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the nature of Substantives, The usual distribution of them into possessive, relative, demonstrative, and distributive, seems unnecessary at least, if not without foundation. My, thy, our, and the like, are with more propriety termed Adjectives, derived from Pronouns. The words this, that, each, the same, &c. are rather to be called Adjectives, whose substantives are frequently understood. They are no more entitled to the appellation of Pronouns, than the good, the wise, Adjectives of Number, and many others which it would be thought absurd to rank under this class,

If an apology be required for adding to the numerous publications on this subject, it is the

following-That our best Grammarians have confessedly written to persons of maturity and reflection, without any view to the early part of education That others have engaged in the present plan with very considerable merit, but often with some material de fect, which the judicious schoolmaster would wish to have supplied. Faults of this nature are a gene. ral want of accuracy, an inattention to the simpli. city of our own language, and particularly an imperfect Syntax ; as also the adopting of two many of the terms and divisions of the Latin Grammar. These the author of the following treatise has endeavoured to avoid, qud to unite perspicuity of expression with a comprehensive brevity; how far he has succeeded in the attempt, it is not for him to determine.

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THIS little Essay on Grammar, by the ingenious Mr. Harrison, is printed from the best English Edition of this work, with the following improvements

In the English edition, the articles of the Syntax alone were numbered, but in this, for the convenience of references, the same method pursued through the work.

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The distinction of the persons of the pronouns in the scheme is more accurately pointed out than in the English edition ; and in the title, the word Rudiments is substituted for institutes.

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The notes which were referred to, at the bottom of the page, are here printed immediately under the articles which they elucidate ; and being in a smaller type, after the method of printing adopted in the works of the most eminent Grammarians of the English and other languages, they may be either omitted or retained, at the option of the teacher.

No apology can be necessary for presenting to the Public an American Edition of a treatise which, on account of its conciseness, perspicuity, and attention to the nature and genius of the English language, has deservedly been introduced into the most reputable seminaries of both sexes, in Great Britain and Ireland ; a treatise sanctioned by the approbation of some of the princi. pal Teachers in this city, and recommended by




Hb; I i, J j, K k, L I, Mm, N n, O
Рp, Q q, Rr, Ss, Tt, U u, V v, Ww,


8. Letters are divided into vowels and CON-

A vowel is a letter, which makes a full and perfect sound of itself.

9. There are six vowels, a, e, i, o, u, y. W is either a single or compound vowel. Y and W are equivocal. They appear to have some. thing of the nature of consonants in such words as young, yet ; was, work. They are clearly vowels in my, apply ; law, saw, and the like.

10. The remaining nineteen letters are named consonants, because they make not a full and

perfect sound without the help of a vowel.

11. Consonants are divided into MUTES and


The mutes, b, c, d, g, k, p, q,t, cannot be sound. ed alone.

In the English alphabet the names of the mutes are distinguished from those of the semivowels ; the for. mer beginning with a consonant, as bee, cee, dee, &c. the latter with a vowel, as el, em, &c.

The semivowels, which make an imperfect sound of themselves, are l, m, n, f, rosal, m, n, r. have also the appellation of liquids, because they easily mix with other consonants. answers to the softer


or dg. V and Z are the harder sounds of f and s.

His termed an aspirate, being only a short breathing before a word or syllable.

There are several words in which h is not sounded, as hour, heir, honour, honest, hospital, hailer, humour, humble.

X is a double consonant, composed of k and s.

12. A DIPHTHONG is the meeting of two vowels in one syllable ; aś ai in fair, ei in deceit.

13. A TRIPHTHONG is the ineeting of three vowels in one syllable ; as eau in beauty.

It is a defect in the English, and perhaps in every other alphabet, that the same letters do not always express the same sounds. To give rules for pronunciation would not fall in with the design of this chapter, which is chiefly intended to explain the technical terms of orthography. Those who are desirous of such assistance, we refer to spelling books or dictionaries calculated for the purpose. It may be curious, however, and perhaps useful, to exhibit a specimen of the vari. eties of sound expressed by the same letters ; for ex. ample. The Scheme of the Vowels, as used by Mr.

Ist sound. 2d.

A in hat, hate,

hall, E in bet, bear,

beer, fight, field, O in not, note,

noose, U in but, bush,

Y in, lye.

AU austere, aunt, gauge.
EA head, heart, ear, pear.
El heir, weight, deceit.
EO George, people, jeopardy.
F. Y convey, reynard.
IE die, friend, shield, mien.
OA broad, groan.
00 door, moon, flood.
OU youth, mouth, fourth, could

Iin fit,

OW blow, not.
U A guard, persuade.
UE true, plague.
UI build, sluice, guide.
EAU beauty, beau.
IEU lieutenant,

CONSONANTS. C and G soft, as cinnamon, ginger ; hard, as camel, goose.

S this, arose.
T talk, satiety, nation.
X vex, Xerxes.

CH chorus, church, chaise.
GH ghost, laughter, might.
TH think, then.

Of the different kinds, Relations, and Changes of


ARTICLE 14. WORDS may be arranged under the ten fol. lowing classes : Article, Noun, Pronoun, Ada jective, Verb, Participle, Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition and Interjection,

OF ARTICLES. 15. ARTICLES are the words a or an, and the, used before nouns, to determine their signification.

16. A, or an, relates to one of a kind, but not to one in particular; as a man, a ship. Hence it is called the indefinite article.

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