181
With a Transit
182
Reduction to Sealevel
183
To measure a horizontal angle without an instrument
184
To measure a vertical angle without an instrument
185
Direct Measurement and Compass Courses
186
SEC PAGE 176 Astronomical Observations e g e g v c 4 e a d e e e e e s r e a
187
Equation of Time
188
Sidereal Time
189
Correcting for Longitude etc
190
Hourangle
191
Examples
192
Refraction
194
Parallax
195
Correcting for Semidiameter
197
Dip 1
198
89 Latitude By Meridian Altitudes
199
Remarks
201
By Transits across the Prime Vertical
202
By an Altitude Out of the Meridian
203
By Double Altitudes
205
By an Altitude of Polaris at any time
206
Local Time by Equal Altitudes of a Star
208
By Lunar Culminations e a s t e 4 8 r a
213
By Jupiters Satellites
214
Interpolation by Successive Differences
215
Accidental Error
216
Influence of Spheroidal Form of the Earth
218
Conversion of Angular Measure into Distance and vice vers
219
Given the lat and long of two places to find their distance apart etc
220
To find the radius of a circle of latitude
221
Example
222
Star Map
225
Star Tables 226
226
The Horsepower of Falling Water
228
Sustaining Power of Wooden Piles
229
Strength of Rope Manilla Iron and Cast Steel
235
Spherical 341
241
Radii of Curves 252

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