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1. Comparatives, and adjectives in ns, have e more frequently thani; and participles in the ablative called absolute have gederally e; as, Tiberio regnante, not regnanti, in the reign of Tiberius.
2. Adjectives joined with substantives neuter for the most part have i ; as, victrici ferro, not vietrice.
3. Different words are sometimes used to express the different genders; as, vietor, victorious, for the masc. victrix, for the fem. Victrix, in the plur. has likewise the neuter gender; thus, victrices, vietricia : so, ultor, and ultrix, revengeful. Victrix is also neut. in the singular.
4. Several adjectives compounded of clivus, frenum, bacillum, arma, jūgum, limus, fomnus, and animus, end in is or us; and therefore are either of the first and second declension, or of the third ; as, declivis, -is, -e; and declīvus, -a, -um, steep; imbecillis, and imbecillus, weak; femisomnis, and semifomnus, half-aseep; exanimis and exanimus, lifeless. But several of them do not admit of this variation; thus we say, magnanimus, flexanimus, effrēnus, levifomnus; not magnanimis, &c. On the contrary, we say, pufillanimis, injògis, illīmis, infomnis, exfomnis ; not pufillanimus, &c. So, semianimis, inermis, fublimis, acclivis, declivis, proclivis s rarely semianimus, &c.
5. Adjectives derived from nouns are called Denominatives; as, cordatus, morātus, cæleftis, adamantinus, corporeus, agreftis, aptivus, &c. from cor, mos, cælum, adamas, &c. Those which diminish the signification of their primitives are called Diminutives ; as, misellus, parvõlus, duo riusculus, 66. Those which fignify a great deal of a thing are called Amplificatives, and end in ofus or entus; as, vinosus, pinolentus, given to much wine ; operāfus, laborious ; plumbófus, full of lead; nodőfus, knotty, full of knots; corpulentus, corpulent, &c. Some end in tus; as, auritus, having long or large ears; nasätus, having a large nose; fiteratus, learned, &c.
6. An adjective derived from a substantive or from another adjective, lignifying possesion or property, is called a Polesive Ado jective; as, Scoticus, paternus, berilis, alienus, of or belonging to Scotland, a father, a master, another : from Scotia, pater, berus, and alius,
7. Adjectives derived from verbs are called Verbals ; as, amabilis, amiable; capax, capable; dacilis, teachable; from amo, cepio, doceo.
8. When participles become adjectives, they are called Participials; as, Sapiens, wise; acutus, sharp ; difertus, eloquent. Of these many also become substantives ; as, adolescens, animans, rudens, ferpens; advocatus, fponfus, natus, legatus ; fponfa, nata, serta, sc. corona, a garland; prætexta, sc. veftis ; debitum, decretum, præceptum, fatum, tectum,
9. Adjectives derived from adverbs are called Adverbials ; as, bodiernus, from hodie ; craftinus, from cres; binus, from bis, &. There
are likewise adjectives derived from prepositions ; as, contrarius, from contra ; anticas, from ante : pofticus, from post.
Adjectives which fignify number, are divided into four classes, Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, and Multipli cative.
1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are :
bis mille, Decem millia, or
decięs mille, Viginti millia, or
thirty forty. fifty. fixty. seventy. eighty. ninety. a bundred. two bundred. three hundred. four bundred. five bundrede few hundred. seven bundred. eight bundred. nine hundred. a thousand. two thousand.
ten tbou fand.
"} twenty tbonfand.
Duo & viginti
, } twenty-two.
The cardinal numbers, except unus and mille, want the fingular.
Unus is not used in the plural, unless when joined with a substantive which wants the fingular; as, una mænia, one wall; or when feveral particulars are considered as one whole ; as, una veflimenta, one fuit of clothes.
Duo and tres are thus declined :
Plur. N. duo, duæ, duo, | N. tres, tres, tria, G. duorum, duārum, duorum, | G. trium, trium, trium, Dduõbus, duābus, duobus, D. tribus, tribus, tribus, A. duos or duo, duas, duo,
tres, tria, V. duo,
duo, V. tres, tres, tria, A. duobus, duabus, duobus. | A. tribus, tribus, tribu's.
In the same manner with duo, decline ambo, both.
All the Cardinal numbers from quatuor to centum, including them both, arc indeclinable; and from centum to mille, are declined like the plural of bonus ; thus, ducenti, -tæ, -ta; ducentorum, -tarum, -to
Mille is used either as a substantive or adjective; when taken substantively it is indeclinable in the singular number; and in the plural has millia, millium, millibus, &c.
Mille, an adjective, is commonly indeclinable, and to express more than one thousand, has the numeral adverbs joined with it; thus, mille bumines, a thousand men; mille hominum, of a thousand men, &c. Bis mille homines, two thousand men ; ter mille bomines, C. But with mille, a substantive, we say mille hominum, a thousand men; duo millia hominum, tria millia, quatuor millia, centum or centena millia hominum ; Decies centena millia, a million; Vicies centena millia, iwo millions, &c.
2. The Ordinal numbers are primus, first ; secundus, fe. cond, &c. declined like bonus.
3. The distributive are, fingủli, one by one ; bini, two by two, &c. declined like the plural of bonus.
The following table contains a list of the Ordinal and Distributive Numbers, together with the Numeral Adverbs, which are of, ten joined with the Numeral Adjectives.
Ordinal. i Primus, a, um. 2 secundus. 3 tertius. 4 quartus. 5 quintus. 6 fextus. 7 septimus. 8 octavus. 9 nonus. 1o decimus.
In several of these, both in English and Latin, the comparative: and superlative seem to be formed from some other adjective which in the positive has fallen into disuse: in others, the regular form is contracted ; as, maximus, for magnifimus : moft, for moreft ; leaft, for kefef; worf, for worse.
2. These five have their superlative in limus : Facilis, facilior, facillimus, easy. Imbecillis, imbecillior, imbecillin Gracilis, gracilior,gracillimus, lean.
mus, weak. Humilis, humilior, humillimus,lozu. Similis, fimilior, simillimus, like.
3. The following adjectives have regular comparatives, but form the superlative differently : Citer, citerior, citimus, near. Matūrus, -ior, maturrimus, ar Dexter, dexterior, dextimus, right. maturiflimus, ripe. Sinister, finifterior, finistímus, left
. Postěrus, posterior, postremus, Exter, -erior, extimus, or extrē bebind, mus, outward.
Supěrus, -rior, fuprēmus, or fumInfērus,-ior, infimus,orimus,belors. mus, bigb. Intěrus, interior, intimus, inward. Vetus, veterior, veterrimus, old.
4. Compounds in dicus, loquus, ficus, and volus, have entior, and entifimus; as, malědicus, railing, maledicentior, maledicentisfimus : So magniloquus, one that boasteth; benea ficus, beneficent; malěvõlus, malevolent ; mirificus, wonderful, -entior, -entifimus, or mirificiffimus.
There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable of having their fignification increased, yet either want one of the degrees of comparison, or are not compared at all.
1. The following adjectives are not used in the positive:
Ulterior, fartber, ultimus.
3. The following want the superlative :
Satur, faturior, full.
Senex, senior, eld. Opimus, opimior, rick.
To supply the ruperlative of juvēnis or adolefcens, we say minimus nutu, the youngest; and of fenex, maximus natu, the oldest
Adjectives in ilis, ālis, and bilis, also want the superlative; as, civilis, civilior, civil; regālis, regatior, regal ; flebilis, -ior, lamentable. So juvenilis, youthful; exilis, small; regālis
, like a king, &c. To these add several others of different terminations: Thus, arcānus, -ior, secret ; declivis, -ior, bending downwards ; longinquw, -ior, far off ; propinquus, -ior, near.
Anterior, former ; fequior, worse; fatior, better ; are only found in the comparative.
4. Many adjectives are not compared at all: such are those compounded with nouns or verbs; as, persicolor, of divers colours; peftis fer, poisonous : also adjectives in us pure, in ious, inus, orus, or imus, and diminutives ; as, dubius, doubtful; vacuus, empty ; fugitivus, that flieth away; matutinus, early ; canērus, thrill ; legitimus, lawful; tenela lus, fomewhat tender ; majusculus, &c. : together with a great many others of various terminations ; as, almus, gracious; precox, -ěcis, soon or early ripe ; mirus, egenus, lacer, memor, fofpes, &c
This defect of comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis before the adjective, for the comparative degrec; and velde or max. ime for the superlative; thus, egēnus, needy ; magis egenus, more needy; valde or maxime egerus, very or most needy. Which form of comparison is also used in those adjectives which are regularly compared.
is a word which stands instead of a noun. Thus, I stands for the name of the person who speaks ; thou, 'for the name of the person addressed.
Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, or do not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discourse, and prevent the too frequent repetition of the same word; thus, instead of saying, W ben Gefar bad conquered Gaul, Cæfar turned Cæfar's arms againf Cæsar's country, we say, When Cæsar bad conquere ed Gaul, be turned bis arms against bis country.
The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen ; ego, tu, fui ; ille, ipfe, ifte, hic, is, quis, qui ; meus, tuus, fuus, ngler, vester ; noftras, veftras, and cujas.
Three of them are substantives, ego, tu, sui; the other fifteen are adjectives.