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necessity caused by a visible increase of Catholics. I have resolved to build a cathedral ; it is already covered ; our new chapel, though very small, will become my seminary. But I expect to enlarge it, if I can procure a contiguous spot of one hundred and fifty feet, for which two thousand dollars are demanded : we greatly need it, to complete our establishment; and I hope that, with the aid of Divine Providence, you will assist me in accomplishing this design.
“During the summer, I visited a part of my diocese, as far as New Lisbon, preaching on the right hand and on the left, and administering all the sacrements, orders excepted. In all the congregations I have at times administered three or four different sacraments* to the same persons, in the same day. I cannot recollect how many I have baptised and confirmed. I have neither a priest nor domestic to accompany me across these thick forests : our poor people could hardly lodge and feed two ecclesiastics, without famishing themselves. Sometimes they are obliged to give up their own wretched beds. My journey lasted three months; and I was often so exhausted in talking, praying and preaching, that I had hardly. enough resolution to take my nourishment. You know by experience how it is. How many times have you not breakfasted and dined on the same meal, at four or five in the afternoon! Well are you able to repeat : Non ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco.
“I have found that all my congregations increase, so to speak, daily. We have eleven churches or chapels built or building, and two more are in prospect. At Zanesville, Canton, and near New Lisbon we have well-built brick churches, but they are covered only, for want of pecuniary means. They have neither floors nor windows. Every body applies to me for assistance, as if I had transported Peru from Europe. My resources, at present, are only the funds which the charity of my benefactors has procured for me in Europe. But the great and indispensable expenses for building my cathedral ; the cost of journeys, conveyance of articles, tolls, &c. have already consumed the greater part. I have with me three priests, one female domestic, her husband, and a single child belonging to the choir, whom I must feed, clothe, &c. You see I have en. ough to do in organizing the diocese, and making preparation for a Seminary. If I can only finish my cathedral, and buy the adjoining land in order hereafter to enlarge it, when necessary and practicable, I shall be satisfied. For a legacy to my successor I have no goods but this establishment only—and it is hardly half finished. As soon as the funds on which we subsist at present shall be exhausted, I shall be obliged, if more be not furnished, to quit the country, or undergo the lot of insolvent debtors. I do not receive enough from my chapel and the whole of my diocese to pay simply the expenses of my horse or of my letters. I could never have imagined that the postage of letters would have amounted to three, four, and sometimes five dollars a week; while the collection made
*The Papal Church, as is known, reckoning seven sacraments. Vol. V. NO. 11.
on Sundays in the Church, and which composes all my episcopal provision for the table, amounts only to about four dollars a week, You see what my distress is ; do the best you can for us.”
The letter concludes as follows : “Present my compliments and the assurance of my very sincere gratitude to my benefactors. I do not fail to pray daily both for them and you, who have given me so many substantial proofs of your friendship.'
The King, whose bounty is in the beginning of this letter so feelingly acknowledged, has since become, in the province of Almighty God, a wanderer, and that, it seems, through his own imprudence as well as the evil counsel of interested courtiers, themselves, apparently, the willing instruments, in religious concerns, of wily Jesuits. What permanent effect on the Papal Church at large will be produced by the present deeply interesting state of things in France, we must wait for time to develope. While the State discards a national subjection to the religion it has for so many ages prosessed until the revolution of 1792, and which, after the restoration of the Bourbon family, and especially since the accession of Charles X. to the throne, had been reinstated in its influence and power—it is not impossible that a greater number of expatriated Jesuits and priests will seek a home in these United Strtes, and give fresh energy to the Romish enterprize in the West.
The next two letters are from M. Reze, a priest, and pupil of the Propaganda, addressing a mutual friend in Europe ; and as they exhibit the view of things taken by the writer on the spot, and his consequent feelings and anticipations, they are given entire, and will, we doubt not, be found of no inconsiderable interest.
“In a few days we shall put our hand to the work of commencing the cathedral. When we shall have paid our debts, bought lots, finished our new church, and converted the old one into a habitable mansion or a German church, there will remain but little to form the college, which must become our principal resource. Behold us, then, always in arrears. He who does not actually know our situation can hardly form an idea of it. America is rich, it is true ; but then it is in the towns on the sea-coast; for in the interior she is so only in productions of the earth and articles of living. Yet if one reflects that our churches are not yet established, he will easily see of what importance to us are articles of food, especially if we are ostitute of other things, and of persons to prepare them for us.
“Mgr. has the happiness of governing his church witiout churchwardens. By this method you see we are at peace, althongh without help. Were we to establish them, they might be very useful to us, but we should fear schisms and dissensions, of all evils the greatest. Despotism exercised against the pastors, and division and disorder, in many other churches, assure us fully of this. Better
*Annals, etc. Numero xvi., Jan. 1829, pp. 279–282.
The difficulties in Philadelphia arising from these officers are alPuded to in a subsequent letter.
then is poverty, and dependence on the charity of the faithful, than tyranny !
“I recollect that you requested to know of me what was the origin of our capital of this State. Its existence, you know, is not very ancient. I have been told, that, during the war of independence, the Americans, in order to defend the country from the incursions of the English, built a fort on the banks of the river Ohio, called at that time Fort Washington. Thither, at evening, the inhabitants of the country, and those who dwelt in the small houses around under its protection, were accustomed to retire. During the day they cultivated the earth. The resemblance of this mode of life to that of the illustrious Roman, who was taken from the plough to be placed at the head of armies when the republic was in danger, gave to the new fort the name of this great man.
The population of Cincinnati increases daily; they reckon in it more than 18,000 inhabitants. Oh that Religion were also making there a rapid pro. gress ! This we have a right to expect from the zeal and piety of the holy Bishop whom Heaven has granted it, and seems to accompany with its own favors. Listen, with submission to the will of Providence, to a circumstance that will afford you proof of this.
“A worthy and very rich Catholic of Ohio, Mr. Dugan, having learned that Mgr. had arrived in America, and was preparing to journey to his diocese, came to meet him, with his own equippage, as far as Baltimore, about three hundred miles. Having found Mgr. he takes him in his carriage, together with M. Richard, and Father Young, a nephew of the Prelate, who had likewise come to meet him. Hardly had they started, before the horses, being affrighted without
known cause, champ their bits, and ran off violently, whatever effort be made to stop them. The carriage is broken, the baggage scattered along the road, and the worthy owner himself is first dragged on, and then falls dreadfully crushed-dying but a few hours after, under circumstances which render the scene one of the most tragical. Nevertheless, the three ministers of the Most High escane, as it were by miracle, from this imminent danger. Still, Mr. Dugan's death, which the world would call deplorable, subserves the designs of God, who, when He pleases, brings good out of evil. The instructions, which it afforded an occasion for giving, the examples of resignation and patience, and the godly death of the good Catholic, became the cause of many conversions to our Religion.?*
If we here see a fixed and persevering determination to make the Divine Providence a party in spreading the empire of Papal Rome in this Protestant community ; the following letter of the same gentleman will, we think, excite some few reflections.
Mgr. will depart to-day, in order to visit, during two or three months, a part of his diocese. I am to accompany him, and we go on a mission among the savages. At my return I shall be able to give vou ample information respecting their mode of life and customs. While I was going to give instructions at a distance from
* Annals, ect. Numero xvi. Jan. 1829, pp. 282–284.
St. Joseph, I met a company of them; they were going to Washington with one of their chiefs. Their dress was very fanciful ; many wearing jewels in their ears, and rings at the nose. By their color, I thought
I perceived strong features of_resemblance to those Chinese and Tartars, whom I had noticed at Rome or in Germany, when we beheld those swarms of soldiers who burst upon Europe, a few years ago, with the Russians. This proves to me what has often been said, that they themselves originate from Asia. Indeed I
ecollect to have read in the Lettres edifiantes, that a missionary, who had preached in Tibet, met in North America a woman whom he had known in Asia.
“Our cathedral is advancing ; it will be 90 feet long and 45 wide.. The wooden church, which stood here before, was so small, that it could not contain the people who came to attend on our holy solemnities. When Father Hill* exercised his ministry here and preached, it would not contain the Protestants who crowded to it.
“The instruction given here has effectəd great conversions, and mitigated the fury of a superstitious and ignorant people, often roused against the clergy by ill-meaning persons. After the cathedral, we know not how we shall have the further resources necessary to establish the college. It is difficult to form an idea of our situation.We must have proper clothing, and horses to visit the sick and our congregations, often very distant from each other. It is but a few days since I was called on for a sick man, eighty miles off. I performed the journey in a day ; but the heat was so excessive, and the travelling so laborious, that when I reached the person I was sick myself, notwithstanding the assiduous cares of these brave people, who told me with tears that they had never seen a priest in their woods. After midnight I began confession. The sick man had a faith so lively, and was so satisfied after confession, that he was much better for my visit.
“Since Mgr's arrival, a great number of persons have presented themselves for instruction in the true Religion. I hope that, if the Lord blesses our efforts, we shall be able to finish the cathedral and to found our college. We shall see the truth triumph ; the temples of idols will be overthrown, and the seat of falsehood will be brought to silence. This is the reason that we conjure all the Christians of Europe to unite, in order to ask of God the conversion of these unhappy infidels or heretics. What a happiness, if, by our feeble labors and our vows, we shall so merit as to see the savages of this diocese civilized, AND ALL THE UNITED STATES EMBRACED IN THE SAME UNITY OF THAT CATHOLIC CHURCH, IN WHICH, DWELLS TRUTH, AND TEMPORAL HAPPINESS—while we are expecting to be gathered into that celestial sheepfold, where will exist but one flock and one shepherd !"
If any of our readers have before this entertained a doubt respecting the wishes and ultimate designs of Romanists, in regard to our
*Since dead. He is said to have been nephew of Rev. Rowland Hill.
country, it is hoped that the fervent desire expressed at the close of this honest, though rather desultory letter, will remove it entirely. In fact, the strong cords and green withes have almost bound our sleeping Samson. Happy will it be if this series of disclosures shall awake him to an effectual exertion of his great strength. For we trust that, when sufficiently roused, he will be able to carry away the doors of this prison gate, posts, bar and all.
It may be useful to put on our record the following letter of acknowledgement, from the “Bishop of Cincinnati” to “His Highness, Monseigneur, the Grand-Almoner.” We must then close this numver with the account, as published in France, of the Convention hield in Baltimore by the clergy of the Romish communion, and a communication of the new Archbishop respecting the situation and prospects of the church under his care.
Bishop Fenwick writes to the Grand-Almoner of France, the Prince de Croy, Bishop of Strasburgh, thus :
“Permit me to recall myself to your recollection, and renew to your Highness the sentiments of sincere obligation and profound respect, with which the goodness and kindness of your Highness, in dispensing the aids furnished by the Association for the Propogation of the Faith, have filled my heart, and which are the sure pledge of my eternal gratitude.
“I have acknowledged the receipt of twelve thousand five hundred and forty francs,* sent me by M. D, in the month of September, 1825, after the benevolent distribution, made by the Superior Council, in the month of June of that year, in favor of my poor diocese, which truly stood in need of it, having no other resources but the charity of the faithful in Europe. Í flatter myself still, my Lord, that I shall soon be permitted to acknowledge another sum for the year 1826, from a similar munificenee in the Superior Council, under the direction of your noble and beneficient Highness. I venture to flatter myself also that the charity and magnanimity of your Highness, and the generous zeal of the Superior Council will not be restricted, in regard to my poor diocese, to 1826, nor to 1827, since their remains so much good to be done-as the bearer of this letter, my worthy secretary and confidant, the Abbe Reze, can convince your Highness. He will give you particulars, in reference to my own actual situation, the progress of religion in this country, and the wonders which the good God has condescended to produce with very feeble instruments.
“Thanks to the Divine Providence and the charity of our benefactors, our cathedral is finished ; it is decent, and even beautiful
*It appears that there was assigned to the American Missions, in the years 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827 and 1828, by this Association alone, the sum of 331,536 francs, 90 centimes, making about $61,666. of the distribution made last year we have not as yet a report.The particular assignments for 1828, were published in our last num