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OBJECTIVE CASE. Objective is taken from object, which in grammar signifies the word or sentence which receives the force or impression of the verb. When one person strikes another, the one that strikes is in the nominative case, because he is the agent or actor, and the one that is struck is in the objective, because he is the object that receives the blow.
There are three parts of speech which govern the objective case; namely, active verbs, active participles, and prepositions. 'I saw a man.' Here man is the object of the action of the transitive verb saw. Active transitive verbs govern the objective case. •Charlotte learns grammar. Here Charlotte is the agent or actor, and is in the nominative case to the verb learns. Learns is the action, and grammar the object acted upon. Grammar is therefore in the objective case. 'Receiving the intelligence.' Writing a letter.' Here intelligence and letter are nouns in the objective case, the objects of the action of the active participles, receiving and writing.
. With the gentlemen, from New-York.' Here the nouns gentlemen and New-York are in the objective case, the objects of a relation, governed by the prepositions with and from.
The noun or pronoun following a preposition must be in the objective case, unless that noun or pronoun is in the possessive case.
A noun, which signifies the price, is put in the objective case, without a preposition; as, “My book is. worth twenty shillings.'
A noun, which signifies the measure exceeding, is put in the objective case with a preposition either expressed or understood; as, I am ten inches taller than you.' Here the preposition is understood. “I am taller than you by ten inches.' Here the preposition is expressed.
A noun, which signifies the height, length, breadth, depth, thickness, and squareness of a thing, is put after adjectives in the objective case, without a preposition; as, this tree is thirty feet high; ' 'this city is
two miles long, and one broad;' this well is twenty feet deep;' my book is three inches thick;' in the city of New Haven, there is a spacious green, three hundred yards square.'
Participial nouns, (so called, because they have the sense of nouns, and admit prepositions to precede them, that govern them as nouns in the objective) govern the nouns that follow them in the objective case; as, 'I heard of his writing a book.' There is much fortitude shown in a man's conquering his passions.' Here writing and conquering are used as participial nouns, governing book and passions in the objective case.
Participial nouns are sometimes used without an objective case following them; as, “They heard of his failing.' "This is the Lord's doing.' But the objective case in most instances, is either expressed or understood.
Participial nouns may be governed by the preposition on understood; as, 'He went a hunting,' that is, on a hunting. “A participial noun may stand as a nominative case to a following verb; as, “His dying reduced the children to poverty.' 'Men's continuing in sin is the cause of their unhappiness.'
Participial nouns are sometimes used as substantives in the objective case, governed by a preceding verb; as, 'He repented his having neglected his studies at college.'
When a participle is not connected with a possessive noun or pronoun, it must not be considered a participial noun; as, 'Who ever heard of a miser despising riches?' Here the participle despising agrees with its noun miser, and governs riches in the objective case.
Participles are to be considered nouns when they have an article before them and a preposition after them; as, 'By the observing of these rules he succeeded.'
DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
EXPLANATION OF THE ADJECTIVE.
The word Adjective signifies to add, to apply. In grammar, it signifies adnoun, or a word added to a noun to express its quality.
When describing a horse, we say that he is gentle, kind, and handsome. Here gentle, kind, and handsome, are adjectives, expressing the qualities of the horse. Adjectives may always be distinguished, by their being the word, or words, made use of to describe the quality, or condition, of whatever is mentioned.
Adjectives belong to the nouns which they describe.
Adjectives will not admit of having gender, number, or person applied to them. They vary only in the scale of comparison, of such, there are reckoned three degrees. The positive, the comparative, and the superlative. If I should say, John is a good boy, James is a better one, but Charles is the best of the three, good is in the positive, better is in the comparative, and best is in the superlative degree,
The comparative degree must be used when two things are compared, and the superlative when more than two things are compared; as, 'This is the prettier of the two; or, this is the prettiest of the three.'
In connecting comparatives, or superlatives, the longest adjective should be placed last; as, 'He is older, and more respectable than his brother.'
There are some adjectives that are always in the superlative' degree; as, right, supreme, eternal, infinite, everlasting, immortal, extreme, perfect, universal. It would not be proper to say, more or most right, more or most supreme, more or most immortal, or, more or most universal. Nor is it proper to say, He is the most
happiest of men, or, he is the most cruelest or eloquentest man, Charles is the most brightest scholar, or Nancy the most beautifulest child. Adjectives having a superlative signification, do not admit of the superlative, or comparative form being superadded.
Adjectives should not be placed before the wrong nouns; as, ' A beautiful piece of calico, a new pair of pantaloons, instead of saying, a piece of beautiful calico, or a pair of new pantaloons.'
Adjectives most generally precede the nouns of which, they express the quality; as, “A generous man; How amiable a woman!' Yet notwithstanding, they sometimes follow them; as, 'A lady, wise, discreet, and amiable. A man generous to his enemies. A tree three feet thick.'
Sometimes adjectives are used as nouns; as, Our heavenly Father rewards the good, and punishes the bad.' Here, good and bad, are used as nouns in the room of persons, and must be parsed as such.
Nouns likewise become adjectives; as, 'A gold watch. A leather apron. Here gold, and leather, though nouns, are used as adjectives to express the qualities of watch and apron.
Adjectives are sometimes improperly used instead of adverbs; as, 'He walks graceful, instead of gracefully.' 'He spoke correct; instead of correctly. If quality is implied, we must use an adjective; but if manner, we must use an adverb.
When an adjective has a preposition before it, and the noun is understood, take them together, and call them an adverb, or adverbial phrase; as, in vain, in general, in particular, &c.; that is, vainly, generally, particularly.
A noun with its adjective is reckoned as one compound word, whence they often take another adjective, and sometimes a third, and so on; as, • An old man; a good old man; a very learned, judicious, good old man.'
Every adjective belongs to some noun, either expressed or understood; as, great, good, wise; that is, persons.
When nouns to which adjectives relate, are not ex
pressed, the adjectives are put absolute; as, 'Who will show us any good?' that is, any good thing.
Pronominal adjectives are put absolute, when they are used in the possessive case; as, 'This horse is your's;' . He came into this world of our's.'
Adjectives often qualify verbs in the infinitive mode; as, “To see the sun is pleasant.'
The adjective such is proper to be used, when we refer to the nature or species of a thing; as, Such a temper I never knew.' But when degree is signified, with an adjective added, the adverb so must be used; as, So bad a temper I never knew.'
In order to tell whether a word be an adjective, or not, place the word thing after it, and if it makes good sense, it is an adjective; as, good thing, sweet thing, bright thing, &c.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON.
Wise, wiser, wisest.
Sup. Industrious, more industrious, most industrious. Fortunate, more fortunate, most fortunate.
Some adjectives are irregular, and will not admit the help of more and most, in the comparative and superlative degrees. Pos.
least. Adjectives of more than one syllable form the comparative by adding er, and the superlative by adding est to the positive.
An adjective sometimes agrees with a member of a sentence; as, “That children should obey their parents is right.'
The adjective worth governs nouns in the objective · case; as, That man is worth a thousand dollars, although he is not worthy of a cent.'