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of human depravity? Might not, would not despondency weaken his utterance? Now he has all the stimulus of hope. With this doctrine ruling in his soul, how can a man be puffed up with that vanity which may turn eloquence into declamation, weaken its power over men, and make the pulpit a stage for human exhibition. This doctrine, so far from discouraging the study of Pulpit Eloquence, becomes the very life and spring of its proper study, urging the sacred orator, for its sake-for the sake of rightly setting forth the mind of the Spirit, and so securing His approbation—to strive to make himself master of the art. "That fanaticism which expects success in efforts for the conversion and sanctification of men without the diligent use of appropriate means, is not less culpable than that self-reliance, and pride of intellect, which forgetting our dependence on God, seeks by its own ability to turn many to righteousness.

Facts abundantly sustain these views. Pulpit Eloquence has shone in its brightest glory, and won some of its noblest triumphs, where this doctrine has been most fully realized. There have arisen men, who like Apollos were eloquent as well as mighty in the Scriptures, or who might have won from listening thousands such tributes as were given by the men of Lystra unto Paul when they called him Mercurius—who yet have bowed most humbly at the feet of the Divine Spirit, saying, “ Not unto us, not unto us, but unto thy name be all the glory." Even these two, Paul and Apollos, may be cited as examples of those who, though eloquent in speech, yet most devoutly felt and owned that God gave the increase. How many thousands listened to the eloquence of Whitefield and paid it homage-while yet who more than he bowed before the Spirit, even in the use of every art? Our Griffin, and our Payson, names of note, striving with all human power, yet looked unto the Spirit for success. Our Edwards, too, deficient as he was in much that constitutes the orator, still summoned to his use and combined in action many elements of power, until beneath his mighty periods laden with awful truths, the souls of men bowed in trembling or swelled with anxious inquiry: while all the time he leaned upon the Spirit's aid, and felt himself to be but dust. And Chalmers, too, devoid of many graces of the orator, and not a model for the student, yet so wondrously eloquent, with his giant intellect, and eagle-winged imagination, and most capacious soul,-how has he taught us, both by word and action, that the great man becomes still more truly great, when even in the utmost of his energetic action, and the most thorough arousing of his faculties, and the most perfect stringing of his soul for his performance, he relies on the Holy Spirit to give him an entrance to the hearts of men, and to cause from the seed of his sowing a harvest to spring up for the glory of God, and for the bliss of heaven. And others might be named

among the departed. And there are living men, whose praise is in the churches no less for their noble eloquence attracting admiration, than for their godly lives securing regard, who clearly show that in the cultivation of Pulpit Eloquence they have not lost sight of their dependence on the Holy Ghost : that, moved with earnest desire to do good, and watching the working of God's providence, and studying the principles of God's grace, they have deemed it their duty to fit themselves so far as they were able by the most careful cultivation of their faculties, and acquisition of power, for the most complete and profitable cooperation with the Divine Spirit in the work of human salvation.

3. This doctrine, properly recognized, will, in a most salutary manner, affect the character of Pulpit Eloquence.

It cannot be denied that there is much said and done in the pulpit which ought not to be said and done therein : things as much at variance with right ideas of eloquence, as they are with a due regard to the place, and the service. It is not a sufficient apology to say that such things are eccentricities, or that the motive which prompts them is good. No motive can give sanction to improper means. Pains ought to be taken to avoid unpleasant eccentricities. Good men may have infirmities, deficiencies, faults, which may perhaps diminish, without destroying their influence-which inay be regretted without being censured. But personal display, trifling, buffoonery, jesting, vulgarity, in the pulpit

, are intolerable, and can be palliated by no considerations. Now a proper recognition of the great doctrine which we are considering

(1.) Will give dignity to the utterances of the Pulpit.

He who realizes that he speaks continually under the eye of the Spirit, and is dependent entirely on Him for success, will surely be anxious to avoid everything that might be offensive to the Spirit. He will cultivate a seriousness and solemnity both of feeling and of manner, which will prevent trifling and extravagance. He will weigh well his words, and be anxious not to go beyond, nor fall short of the truth. He will summon to his aid all that may bear upon the great object before him, and strive to avoid all that might in any way obstruct or counteract the effect which he desires to produce. He will consider all foolish talking and jesting as “not convenient”--as utterly unbecoming the house of God, and the lips of God's ambassador. This doctrine, taken into his heart, will prevent his employing the pulpit as a stage for the display of his own powers; or as an arena for strife with an opponent; or as a channel for the venting of private animosities. It will teach him to maintain the character of an ambassador of God, and not to descend to the petty strifes and pursuits of earth. It will cause him to forget himself in the preaching of Christ crucified, and will give to his Eloquence such a character as will lead his hearers away from him who speaks to the contemplation of the important and precious truths which he utters.

So, again :

(2.) This doctrine will make preaching Scriptural in its character.

He who realizes the work of the Holy Spirit will strive to speak the mind of the Holy Spirit. The sermons of such a man will be pervaded by the spirit of the sacred Scriptures. All will bear the savor of the source whence it originates. He will not, he cannot, expect the Divine agent to bless human philosophy, or human literature, or human science, to the salvation of the soul. Divine truth, the truth of the gospel, is the instrument by which the Holy Spirit produces regeneration; and he who would have the Spirit's blessing must utter this. Jesus Christ crucified for sinners is the power of God, and the wisdom of God unto salvation, and this will he who depends on His Holy Spirit preach, letting its light and influence be diffused on every discourse. He will never occupy the position of a special pleader and using scripture merely for the purpose of establishing a point, tear members of passages from their connection, and destroying their true vitality, give them a meaning of his own. He will not come in God's name with the elaborate speculations of human reason, hiding in their mist the light of the gospel, but that gospel will preside over his reason, and its simple teaching will furnish his message. What he finds unauthorized there, he will not venture to propose as fundamental truth. He will not seek to feed immortal souls with the dry husks of natural theology, but gathering the sweet manna that has fallen from the sky, he will present it to his wayfaring fellow-men, that they may eat thereof, and find it the bread of Eternal Life. Once more,

(3.) This doctrine will give an unction to preaching:

He who realizes his dependence on the Holy Spirit will pray for the Spirit's aid and blessing--and prayer will give unction to preaching. Here will be a security for the prevalence of that piety without which no man can be a truly Christian preacher, and which is the life of Pulpit Eloquence. This will fill the soul with holy fervor. It will drive away all coldness, listlessness, frigid formality. He who rightly views this great truth will be all alive with interest, and his preaching will be “in demonstration of the Spirit and of power.” His devout prayer and humble waiting will secure the blessing of the Holy Ghost, and this will give that warmth and earnestness to his delivery which are felt by those who hear.

In view of the considerations thus presented, and whose correctness, we presume, will scarcely be questioned, we remark,

1. That the study of Pulpit Eloquence ought to receive the diligent attention of those who are called to preach the gospel.

The great fact which some employ as an objection to its study, viz., our dependence on the Holy Spirit, is in our view, and as we have endeavored to show, one of the strongest incitements to its cultivation. A proper reception of this fact into the mind and heart will guard against those faults which too many ignorantly associate with the study of Sacred Rhetoric and Pulpit Oratory, They seem to suppose that Rhetoric teaches but to adorn, and tends to vanity and mere display, while Oratory is empty declamation, and a merely human art at variance with the sacredness of truth. But let them consider that it is the office of this double art to enable men with most effect to set forth the truth, to make their knowledge most powerful, to speak well for God, most clearly to exhibit the mind of the Spirit, and most closely to conform themselves to the laws which that Spirit has enacted : let them consider that the very highest erinence in eloquence is fully consistent with the humblest dependence on the Sovereign Spirit--let them consider the power of speech as created by God, and, with all its wondrous influence on the soul, selected by Him for the great purpose of co-operating in man's salvation : let them remember that Eloquence is not simply the gift of Nature but the result of study ; that, with rare exceptions, the orator is formed by patient toil, and persevering practice—while yet all the rules of the art are derived from nature herself, and its highest aim is to make man least artificial and most true to nature, and to enable each individual man to develope most completely the powers with which he has been endowed by the God of Naturelet them remember and consider these things, and they will be ashamed of their weak prejudices, and will lay aside their objections, and will urge others and themselves to study to speak well in behalf of that which is right. Men do not think when they listen with intense interest, and with glowing hearts, to some eloquent speaker, whose language full of power, and clothed in beauty, flows with so much ease accompanied by so much of gracefulness and force of action, of the months and years of careful study and continued practice, by which that power of language, and ease and gracefulness of delivery have been attained. The Athenian crowd, moved to bursting enthusiasm, thought not of the sounding sea-coast, and the solitary cave where their great Demosthenes was trained for his noble triumph. The Romans detected not in the richly flowing sentences, and wellturned periods and indignant tones, and moving appeals, that came in such profusion from the lips of their great orator, the midnight studies, and careful exercises, which were their prelude and preparation. Those great orations which have given fame to the orators of Great Britain and America, were not the off


spring of the moment—at least, with scarcely an exception were not the efforts of uncultivated powers. And when by cultivated speech such mighty results are produced, such glorious triumphs are accomplished, shall the Pulpit be deprived of the opportunity of attaining to the like power? And shall we offer to the Holy Spirit, as instruments for the accomplishment of a work infinitely transcending in importance all sway of senates, all government of nations-powers, rude, uncultivated; tongues stammering, that might be made to pour forth burning words ; eyes meaningless, that might give double force to truth ; action, rude and awkward, which might be made by gracefulness to commend the truth; gesticulation devoid of force, that might so second the utterance of the truth, as to make it like a winged arrow from a well-strung bow? Shall there be no regard to style, no carefulness in arrangement, no selection of words, no marshalling of the truths committed to our use, so as to make them most effective and triumphant? There are faults to be avoided as well as excellence to be attained; faults which do greatly obstruct the power of truth. And surely that department of sacred study which endeavors to teach how to avoid them, and to secure excellence, cannot be lightly esteemed by the Holy Ghost.

Let, then, the sacred preacher, or let him who expects at some future day to occupy the sacred office of the minister of Christ, carefully improve all means for attaining unto the highest degree of fitness for his work. Let him study to acquire the best method of preaching the truth. Let him strive to be eloquent in speech. His great object is to persuade men to seek the kingdom of God, and His righteousness; and while he is not responsible for the results of his preaching, but for his fidelity, let him remember that he is not faithful unless hc strives conscientiously to discharge his duty in the best manner.

2. We may learn the relation which the study of Rhetoric and Oratory should sustain to other departments of Theological training.

It presupposes both knowledge and piety on the part of him who would speak. Both these are essential to Pulpit Eloquence. Without them the utterances of the speaker from the pulpit are idle declamation. Even Pagan rhetoricians have deemed a virtuous character essential to true eloquence, insisting that the orator should be a good man; and much more should the Christian demand of him who speaks in God's name of holy things, a life of godliness. In order to speak well it is necessary to understand the subject about which we speak. And there must be knowledge or their is no room for speech; no materials for eloquence. But knowledge needs an utterance, and it is the province of this department of study to teach how to give it the best utterance to take one who has learned to draw water from

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