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KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & CO., 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE

(The rights of translation and of reproduotion are roserved)

CONTENTS OF VOL. X.

PAGE

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THE EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS CARLYLE. By James Anthony Froude . 1

New MARKETS FOR BRITISH PRODUCE. By George Baden-Powell. 43

SECOND CHAMBERS. By Sir David Wedderburn, Bart.

56

GOSSIP OF AN OLD BOOKWORM. By William J. Thoms

63, 886

HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE OF OUR CITY POPULATIONS. By Lord

Brabazon

80

M. RENAN AND MIRACLES. By Frederic W. H. Myers

90

CONFISCATION AND COMPENSATION. By E. D. J. Wilson

107

UNITY IN THE CHURCH OF CHRIST. By Earl Nelson

120

A DREDGING GROUND. By the Hon. Emily Lawless

131

MAN'S PLACE IN NATURE. By the Bishop of Carlisle

142

ISOLATED FREE TRADE. (1.) By Sir E. Sullivan, Bart. (2.) By

the Duke of Manchester.

161

*THE RETOLUTIONARY PARTY.' By the Earl of Dunraven

184

THE COMING OF AGE OF THE VOLUNTEERS. By Sir Robert Loyd-

Lindsay

206

HEREDITARY RULERS. By the Marquis of Blandford

217

PRESIDENT GARFIELD. By the Rev. Robert Shindler

236

THE INTELLIGENCE OF Ants (concluded). By George J. Romanes 245

My RETURN TO ARCADY. By the Rev. Dr. Jessopp.

259

THE ARAB MONUMENTS OF EGYPT. By Frank Dillon

276

PANTHEISM, AND COSmic EMOTION. By Frederic Harrison .

284

COUNTY CHARACTERISTICS-Kent. By H. G. Hewlett

296

WHAT SHALL WE DO WITH OUR BANKRUPTS ? By Viscount Sher.

brooke

308

The DEADLOCK IN THE HOUSE OF COMMons. By Frederic Harrison . 317

HOW TO EAT BREAD. By Louisa S. Bevington

341

SCRUTIN DE LISTE ET SCRUTIN D'ARRONDISSEMENT. By M. Joseph

Reinach

357

WOMEN AS Civil Servants. By Margaret E. Harkness

369

THE PLACE OF REVELATION IN EVOLUTION. By the Rev. T. W.

Fowle

382

* Four CENTURIES OF ENGLISH LETTERS.' By Sir Henry Taylor 405

WORRY. By Dr. Mortimer Granville

423

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THE WORKMAN'S VIEW OF "FAIR TRADE.' By George Potter
FRANCE AND NORTH AFRICA. By the Earl de la Warr
THE FUTURE OF GOLD. By M. Emile de Laveleye .
IRELAND AND THE LAND Act. By the Earl of Derby
THE JEWISH QUESTION. By Professor Goldwin Smith
FICTION-FAIR AND FOUL. By John Ruskin
ON COMMERCIAL 'CORNERS.' By William B. Halhed
DISEASE-GERMs. By Dr. W. B. Carpenter.
OUR HIGHWAYS. By Viscount Midleton
CHILD LIFE FOR CHILDREN. By Elizabeth Rossiter
SCIENTIFIC OPTIMISM. By James Sully
FAIR TRADE AND FREE TRADE. (1.) By W. Farrer Ecroyd. (2.) By

Thomas P. Whittaker

DESPAIR: A DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE. By Alfred Tennyson

THE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY OF Egypt. By F. W. Rowsell.

SIR WALTER RALEGH IN IRELAND. By Sir John Pope Hennessy

SHEEP-HUNTING IN THE MOUNTAINS. By the Earl of Dunraven

THE LAST GREAT DREAM OF THE CRUSADE. By the Rev. Baldwin

Brown

INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT. By W. Fraser Rae

THE FUTURE CATHEDRAL OF LIVERPOOL. By the Rev. Canon

Venables

THE ORDER OF CORPORATE REUNION. By the Rev. Dr. F. G. Lee .

A NEW LOVE POET. By the Earl of Lytton

THE IRISH JACOBINS. By J. Woulfe Flanagan

The SCOTCH LAND QUESTION. By Sir Bartle Frere, Bart.

RECENT PHASES OF JÚDÆOPHOBIĄ. By Dr. Hermann Adler

BOILEAU AND POPĖ. By Dr. Charles Mackay

OPIUM AND COMMON SENSE. By Sir Rutherford Alcock

Dean STANLEY AS A SPIRITUAL TEACHER AND THEOLOGIAN. By

Principal Tulloch

THE POSITION OF THE WHGS. By Charles Milnes Gaskell
GOSSIP OF AN OLD BOOKWORM. By W.J. Thons .
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS AND THE HOME OFFICE. By the Hon. E.

Lyulph Stanley
VIVISECTION : ITS PAINS AND ITS Uses. (1.) By Sir James Paget

,

Bart. (2.) By Professor Owen. (3.) By Dr. Wilks

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THE

NINETEENTH

CENTURY.

No. LIII.—JULY 1881.

THE EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS CARLYLE.

The river Annan, rising above Moffat in Hartfell, in the Deil's Beef Tub, descends from the mountains through a valley gradually widening and spreading out, as the fells are left behind, into the rich and wellcultivated district known as Annandale. Picturesque and broken in the

upper part of its course, the stream, when it reaches the level country, steals slowly among meadows and undulating wooded hills, till at the end of fifty miles it falls into the Solway at Annan town. Annandale, famous always for its pasturage, suffered especially before the union of the kingdoms from border forays, the effects of which were long to be traced in a certain wildness of disposition in the inhabitants. Dumfriesshire, to which it belongs, was sternly Cameronian. Stories of the persecutions survived in the farmhouses as their most treasured historical traditions. Cameronian congregations lingered till the beginning of the present century, when they merged in other bodies of seceders from the established religion. In its hard fight for spiritual freedom Scotch Protestantism lost respect for kings and nobles, and looked to Christ rather than to earthly rulers. Before the Reformation all Scotland was clannish or feudal; and the Dumfriesshire yeomanry, like the rest, were organised under great noble families, whose pennon' they followed, whose name they bore, and the remotest kindred with which, even to a tenth generation, they were proud to claim. Among the families of the western border the Carlyles were not the least disVOL. X.-No. 53.

B

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