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number, in the nominative case to spend. Spend is an irregular active transitive verb, indicative mode, imperfect tense, plural number, and agrees with its nominative they. Large is an adjective, of the positive degree, and belongs to sums. Rule: ' Adjectives belong to nouns which they describe or qualify.' Sums is a common noun, of the third person plural number, in the objective case, and governed by the active verb, spend. In is a preposition. Decorating is a participial noun, third person, plural number, objective case, and
noun, and belongs to houses. Houses is a common noun, third person, singular number, in the objective case, and is governed by the participial noun, decorating. Rule: 'Participal nouns govern the nouns that follow them in the objective case.'
* James, study your lesson.' James is a proper noun, masculine gender, second person, singular number, and nominative case independent. Rule: “When an address is made to a person, the noun or pronoun is put in the nominative case independent.' Study is a regular active verb, imperative mode, present tense, second person, singular, and agrees with its nominative you understood. Your is a possessive adjective pronoun, singular number, and belongs to lesson. Lesson is a common noun, third person, singular, in the objective case, and governed by study. Rule: ‘Active verbs govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case.'
VOCABULARY OF WORDS BELONGING TO
THE SCIENCE OF GRAMMAR.
Adverb, (Lat. adverbium) a word added to a verb, participle, adjective, or other adverb, to denote the circumstance of an action or quality.
Adverbial, (Lat. adverbialis) that which has the quality or structure of an adverb.
Adjective, (Lat. adjectivum) a word added to a noun to express its quality.
Antecedent, (Lat. antecedens) that which goes before.
Apposition, (Lat. appositio) adding to, the putting of two nouns in the same case. · Auxiliary, (Lat. auxiliaris) assistant, aiding, helping.
Conjunction, (Lat. conjunctio) union, association, a part of speech used to connect words and sentences tog ether.
Conjunctive, (Lat. conjunctivus) belonging to that mode of a verb which follows a conjunction.
Conjugate, (Lat. conjugo) to decline or vary verbs through their various significations.
Copulative, (Lat. copulativus) having the power to unite. Applied to conjunctions that connect words and sentences, without disjoining the sense.
Disjunctive, (Lat. disjunctivus) that which marks separation. Disjoining, dividing. .
Imperative, (Lat. imperativus) commanding, expressive of command.
Indicative, (Lat. indicativus) showing, informing, or pointing out with precision.
Infinitive, (Lat. infinitivus) expressing action or being indeterminately.
Inflection, (Lat. inflectio) the act of bending or turning. Variation of a noun or verb.
Interjection, (Lat, interjectio) something put or thrown between.
Intransitive, (Lat. intransitivus) not capable of passing over to any object.
Nominative, (Lat. nominativus) naming, belonging to that case of a noun which stands as the subject of a verb.
Noun, (Lat. nomen) the name of any thing.
Participle, (Lat. participium) a word partaking the nature of a noun and a verb.
Passive, (Lat. passivus) suffering without acting.
Pluperfect, (Lat. plus and perfectus) more than the perfect.
Potential, (Lat. potentialis) possible, existing in possibility.
Pronominal, (Lat. pronominalis) belonging to a pronoun, having the nature and doing the office of a pronoun.
Pronoun, (Lat. pronomen) a word that is used instead of the proper name.
Preposition, (Lat. præpositio) that which is placed before.
Substantive, (Lat. substantivum) a noun denoting the substance, or thing existing, not a quality.
Subjunctive, (Lat. subjunctivus) subjoined or added to something else.
Transitive, (Lat. transitivus) having the power of passing from one to another.
Verb, (Lat. verbum) a word, or part of speech signifying being, doing, or suffering.
LIST OF FOREIGN TERMS TRANSLATED
In reading, we frequently find words and phrases not belonging to the English language. In order to disp:ise of them properly, we must know their signification. The following examples contain many of the terms alluded to, with a translation of them into our own tongue. The letter F, will denote them to be French, and the letter L, to be Latin.
• If this be not a pretty significant approbium theologorum, we know not what is.' L. If this be not a pret. ty significant commendation of theologists, we know not what is.'
In England the Methodists form a distinct people, an imperium imperio.' L. In England the Methodists form a distinct people, a government within a government.
• Ile may solicit an auto de fe to burn you.' F. He may solicit an act of faith to burn you.
'It cannot admit of salutary restraints, aliunde.' L. It cannot admit of salutary restraints, elsewhere.
* The remark was very apropos.' L. The remark was very pertinent.
Divided ad infinitum.' L. Divided without end.
Estimated ad valorem.' L. Estimated according to their value.
• He drew conclusions a posteriori.' L. He drew conclusions from what followed.
He drew conclusions a priori. L. He drew conclusions from what had gone before.
"The beau monde are very precise in their manners.' F. The fashionable world are very precise in their manners.
“The contract was made bona fide.' L. The contract was made in good faith.
The coup d'ail was most grand and imposing.' F. The display was most grand and imposing.
"We had not time to see the ci-devant church of the Jesuits.' F. We had not time to see the former church of the Jesuits. • The city was taken by a coup de main. F. The city was taken by a daring effort.
. An ex parte council was called.'-L. A council on one side was called.
'E pluribus unum.' L. One formed of many.
• President of the Senate, ex-officio.' L. President of the Senate, by virtue of his office.
• The quarrel being entirely entre nous.' F. The quarrel being entirely between us.
As if the Faculty itself, had cx proprio motu, assembled.' L. As if the Faculty itself, had from their own impulse, assembled.
. In regard to governments de facto,' L. In regard to governments existing as they are
A single curia advisare vult, will do the business.' L. A single consultation of the court will do the business.
" It behoyes the states to inquire into the cui hono, into the policy of it.' L. It behoves the states to inqoire into the for whose good, into the policy. of it.
• Encore was vociferated by a thousand voices.' F. Repeat it was vociferated by a thousand voices.
We believe this ex animo.' L. We believe this from the heart..
-When this is said, excunt omnes.' L. When this is said, all go out.
'I judge ipso facto,' L. I judge from the fact itself.
'The Emperor travelled incognito.' L. The Emperor travelled disguised.
• His ipse dixit needs proof. L. His assertion needs
• The people rebelled en masse. F. The people rebelled in a body.
"A fac simile of the hand writing,' L. An exact copy of the hand writing.
*The fille de chambre has retired.' F. The chamber maid has retired.
'A wuit of habeas corpus. L. A writ of power to take the body.
His biographer has preserved the following jeu d' esprit.' F. His biographer has preserved the following witty speech.
Unless he were a church member, a fortiori, not a member of the legislature.' L. Unless he were a church member, for a stronger reason, not a member of the legislature.
*He was discharged by proving an alibi.' L. He was discharged by proving bimself elsewhere.
Imprimis, I will notice that circumstance.' L. In the first place, I will notice that circumstance.
. Which starts the cry of hoc habet from the whole amphitheatre.' L. Which starts the cry of this is excellent from the whole amphitheatre.
• He said it in a playful mood, en badinant.' F. He said it in a playful mood, in joking.