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in itself intensely exciting and full of instruction. It embodies lessons of great practical value to individuals and to nations, which ought never to be forgotten. We have here a portraiture of all the leading actors in that eventful and bloody drama, of which Revolutiouary France was the scene, and the world the astonished spectator. The list embraces not only the personages which formed the Girondist party, but also of their successors of the Jacobin Club, and the Revolutionary Tribunal. The work is written with marked ability, and with rigid impartiality. It exhibits great researeh, a thorough knowledge of the subject, a wonderful power of analysis, great keenness of penetration, and a perfect dramatic arrangement. The style possesses that purity, fire, and poetic beauty, which have characterized the other works of this author, as well as his parliamentary orations. There is a healthful moral sentiment pervading the work, an unaffected reverence for God, and a high regard for truth. The history of Charlotte Corday, and the delineation of Robespierre, to specify no others, are masterly executions, uniting to the stern facts of history, the charm and interest of romance. It is unquestionably the ablest and most truthful history of the French Revolution, which has yet been written. The memoir of Lamartine, accompanying the last volume, embracing a sketch of his life, and the recent revolution in which he acted so distinguished a part, adds to the interest and value of the work.

9. Niagara. A Poem. By Rev. C. H. A. BULKLEY. Leavitt, Trow & Co. 1848.

What a theme for a poet's inspiration! The dullest head and the most stupid heart will become poetic in the contemplation of this wonder of nature. We have seen the most common matter-of-fact persons, become suddenly enthusiastic, sentimental, really poetic in feeling, manner and language, when brought into contact with this truly grand and overpowering scene. Every man has poetry in him, and NIAGARA will wake it into being and call it out, in one form or another. Multitudes who never scribbled verses before, make the attempt at the shrine of this divinity. Hitherto we have had nothing but "fugative” verse, but here comes a regular “ Poem”—Niagara fairly booked and in rhyme and metre! It was a bold flight for our young poet. It needed the practiced pinions of the soaring “eagle,” whose home is in the clouds, to bear one safely over such a torrent of waters and chasm of thought and emotion. But there is poetry in this book. The author is not destitute of the true fire. Some portions of it are more than respectable. The versification is easy and smooth; the conception natural, and the execution fair ; and this is saying no little for such a subject. The author may be well encouraged to cultivate the muse. Above all, let no reader condemn this Poem, till he has seen Niagara, and indulged in the luxury of thought and emotion which this work pleasingly brings to our remembrance. The notes forming the Appendix are full and valuable.

10. Loiterings in Europe ; or Sketches of Travel in France, Belgium, Switzerland,

Italy, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain and Ireland. With an Appendix, containing observations on European Charities and Medical Institutions. By John W. CORSON, M. D. Harper & Brothers, 1848.

Another book of Travels! And a very readable and entertaining one. It will not add much however to our previous information respecting European society or matters in general, and unfortunately, this may be said of nearly all our books of modern travel. We have had “First Impressions,” “ Pencilings by the Way," “ Incidents of Travel,” and “ Bird's eye views,” to our heart's content, but very few have taken the pains to acquaint themselves thoroughly with real actual lise as it exists abroad, in order to enrich the public with the information. Nevertheless there are many lively and graphic sketches in these volumes; the style is free, natural and chaste; the sentiments are pure and elevated, the writer is always good-natured, and looks at things on the bright side, and he will find readers not a few. The Lectures comprising the Appendix, are really valuable. There are two on European Charities and Poor, which it will do the heart good to read, and one on Foreign Hospitals and Schools of Medicine. They embody a considerable amount of information on these subjects, which lay the public and his profession especially, under an obligation to the author.

11. Kings and Queens ; or Life in the Palace : consisting of Historical Sketches of

Josephine and Maria Louisa, Louis Philippe, Ferdinand of Austria, Nicholas, Isabella II, Leopold and Victoria. By John S. C. ABBOTT. Harper & Brothers, 1848.

These enterprising Publishers are bringing out a goodly number of popular works, and in a style of unrivalled beauty. This new work by Abbott will doubtless find many readers. The characters sketched; the popularity of the writer, and the feverish state of the public mind just now, in regard to "6 Kings and Queens,” will call attention to this new work. The sketches are brief, lively, graphic, and in the main, we doubt not truthful. The leading events in the private and public life of each, are here noted and arranged, so as to enable one to form a tolerable just estimate of their respective characters. The portrait drawn of Josephine, is a most lovely and beautiful one. Louis Philippe, we think, is over-estimated; recent events will go far to reverse the feeling of admiration and respect which has been felt for him, and his name will go down to posterity under a world of reproach and condemnation. We regret that the sketch of him does not embrace the period of his present exile. We long to know of him, authoritatively, under this terrible rebuke. Are the dark and painful reports we have heard concerning him, true ? These sketches teach a lesson. No sane mind can read them, and envy Kings and Queens their crowns. In the light of them we see with affecting clearness the vanity of all human greatness and glory. 12. Mary Grover, or the Trusting Wife; A Domestic Temperance Tale. By

CHARLES BURDETT. Harper & Brothers, 1848.

This is a Temperance Tale of no ordinary interest. The materials we are assured, are drawn mainly from actual life. As a narrative, simple, truthful, unadorned, of the blight and misery and degradation, and untold evils ever attendant on the drunkaru's course, and also of the meek sorrows, and patient sufferings, and almost super-buman resolution of an injured yet loving, trusting and noblehearted wife, it possesses power to move the sensibilities and instruct the judg. ment of the reader. There are scenes here of domestic sorrow, caused by intemperance, and of domestic joy and prosperity, as the fruit of a genuine reformation, which it were well for every man and woman to read and ponder. The lesson here taught is the insidious character of this enslaving habit; the insufficiency of human strength to accomplish a true reform, and the folly of thinking to sustain and complete the Temperance Reformation, without the sanction of religion and the special blessing of God. 13. William the Cottager. By the Author of Ellen Herbert; or Family Changes. Harper & Brothers. 1848.

This is a little book of inimitable sweetness and beauty. It is full of pious lessons to the young. It narrates the history of one who was reared by the hand of humble piety; exposed to temptations from evil associations, and made to suffer greatly in consequence; humbled and chastened by the discipline, he gladly returns to the quiet home and scenes of innocent childhood, where the early lessons of godly parents bring forth fruit most grateful and blessed It teaches the great value of an early pious training; the reward of honesty and virtue; and, above all, the power of religion, to adorn and beautify the lowly walks of life, and bring contentment and happiness to the cottages of the poor. Parents can scarcely put a better book into the hands of their children. 14. The Children of the New Forest. By Captain MarryAT, R. N. Harper &

Brothers. 1848.

This work is designed mainly for juvenile readers. The scene of the story is laid in England, in Cromwell's day, and the events of it are interwoven with the history of that eventful period. The story is well conceived and well told ; the characters are natural and well-sustained, and the moral of the whole is unexceptionable. If the Captain had never written anything worse than this, we should have had little occasion to find fault with him. The young will find this an entertaining book, and about as profitable as the better sort of this kind of reading usually is.

THE

BIBLICAL REPOSITORY

AND

CLASSICAL REVIEW.

THIRD SERIES, NO. XVI.-WHOLE NUMBER, LXXII.

OCTOBER, 1848.

ARTICLE I. PULPIT ELOQUENCE AS AFFECTED BY DIVINE

INFLUENCE.

By Rev. J. Few SMITH, Prof. of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, in the Theological

Seminary, Auburn, N. Y.

ELOQUENCE has always held a high place in human estimation. The orator commands admiration. He wields a mighty power. It is a great thing to rule the minds and hearts of men; and this is his prerogative. It is his to stir up the deep waters of the soul; to summon every passion from its secret chamber, and arouse it to activity; to throw burning coals upon the conscience, and dart the lightning flashes of truth in upon the mind. And it is a noble sight to look upon, and it may well enkindle the loftiest ambition, to behold a man master of eloquence, swaying assem. bled thousands; fastening upon himself every eye in the vast assembly, looking through each eye, into the heart, throwing his own thoughts and feelings into their souls, convincing their reason, deciding their judgment, and carrying them as one man with himself. Eloquence has had such triumphs; and they are among the proudest that human intellect has ever achieved: and, therefore, it is a great and noble thing to be truly eloquent. It is a noble thing to be the defender of innocence; the asserter of justice; the advocate of truth: to convince men's understanding, and to persuade them to that which is right :-and this is the province of Eloquence; for Eloquence, in its highest forin, is speaking well in behalf of that which is right.

What is true of Eloquence in general, loses none of its force when applied to the particular department of Pulpit Eloquence. There, too, it is a noble power, commanding admiration; and there especially it is speaking well in behalf of that which is

THIRD SERIES, VOL. IV. NO. 4. 1

right. But Pulpit Eloquence has a province peculiarly its own. It is distinguished by its object and its nature. Its object-the highest that can be contemplated by a believer in Christianityis to persuade men to “seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness :” to induce sinful men to enter that kingdom, and those who are therein to increase in conformity to its holy statutes. In its nature, it is an instrumentality rather than a directly efficient power. It does not produce its effect on men simply by its own energy, or by the direct influence of means which itself employs; but is dependent for success in the accomplishment of its desired end, upon another, and distinct, independent power. The Roman or the Grecian orator, the orator of the Forum, or of the assembly, acted directly upon the human beings before him. He relied upon himself, upon his skill and ability in the use of language, upon his acquaintance with human nature, and the

particular facts before him, and upon his knowledge of the character and circumstances of those whom he was addressing; and not upon any extraneous and higher power. The Pulpit Orator, however, aiming at an object of transcendent worth, is conscious that that object is not to be obtained simply by his might, but by the effective operation of the Holy Spirit. This distinguishes his position from that of every other speaker. The work desired is to be accomplished by him as an instrument in the hand of the great, Almighty Spirit. And while that work is worthy to employ the noblest eloquence that ever thrilled the heart of man, and has enlisted the warm affections of Him who spake as never man spake, he is yet dependent for success on an independent Power.

Now, this great fact, which gives to the speaking of the Pulpit one of its chief characteristics, is made by some persons a ground of objection against the cultivation of Eloquence by those who are to preach the gospel ; and causes others to deny even that there is such a thing as pulpit eloquence. Happily, both these classes are few in number: and the increased regard which is given to the study of Sacred Rhetoric, and of Elocution, in our Theological Seminaries, and the tributes that are paid to the pulpits of our land, afford, perhaps, a sufficient reply to these objections. It is not our present purpose, therefore, to defend, otherwise than incidentally, the study of Rhetoric and Oratory by those who are called to preach the gospel. Neither do we propose to dwell at length upon the nature and characteristics of Pulpit Eloquence, and the proper means for its cultivation. But fully admitting the great doctrine of dependence on the Holy Spirit-nay, insisting upon it, as the Christian preacher's ground of confidence and encouragement—we wish to offer some remarks on the influence of this doctrine on the Eloquence of the Pulpit or the Preaching of sacred Truth.

And our first remark is,

1. This doctrine should not cause the Christian preacher to relax at all his efforts to attain to the highest degree of Pulpit Eloquence, that is, to the best mode of Preaching.

It is a well established and universally admitted principle of Christian Philosophy, that dependence on Divine Providence does not diminish responsibility, nor neutralize individual agency. Man is endowed with abilities adapted to the performance of manifold exercises and duties. The possession of abilities implies the duty of using them. The promise of the Holy Spirit incites to their diligent use. The teaching of dependence for success on the will of the Spirit does not affect these deeplyseated original principles—principles inherent in man's nature, which no sophistry can eradicate, and fully admitted and prominently exhibited, in the sacred volume. 'I know not that it is necessary for me now to illustrate this familiar truth; for illustrations are constantly around us. “ Promotion cometh neither from the East nor from the West, nor from the South, but God is the judge; He putteth down one, and setteth up another.” Yet the hand of the diligent maketh rich,” and “ the hand of the diligent shall bear rule.” Our daily bread God gives us, and in Him we live and move and have our being ; yet God has enacted the law, “in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," and has bidden us to guard our lives from harm. He sendeth the early and the latter rain, and causeth the seed to produce a harvest; but, “ I went by the field of the slothful, and by the vineyard of the man void of understanding, and, lo, it was all grown over with thorns, and nettles had covered the face thereof, and the stone-wall thereof was broken down." Universally, though we are dependent always, and for all things on God, we admit, and act upon, the principle that success is to be secured by exertion ; eminence to be attained by diligence and energy. So the Holy Spirit is the efficient power in regeneration and sanctification. But we who are dependent on the Holy Spiritwho are the guilty and corrupted ones, and who are endowed with intellectual and moral faculties, no matter what their condition—we are to exercise contrition, and deny ourselves, and set our affection on heavenly objects, and grow in grace, and give all diligence to make our calling and election sure.

Now it has pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe. The preaching of the gospel is the appointed instrumentality by which He produces the conversion of men.

The Holy Spirit is the author of conversion; but we are taught that He produces conversion by means of the Truth. Faith owes its origin to this Divine Agent. But, "faith cometh

*Ps. 75: 6, 7. ? Prov. 10: 4. 12: 24. • Prov. 24; 30, 31.

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