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CONTENTS OF VOL. X.
THE WORKMAN'S VIEW OF "FAIR TRADE.' By George Potter
Thomas P. Whittaker
THE POSITION OF THE WHGS. By Charles Milnes Gaskell
No. LIII.—JULY 1881.
THE EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS CARLYLE.
The river Annan, rising above Moffat in Hartfell, in the Deil's Beef Tub, descends from the mountains through a valley gradually widening and spreading out, as the fells are left behind, into the rich and wellcultivated district known as Annandale. Picturesque and broken in the
upper part of its course, the stream, when it reaches the level country, steals slowly among meadows and undulating wooded hills, till at the end of fifty miles it falls into the Solway at Annan town. Annandale, famous always for its pasturage, suffered especially before the union of the kingdoms from border forays, the effects of which were long to be traced in a certain wildness of disposition in the inhabitants. Dumfriesshire, to which it belongs, was sternly Cameronian. Stories of the persecutions survived in the farmhouses as their most treasured historical traditions. Cameronian congregations lingered till the beginning of the present century, when they merged in other bodies of seceders from the established religion. In its hard fight for spiritual freedom Scotch Protestantism lost respect for kings and nobles, and looked to Christ rather than to earthly rulers. Before the Reformation all Scotland was clannish or feudal; and the Dumfriesshire yeomanry, like the rest, were organised under great noble families, whose pennon' they followed, whose name they bore, and the remotest kindred with which, even to a tenth generation, they were proud to claim. Among the families of the western border the Carlyles were not the least disVOL. X.-No. 53.