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OF THE PRESIDENT AND TRUSTEES OF WILLIAMS'
THE inconvenience and disadvantage experienced both by instructors and students, from the use of different Latin Grammars, render it highly expedient to establish a uniformity in this College. Adam's Latin Grammar, which by very good judges, is considered as the best and most complete Grammar of the Latin Language, has for several years been generally used in this seminary. But the English part of this Grammar, which very considerably increases its fize and price, is found by experience to be not only useless but very in. convenient to the student and instructor.
An Abridgment of this Grammar having been shown to us, in which the English part, and other useless parts are omitted, we hereby recommend this cheap, abridged and more convenient Edition to all students who expect to resort to this College for education, and direct that all who are hereafter admitted as members of this sem. inary use it in their classical exercises.
RAMMAR is the art of speaking and writing cor.
rectly. Latin Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the Latin language correctly.
The Rudiments of Grammar are plain and easy instructions, teaching beginners the first principles and rules of it.
Grammar treats of fentences, and the several parts of which they are compounded.
Sentences confist of words; Words consist of one or more syllables ; Syllables of one or more letters. So that Letters, Syllables, Words, and Sentences, make up the whole subject of Grammar.
part of Grammar which treats of letters, is called Orthography.
The letiers in Latin aré twenty-five: A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; E, e; F, f; G, g; H, h; s, i; J, j; K, k; L, 1; M, m; N, n; 0,0; P, p; Q, q; R, r; S, f; T, t; U, u; V; v; X, X; Y, y; Z, z.
Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants.
Six are vowels ; a, e, i, o, u, y. All the rest are consonants.
A vowel makes a full found by itself; as, a, e.
A consonant cannot make a perfect sound without a vowel; as, b, d.
A vowel is properly called a simple found; and the founds formed by the concourse of vowels and consonants, articulate founds.
Consonants are divided into Mutes, Semi-vowels, and Double Consonants.
A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the par. fage of the voice ; as, p in ap.
The mutes are, p, b; t, d; c, k, q, and g: but b, d, and g, perhaps may more properly be termed Semi.mutes.
A femi-vowel, or half-vowel, does not entirely stop the passage of the voice; thus, al.
The semi-vowels are, l, m, n, r, s, f. The first four of these are also called Liquids, particularly I and r; because they flow softly and easily after a mute in the same fyllable ; as, bla, fra.
The mutes and semi-vowels may be thus distinguished. In naming the mutes, the vowel is put after them; as, pe, be, &c. : but in naming the semi-vowels, the vowel is put before them; as, el, em, &c. The double consonants are x, %, and j. X is made up
Z seems not to be a double consonant in English. It has the same relation to s, as v has to f, being sounded somewhat more softly.
In Latin, %, and likewise k, and y, are found only in words derived from the Greek.
r in English is sometimes a confonant, as in youth.
H by some is not accounted a letter, but only a breathipg
ks, or gs.
A Diphthong is two vowels joined in one found.
If the found of both vowels be distinály heard, it is called a Proper Diphthong; if not, an Improper Diphthong.
The proper diphthongs in Latin are commonly reckon. ed three ; au, eu, ei ; as in aurum, Eurus, omneis. To these, fome, not improperly, add other three, namely, ai; as in Maia ; vi, as in Troia; and ui, as in Harpuia ; or in cui and buic, when pronounced as monofyllables.
The improper diphthongs in Latin are two, ae, or when the vowels are written together, e; as aetas, or atas ; 01, or & ; as, poena, or pæna ; in both which the sound of the e only is heard. The ancients commonly wrote the vowels separately, thus, aetas, poena.
A fyllable is the found of one letter, or of several let. ters pronounced by one impulse of the voice.
In every word there are as many fyllables as there are distinct sounds.
In Latin there are as many syllables in a word, as there are vowels or dipthongs in it; unless when u with any other vowel comes after g, q, or s, as in lingua, qui, suadeo ; where the two vowels are not reckoned a diphthong, because the sound of the u vanishes, or is little heard.
Words consisting of one syllable, are called Monosylla
; of two, Disyllables ; and of more than two, Poly/yl. lables. But all words of more than one syllable, are commonly called Polysyllables.
In dividing words into fyllables, we are chiefly to be directed by the ear. Compound words should be divided into the parts of which they are made up ; as, up.on, with. out, &c. and fo in Latin words, ab-utor, in-ers, propter ea, et-enim, &c. In like manner, when a syllable is added in the formation of the English verb; as, loved, lov-ing, loveth, will.ing, &c.
Obferve, A long syllable is thus marked [-]; as, amare; or with a circumflex accent thus, [^]; as, amáris.
А short syllable is marked thus [°]; as, omnibus.
What pertains to the quantity of syllables, to accent, and verse, will be treated of afterwards.
A word is one or more fyllables joined together, which men have agreed upon to signify something.
That part of Grammar which treats of words, is called Etymology, or Analogy.
All words may be divided into three kinds ; namely, 1. such as mark the names of things ; 2. such as denote what is affirmed concerning things ; and 3. such as are significant only in conjunction with other words; or what are called Substantives, Attributives, and Connectives. Thus, in the following fentence, “ The diligent boy reads “ tbe lefon carefully in the school, and at bome," the words boy, lelon, School, bome, are the names we give to the things fpoken of ; diligent, reads, carefully, express what is affirmed concerning the boy ; tbe, in, and, at, are only fignificant when joined with the other words of the fentence.
All words whatever are either simple or compound, primi. tive or derivative.
The division of words into simple and compound, is called their Figure ; into primitive and derivative, their Species or kind.
A simple word is that which is not made up than one, as pius, pious; ego, I ; doceo, I teach.
A compound word is that which is made up of two or more words ;, or of one word, and some fyllable added ; as, impius, impious; dedoceo, I unteach ; egomet, I myself.
A primitive word is that which comes from other ; as, pius, pious; disco, I learn ; doceo, I teach.
A derivative word is that which comes from another word; as, piếtas, piety ; do&rina, learning.
The different classes into which we divide words, are called Parts of Speech.
PARTS OF SPEECH.
The parts of speech in Latin are eight; 1. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle ; declined : 2. Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction ; undeclined.
Declinable parts of speech are those which receive dif. ferent changes, particularly on the end, which is called the Termination of words.
The changes made upon words are by grammarians called Accidents.
Of old, all words which admit of different terminations were said to be declined. But Declenfion is now applied