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Present. Work, Wring, Write,

Imperfect. wrought, wrung, wrote,

Perfect Participle.

wrought, worked. .. wrung.

written.

Can, May,

Shall,

DEFECTIVE VERBS, Are such as can be conjugated, or varied, only, in some particular modes and tenses. Am, was, been, can, must, could, shall, should, may, might, will, would, ought, quoth, &c. are defective verbs. We can say, 'I learn, I learned, I have learned, I had learned, I shall or will learn, I may, can, or must learn.' But, shall is a defective verb. We can say, I shall, but we cannot say, I have shall, I had shall, I shall or will shall, I may, can, or must shall. By this rule, we can always distinguish a defective verb. Present. Imperfect

Perfect Participle. could,'

(wanting.) might,

should, Will,

would, Must, Ought,

ought,

quoth,

AUXILIARY, OR HELPING VERBS, ... Are those which help to conjugate other verbs, They are, do, be, have, has, shall, will, may and can, with their variations; and let and must, which have no variations.

The auxiliary and principal verb must be parsed together, although they may be separated by intervening words; as, 'We should immediately and without reserve, confess our faults.' Should, in this sentence, is the auxiliary, and confess is the principal verb; therefore, should and confess are taken together, and parsed as one word. Verbs and other parts of speech cannot be parsed together; therefore, we cannot parse should immediately confess in union with each other, because, immediately is an adverb.

The verb, whose tense the auxiliary shows, is the principal verb; as, 'James uaill ride. John has written.'

wilt,

can. canst.

may,

can.

are,

may,

The auxiliary verbs are signs of the potential mode. The auxiliary verbs are thus varied:

- Present Tense. I, do, am, have, shall, will, may, Thou, dost, art, hast, shalt,

magst, He, does, is, has, shall, will,

can. We, do, are, have, shall, will,

may, Ye, do,

have, shall, will may, can. They, do, are, have, shall, will,

can.
Imperfect Tense.
I, did, was, had, should, would, might, could.
Thou, didst, wast, hadst, shouldst, wouldst, mighst, couldst.
He, did, wast, had, should, would, might,' could.
We, did, were, had, should, would, might, could.
Ye, did, were, had, should, would, might, could.
They, did, were, had, should, would, might, could.

Participles.
Pres. doing, being, having ; Perf. done, been, had.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS. The conjugation of a verb, is its variation through al} its moods, tenses, numbers and persons.

The conjugation of an active verb is styled the ac. tive voice; and that of a passive verb, the passive voice.

Conjugation of the irregular active verb have.

TO HAVE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 Pers. I have

i We have
2 Pers. Thou hast, or you have* 2 Ye or you have
3 Pers. He, she,or it, hath or has 3 They have

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural, 1 I had

1 We had 2 I hadst

2 Ye or you had 3 He, &c. had

3 They had

* The second person singular may have a similar variation in every personal tense of this aud all other verbs.

Perfect Tense
Singular.

Plural. 1 I have had

1 We have had 2 Thou hast had

2 Ye or you have had 3 He has had

3 They have had

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I had had

1 We had had 2 Thou hadst had

2 Ye or you had had 3 He had had

3 They had had First Future Tense.

Plural. 1 I shall or will have

1 We shall or will have, 2 Thou shalt or wilt have

2 Yc or you shall or will have 3 He shall or will have

3 They shall or will have
Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural.
I I shall have had

1 We shall have had 2 Thou wilt have had

2 Ye or you will have had 3 He will have had

3. They will have had

singular vill ha it have

When a question is asked, which occurs only in the indicative and potential moods, the pronoup or substantive is placed after the verb, or its first auxiliary ; as, Singi:lar.

Plural.
· Have I ?

Have we?
Hast thou ?

Have ye?
Has he ?

Have they?
In like manner, we say, "Have I had ?'. Shall I have had ?''May
I have ? • Do I love ?? Am I loved ? &c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD
Singular.

Plural.
- wanting,

- wanting.' 2 Have thou, or do thou have 2 Have ye, or do ye or you have - wanting.

wanting.

POTENTIAL MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular,

Plural, 1 I may, can or must have

1 We may, can or must have 2 Thou mayst, canst or must 2 Ye or you may, can or must have

have 3 lle may, can or must have 2 They may, can or must have

Imperfect Tense
Singular.

Plural. 1 I might, could, would, or should i We might, could, would, or have

should have 2 Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, 2 Ye or you might, could, or shouldst have

would, or should have 3 He might, could, would, or . 3 They might, could, would, or should have

should have

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I may, can, or must have had i We may, can or must have had 2 Thou mayst, canst or must have 2 Ye or you may, can or must had

have had 3 He may, can or must have 3 They may, can, or must have had

had Pluperfect Tense. Singular.

• Plaral. i I might, could, would or should 1 We might, could, would or have had

should have had 2 Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst 2 Ye or you might, could,would or shouldst have had

or should have had 3 He might, could, would or 3 They might, could, would or should have had

should have had

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SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense
Singular.

Plural, 1 If I have

1 If we have 2 Ifthou have

2 If ye or you have 3 If he have

3 If they have

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I had

1 If we had 2 if thou liadst

2 If ye or you had 3 If he, &c. had

3 If they had.

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I have had

1 If we have had 2 If thon hast hado

2 If ye or you have hadva! 3 If he has bad

3 If they have badat

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular,

Plural, 1 If I had had

1 If we had had 2 If thou hadst hado

2 If ye or you had hadd 3 If he had had

3 If they had hadi;

First Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I shall or will have

1 If we shall or will have 2 If thou shalt or wilt have 2 If ye or you shall or will

have
3 If he shall or will have 3 If they shall or will have

Second Future Tense.
Singular..

Plural. 1 I shall have had

1 If we shall have had 2 If thou shalt have had

2 If ye or you shall have had 3 If he shall have had

3 If they shall have had.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present, To have

Perfect, To have had.
Participles.
Present or Active. Having.
Perfect or Passive. Had.
Compound Perfect. Having had.

Conjugation of the irregular neuter verb, be.

TO BE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I am

1 We are 2 Thou art

2 Ye or you are 3 He, sbe, or it, is

2 They are

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I was

1 We were 2 Thou wast

2 Ye or you were 3 He was

3 They were

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I have been

1 We have been 2 Thou hast been

2 Ye or you have been 3 He hath or has been

e been.
Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I had been

1 We had been 2 Thou hadst been

2 Ye or you had been 3 He had been

3 They had been

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