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It is called Verb or Word, by way of eminence, because it is the most essential word in a sentence, without which the other parts of speech can form no complete sense. Thus, the diligent boy reads bis lesson with care, is a perfect sentence; but if we take away the affirmation, or the word reads, it is rendered imperfect, or rather becomes no fentence at all: thus, tbe diligent boy bis lesson with care.
A verb therefore may be thus distinguished from any other part of speech: Whatever word expresses an affirmation or assertion is a verb; or thus, Whatever word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before or after it, makes full sense, is a verb; as, fones fall, I' walk, walk thou. Here fall and walk are verbs, because they contaia an affirmation ; but when we fay, a long walk, a dangerous fall, there is no affirmation expressed ; and the fame words walk and fall become substantives or nouns. We often find likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and also as some other part of speech; thus, amor, -ōris, love, a fubftantive, and amor, I am loved, a verb.
Verbs, with respect to their fignification, are divided into three different classes, Adive, Paflive, and Neuter ; because we consider things either as acting, or being acted upon; or as neither acting, nor being acted upon; but fimply existing, or existing in a certain state or condition; as in a state of motion or rest, &c.
1. An Aaive verb expreffes an action, and neceffarily supposes an agent, and an object acted upon, as, amāre, to love; amo te, I love thee.
2. A verb Paffive expresses a paflion or suffering, or the receiving of an action; and necessarily implies an objeco acted upon, and an agent, by which it is acted upon ; as, amāri, to be loved ; tu amāris a me, thou art loved by me.
3. A Neuter verb properly expresses neither action nor paffion, but fimply the being, state, or condition of things; as, dormio, I sleep ; fedeo, I fit.
The verb Aaive is also called Transitive, when the action passeth over to the object, or hath an effect on some other thing ; as, fcribo literas, I write letters; but when the action is confined within the agent, and passeth not over to any object, it is called Intransitive ; as, ambulo, I walk curro, I run, which are likewise called Neuter Verbs. Many verbs in Latin and English are used both in a transitive and in an intransitive or neuter sense ; as, fiftěrz,
to stop ; incipere, to begin ; durāre, to endure, or to hard
Verbs which fimply fignify being, are likewise called Substantive verbs ; as, elle or exiftere, to be, or to exist. The notion of exitence is implied in the signification of every verb; thus, I love, may be resolved into, I am loving.
When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, or in such a form as to be joined to a fubftan. žive noun, partaking thereby of the nature of an adjective, it is called a Participle ; as, amans, loving ; amatus, loved. But when it has the form of a substantive, it is called a Gerund, or a Supine ; as, amandum, loving; amatum, to love ; amatu, to love, or to be loved.
A verb is varied or declined by Voices, Modes, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons.
There are two voices; the Active and Pasfive.
The modes are four; Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.
The tenses are five; the Present, the Preterimperfect, the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future.
The numbers are two ; Singular and Plural. The persons are three; First, Second, Third. 1. Vaice expresses the different circumstances in which we conlider an object, whether as acting, or being acted upon. The Act. ive voice fignifies action; as, amo, I love: the Palfive, suffering, or being the object of an action; as, amor, I am loved.
2. Modes or Moods are the various manners of expressing the fignifiration of the verb. The Indicative declares or affirms positively; as, amo,
I love; amäbo, I shall love : or asks a question; as, an tu amas ? dost thou Jove?
The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verb, and cannot make a full meaning by itself; as, fo me obsécret, redibo, if be intreat me, I will return. Ter.
The Imperative commands, exhorts, or intreats ; as, ama, love thou.
The Infinitive fimply expreffes the fignification of the verb, without limiting it to any person or number; as, amāre, to love.
3. Tenses or Times express the time when any thing is supposed to be, to act, or to suffer.
Time in general is divided into three parts, the prefent, past, and future.
Past time is expressed three different ways. When we speak of a thing, which was doing, but not finished at some former time, we use the Preter-imperfei, or past time not completed; as, fcribebam, I was writing.
When we speak of a thing now finished, we use the Preteraperfelt, or past time completed ; as, fcripfi, I wrote, or have written.
When we speak of a thing finished at or before some past time, we use the Preter-pluperfect, or past time more than completed ; as, fcripsēram, I had written.
Future time is expressed two different ways. A thing may be considered, either as simply about to be done, or as actually finith. ed, at some future time ; as, fcribam, I Thall write, or I lhall (tben] be writing ; fcripsēro, I shall have written.
4. Number marks bow many we suppose to be, to act, or to suffer.
5. Perfon fliews to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether to the person speaking, to the person addressed, or to some other person or thing.
Verbs have two numbers and threc persons, to agree with subftantive nouns and pronouns in these respects : for a verb properly, hath neither numbers nor persons, but certain terminations answering to the person and number of its nominative.
A verb' is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts are properly clafied, or, as it were, yoked together, according to Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Perfon.
The Latins have four different ways of varying verbs, called the First, the Second, the Third, and the Fourth Conjugation.
The Conjugations are thus distinguished:
The First has a long before re of the Infinitive; the Second has e long, the Third has e short, and the Fourth has i long, before re of the Infinitive, .
Except dure, to give, which has a short ; and also its compounds ; thus, Circundăre, to surround ; circundămus, -dštis, adăbam, -dăbo, &c.
The different conjugations are likewise distinguished from one another by the different terminations of the fol. lowing tenses :
-ēmus, ētis, -ent.
Imperfect 1. ābam, ābas, ābat; abamus, ābātis, -abant. 2. ebam, ébas, ēbat ; ·ēbāmus, -ēbātis, .ebant. 3. ēbam, -ēbas, ēbat ; -ēbāmus, ēbātis, -ēbant. 4. iebam, iebas, iebat; iebāmus, jēbātis, jēlante
Future. 1. -abo, -abis, -abit ; -abimus, abītis,
-ābitis, -abunt. 2, -ebo, -ebis, ebit; -ebỉmus, -ēbītis, -ebunt. 3. -am, -es,
-emus, -ētis, -ent. 4. -iam, -ies -iet;
-iemus, -iētis, -iento Subjundive Mode.
Present Tense. I. -em,
-ent. 2. -eam, -eas, -eat ;
-eāmus, reātis, -eang. 3. -am, -as,
amus, -atis, -ant. 4. -iam, -ias,
-iat; -jämus, jātis, -iant.
Imperfect. 1. -ārem, -āres, -āret ; -ārēmus, värētis, -ārent. 2. ērem, ēres,
•ērēmus, •ērētis, ērent. 3. -ěrem, •ěres, •ěret ; -ěrēmus, -ěrētis, -ěrent. 4. īrem, īres,
-īrēmus, īrētis, īrent.
- ēte or ētõte, ento. .3. -e or · ito,
-ite or itāte, -unto, ri or -to,
ate or -itote, junto
-ätur ; - tur; -itur; itur;
Present Tense. 1. -or, -åris or åre,
-āmur, -dmini, antur. 2. -eor, •ēris or -ēre,
-ēmur, -ēmini, -entur. 3. :or, -ěris or -ěre,
-imur, -imini, -untur. 4. -ior, -iris or -ire,
-imur, -imini, -iuntur.
Imperfect. 1.-åbar, -ábāris or-åbāre, -ábätur; -ābámur, abāmíni, -äbantur, 2. -ēbar, -ēbāris or ·ēbāre, -ēbātur; -ēbāmur, -ēbāmîni, -ebantur. 3. -ēbar, -ēbāris or -ēbāre, -ēbātur; -ebāmur, -ēbāmīni, mēbantur, 4.-iēbar, -izbāris, -iebāre,-iēbātur; -icbāmur, -icbāmịni, -icbantur.
Future. 1. -ābor, -āběris or -aběre, -abitur; -ābimur, -ābimini, -abuntur. 2. -ēbor, -ēběris or -eběre, -ēbitur; mēbimur, -ēbimini, -ebuntur. 3. -ar, -ēris
- tur ;
-ēmur, -ēmini, 4. -iar, jēris of -iēre, iētur; -iēmur, -iēmini, -ientur.
Present Tense. 1. -er, -ēris or ére,
-ēmur, -ēmini, 2. -ear, -eäris or -eare, -eätur; eamur, -eämini -eantur, 3. -ar, aris or wäre,
-amur, -amini, 4. -iar, -järis or -järe, -jätur; -jamur, jämịni, -iantur.
Imperfect. I. •arer, -areris or-arere, •aretur; -aremur, -aremịni, -arentur, 2.-erer, -ereris or -erere, -erctur; -eremur, -eremịni, -erentur. 3. -ěrer, -ěreris or -ěrere, -ěretur ; -ěremur, -ěremini, očrentur. 4. -irer, -ireris or irere, iretur ; -iremur, -iremini, -irentur,
3. 1. -are or -ător, -ator ;
-antor. 2. -ēre or -ētor,
-émini, -ëntor, 3. -ěre or -itor,
-untor. 4. -īre or -itor,
-imini, -iuntor. Observe, Verbs in io of the third conjugation have iunt in the third person plur. of the present indic. active, and iuntur in the pallive; and so in the imperative, iunto and iuntor. In the imperfect and future of the indicative they have always the terminations of the fourth conjugation, izbam and jam; jebar apd iar, &c
-étor ; -stor ;