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Invasion of the ScotsmBattle of Marston moor

Battle of Cropredy-bridge— Essex's forces disarmedSecond battle of Newbury-Rise and character of the IndependentsSelf-denying ordinance - Fairfax, CromwelTreaty of Uxbridge-Execution of Laud.

Thhe war


HE king had hitherto, during the course of c H A P.

the war, obtained many advantages over the LVII. parliament, and had raised himself from that low condition into which he had at first fallen, to be nearly upon an equal footing with his adversaries. Yorkshire, and all the northern counties, were reduced by the marquis of Newcastle; and, excepting Hull, the parliament was master of no garrison in these quarters. In the west, Plymouth alone, having been in vain besieged by prince Maurice, resisted the king's authority: And had it not been for the disappointment in the enterprise Vol. VII.





CHA P. of Gloucester, the royal garrisons had reached, with

out interruption, from one end of the kingdom to
the other; and had occupied a greater extent of
ground than those of the parliament. Many of the
royalists flattered themselves, that the same vigor-
ous spirit, which had elevated them to the present
height of power, would still favour their progress,
and obtain them a final victory over their enemies :
But those who judged more soundly, observed, that
besides the accession of the whole Scottish nation to
the side of the parliament, the very principle on
which the royal successes had been founded was
every day acquired, more and more, by the oppo.
site party. The king's troops, full of gentry and
nobility, had exercised a valour superior to their ene-
mies, and had hitherto been successful in almost
every rencounter: But, in proportion as the whole
nation became warlike, by the continuance of civil
discords, this advantage was more equally shared ;
and superior numbers, it was expected, must at
length obtain the victory. The king's troops also,
ill paid, and destitute of every necessary, could not
possibly be retained in equal discipline with the par-
liamentary forces, to whom all supplies were fur-
nished from unexhausted stores and treasures. The
severity of manners, so much affected by these
zealous religionists, assisted their military insti-
tutions; and the rigid inflexibility of character by
which the austere reformers of church and state were
distinguished, enabled the parliamentary chiefs to
restrain their soldiers within stricter rules and more
exact order. And while the king's officers indulged
themselves even in greater licences than those to
which, during times of peace, they had been accus-
tomed, they were apt, both to neglect their mi-
litary duty, and to set a pernicious example of dis-
order to the soldiers under their command.

.Rushworth, vol. vi. p. 560.

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