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Boomist alike from Hear'n derive their light,
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Introduction. That 'tis as great a fault to judge ill, as to write ill, and

a more dangerous one to the public, v. 1.

That a true Taste is as rare to be found, as a true Genius, v. 9 to 18.

That most men are born with some Taste, but spoiled by false Education,

v. 19 to 25.

The multitude of Critics, and causes of them, v. 26 to 45.

That we are to study our own Taste, and know the Limits of it, v. 46

to 67.

Nature the best guide of Judgment, v. 68 to 87.

Improv'd by Art and Rules, which are but methodis'd Nature, 88.

Rules derived from the Practice of the Ancient Poets, v. id, to 110.

That therefore the Ancients are necessary to be studyd, by a Critic, par-

ticularly Homer and Virgil, v. 120 to 138.

Of Licenses, and the use of them by the Ancients, v. 140 to 180.

Reverence due to the Ancients, and praise of them, v. 181, etc.

PART II. Ver. 201, etc.

Causes hindering a true Judgment. 1. Pride, v. 208. 2. Imperfect
Learning, v. 215. 3. Judging by parts, and not by the whole, v. 233 to
288. Critics in Wit, Language, Versification, only, v. 288, 305, 399, etc.
4. Being too hard to please, or too apt to admire, v. 384. 5. Partiality -
too much Love to a Sect, to the Ancients or Moderns, v. 394. 6. Preju-
dice or Prevention, v. 408. 7. Singularity, v. 424, 8. Inconstancy,
V. 430. 9. Party Spirit, v. 452, etc. 10. Envy, v. 466. Against Envy,
and in praise of Good-nature, v. 508, etc. When Severity is chiefly to be
used by Critics, v. 526, etc.

PART II). Ver. 560, etc.
Rules for the Conduct of Manners in a Critic. 1. Candour, v. 563.

Modesty, v. 566. Good-breeding, v. 572. Sincerity, and Freedom of

advice, v. 578. 2. When one's Counsel is to be restrained, v. 584. Char-

acter of an incorrigible Poet, v. 600. And of an impertinent Critic, v. 610,

etc. Character of a good Critic, v. 629. The History of Criticism, and

Characters of the best Critics, Aristotle, v. 645. Horace, v. 653. Diony-

sius, v. 665. Petronius, v. 667. Quintilian, v. 670. Longinus, v. 675.

Of the Decay of Criticism, and its Revival. Erasmus, v. 693. Vida,

v. 705. Boileau, v. 714. Lord Roscommon, etc., v. 725. Conclusion.

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AN ESSAY ON CRITICISM

5

IO

'Tis hard to say, if greater want of skill
Appear in writing or in judging ill;
But, of the two, less dang'rous is th' offence
To tire our patience, than mislead our sense.
Some few in that, but numbers err in this,
Ten censure wrong for one who writes amiss;
A fool might once himself alone expose,
Now one in verse makes many more in prose.

'T is with our judgments as our watches, none
Go just alike, yet each believes his own.
In Poets as true genius is but rare,
True Taste as seldom is the Critic's share;
Both must alike from Heav'n derive their light,
These born to judge, as well as those to write.
Let such teach others who themselves excel,
And censure freely who have written well.
Authors are partial to their wit, 't is true,
But are not Critics to their judgment too?

Yet if we look more closely, we shall find
Most have the seeds of judgment in their mind:
Nature affords at least a glimm’ring light;
The lines, tho' touch'd but faintly, are drawn right.
But as the slightest sketch, if justly trac'd,
Is by ill-colouring but the more disgrac'd,
So by false learning is good sense defac'd:
Some are bewilder'd in the maze of schools,
And some made coxcombs Nature meant but fools.

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In search of wit these lose their common sense,
And then turn Critics in their own defence:
Each burns alike, who can, or cannot write,
Or with a Rival's, or an Eunuch's spite.
All fools have still an itching to deride,
And fain would be upon the laughing side.
If Mævius scribble in Apollo's spite,
There are who judge still worse than he can write.

Some have at first for Wits, then Poets past,
Turn'd Critics next, and prov'd plain fools at last.
Some neither can for Wits nor Critics pass,
As heavy mules are neither horse nor ass.
Those half-learn'd witlings, num'rous in our isle,
As half-form'd insects on the banks of Nile;
Unfinish'd things, one knows not what to call,
Their generation's so equivocal:
To tell 'em, would a hundred tongues require,
Or one vain wit's, that might a hundred tire.

who seek to give and merit fame,
And justly bear a Critic's noble name,
Be sure yourself and your own reach to know,
How far your genius, taste, and learning go;
Launch not beyond your depth, but be discreet,
And mark that point where sense and dulness meet.

Nature to all things fix'd the limits fit,
And wisely curb'd proud man's pretending wit.
As on the land while here the ocean gains,
In other parts it leaves wide sandy plains;
Thus in the soul while memory prevails,
The solid pow'r of understanding fails;
Where beams of warm imagination play,
The memory's soft figures melt away.
One science only will one genius fit;

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So vast is art, so narrow human wit:
Not only bounded to peculiar arts,
But oft in those confin'd to single parts.
Like kings we lose the conquests gain'd before,
By vain ambition still to make them more;
Each might his sev'ral province well command,
Would all but stoop to what they understand.

First follow Nature, and your judgment frame
By her just standard, which is still the same:
Unerring NATURE, still divinely bright,
One clear, unchang'd, and universal light,
Life, force, and beauty, must to all impart,
At once the source, and end, and test of Art.
Art from that fund each just supply provides,
Works without show, and without pomp presides :
In some fair body thus th' informing soul
With spirits feeds, with vigour fills the whole,
Each motion guides, and ev'ry nerve sustains;
Itself unseen, but in th' effects, remains.
Some, to whom Heav'n in wit has been profuse,
Want as much more, to turn it to its use;
For wit and judgment often are at strife,
Tho' meant each other's aid, like man and wife.
'T is more to guide, than spur the Muse's steed;
Restrain his fury, than provoke his speed;
The winged courser, like a gen'rous horse,
Shows most true mettle when you check his course.

Those Rules of old discovered, not devis’d,
Are Nature still, but Nature methodiz'd;
Nature, like liberty, is but restrain'd
By the same laws which first herself ordain'd.

Hear how learn'd Greece her useful rules indites,
When to repress, and when indulge our flights:

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