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Justa, funeral rites.
Suovetaurilia, -ium, e facrifice of a Lamenta, lamentations,
fwine, a fbeep, and an ox. Lautia, provisions for the entertain. Talaria, -ium, winged foes.
ment of foreign ambassadors. Telqua, rough places. Luftra, dens of wild beasts. Transtra, the seats where the rowers Magalia, -ium, cottages
fit in fips. Several nouns in each of the above lists are found also in the fine gular, but in a different sense ; thus, caftrum, a castle ; litera, a letter of the alphabet, &*c.
III. REDUNDANT Nouns.
Nouns are redundant in different ways: 1. In termination only; as, arbos and arbor, a tree. 2. In declension only; as, laurus, genit. lauri, and laurűs, a laurel tree, sequester, -tri, or tris, a mediator. 3. Only in gender; as, hic or hoc vulgus, the rabble. in termination and declension; as, materia, -« ; or materies, -ici, matter; plebs, -is, the common people, or, plebes, -is, -ëi, or contracted plebi. s. In termination and gender; as, tonitrus, -ứs, masc. sonitru, neut. thunder. 6. In declension and gender ; as, penus, -ig and ús, m. or f. or penus, coris, neut. all kinds of provifion. 7. In termination, gender, and declension; as, ather, -ěris, masc. and ætbra, -&, fem. the sky. 8. Several nouns in the same declension are differently varied; as, tigris, -is, or -idis, a tiger : to which may be added, nouns which have the same signification in different gumbers; as, Fidena, . -&; or Fidene, -arum, the name of a city.
The most numerous class of redundant nouns confifts of those which express the same meaning by different terminations ; as, menda, -Q ; and mendum, -i, a fault ; cas. sis, - dis; and casida, .da, a helmet. So, Acinus, & -lim, a grape stone. Colluvies, & -io, filth, dirt. Alvera, &•C, & -jum, a bee-bive. Compages, & -go, a joining. Amarăcus, & -um, sweet marjo- Conger, & -grus, a large eel.
Crocus, & -um, Saffron. Ancile, & -ium, an oval foield. Cubītis, & -um, a cubit. Angiportus, -ês, &-i, &-um, a Diluvium, & -es, e deluge.
Elephantus, & -as, -antis, an clAphractus, & -um, an open feip. phant. Aplustre, &-um, the flag, colours. Elēgus, & -čia, an elegy. Bacŭlus, & -um, a faff.
Essěda, & -um, a cbairot. Balteus, & -um, a belt.
Eventus, & um, an event. Batillus, & -um, a fire fovel. Fulgetra, et -um, lightning: Capůlus, & -um, a bilt.
Galērus, & -um, a bet. Capus, & -o, a capon.
Gibbus, & -a; & -er, -ěris, or eri, indec. an onion.
a bunch, a swelling. Clypeus, &-um, a fields Glutinum, & gn, glues
Hebdomas, & -ada, a week. Rapa, & -um, a turnip. Intrita, & -um, fine mortar, minc- Ruma, & -men, ibe cud. ed meat.
Ruscus, & -um, a brufo. Librarium, & -a, a library, Seps, et •es, f. an bedge. Maceria, & -es, -iëi, a wall. Segmen, et -mentum, a piece or Milliare, & -ium, a mile.
paring Monitum, &-us, -ús, an admoni- Sibilus, et, -um, a biling. tion.
Sinus, et, -um, a milk-pail. Muria, & -es, -jëi, brine or pickle. Spurcitia, et -es, naftinefs. Nafus, & -um, the nose.
Stramen, et, -tum, ftraw. Obfidio, & -um, a frege.
Suffimen, et, -tum, a perfume Oestrus, & -um, a gad bee. Tignus, et, -um, a plank. Ostrea, -um, an oyster. Toral, et, -āle, a bed-covering. Peplus, & -um, a veil, a robe. Torcủlar, et, -āre, a wine-prefs. Piltrīna, & -um, a bake-bouse. Viscus, et, -um, bird-lime. Prætextus, -us, &* -um, a pretext. Voternus, et, -um, a letbargy.
Note. The nouns which are called variable and defective, seem originally to have been redundant : thus, vafa, corum, properly comes from vafum, and not from vas ; but custom, which gives laws to all languages, has dropt the fingular, and retained the plural ; and so of others.
Division of Nouns according to their signification and deriva
tion. 1. A fubftantive which fignifies many in the fingular number, is called a Colledive noun; as, popülus, a people ; exercitus, an army.
A fubftantive derived from another fubftantive proper, fignifying one's extraction, is called a Patronymic noun; as, Priamides, the son of Priamus; Æetias, the daughter of Æetes; Nerine, the daughter of Nereus. Patronymics are generally derived from the name of the father, but the poets, by whom they are chiefly used, derive them also from the grandfather, or some other remarkable person of the family ; sometimes likewise from the founder of a nation or people; as, Æacădes, the fon, grandson, great-grandfon, or one of the posterity of Æăcus; Romulida, the Romans, from their first king Romulus. Patronymic names of men end in des ; of women, in is,
Those in des and ne are of the first declension, and those in is and as of the third; as, Priamides, .de, &c. pl. -de, darum, &c.; Nerine, -es : Tyndăris, -rdis, or -idos ; etias, -ădir, &c.
as, or ne.
3. A noun derived from a substantive proper, fignifying one's country, is called a Patrial or Gentile noun; as, Tros, Trois, a man born at Troy ; Troas, -ădis, a woman born at Troy ; Sicŭlus, •i, a Sicilian man; Sicėlis, -idis, a Sicilian woman : so, Macédo, õnis ; Arpīnas, -ātis, a man born in Macedonia, Arpinum ; from Troja, Sicilia, Macedonia, Arpinum. But patrials for the mot part are to be considered as adjectives, having a substantive understood; as, Romānus, Atbenienfis, &c.
4. A substantive derived from an adjective, expressing fimply the quality of the adjective, without regard to the thing in which the quality exifts, is called an Abftra& ; as, juftitia, justice ; bonitas, goodness ; dulcedo, sweetness : from justus, juft ; bonus, good ; dulcis, sweet. The ad. jectives from which these abstracts come, are called Con. cretes ; because, besides the quality, they also suppose something to which it belongs. Abstracts commonly end in a, as, or do, and are very numerous, being derived from most adjectives in the Latin tongue.
5. A fubstantive derived from another substantive, fignifying a diminution or lessening of its signification, is called a Dimicutive ; as, libellus, a little book; chartŭla, a little paper ; opusculum, a little work; corcŭlum, a little heart; reticulum, a small net ; fcabellum, a small form ; lapillus, a little stone ; cultellus, a little knife ; pagella, a little page : from liber, charta, opus, cor, rete, scamnum, lapis, culter, pagina. Several diminutives are sometimes 'formed from the fame primitive; as, from puer, puerulus, puellus, puellŭlus ; from cista, cisŭla, cistella, cifteilula ; from homo, homuncio, homunculus.
Diminutives for the most part end in lus, la, lum; and are generally of the fame gender with their primitives. When the fignification of the primitive is increased, it is called an Amplificative, and ends in 0; as, Capito, -ōnis, having a large head : So, nafo, labeo, bucco, having a large nose, lips, cheeks.
6. A substantive derived from a verb is called a Ver. bal noun; as, amor, love; do&rina, learning : from amo and doceo. Verbal nouns are very numerous, and commonly end in io, or, us, and ura ; as, leftio, a lesson ; ama. tor, a lover ; lwus, grief; creatura, a creature.
ADJECTIVE. An adjective is a word added to a substantive, to ex. press its quality; as, hard, foft.
We know things by their qualities only. Every quality must belong to some subject. An adjective therefore always implies a substantive expressed or understood, and cannot make full sense without it.
An adjective may be thus distinguillied from a substantive: If the word ibing be joined to an adjective, it will make sense ; but if it be joined to a substantive, it will make nonsense : thus, we can say, a good thing ;" but we cannot say, “a book thing."
Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, number, and case, to agree with substantives, in all these accidents.
An adjective properly hath neither genders, numbers, nor cases ; but certain terminations answering to the gender, number, and case of the substantive with which it is joined.
Adjectives are varied like three substantives of the same termination and declension.
All adjectives are either of the first and second declension, or of the third only.
Adjectives of three terminations are of the first and se. cond declension ; but adjectives of one or two terminations are of the third.
Exe. The following adjectives, though they have three terminations, are of the third declension : Acer, foarp.
Campester, belonging to Sylvefter, woody. Alăcer, cheerful. a plain (borse Pedester, on foot
. Celer, swift.
Equester, belonging to a Paluster, marshy. Celeber, famous.
Salūber, wbolesome. Volůcer, swift.
ADJECTIVES of the First and Second DeclENSION.
Adjectives of the first and second declension have their masculine in us or er, their feminine always in a, and their neuter always in um; as, bonus, for the masc. bona, for the fem. bonum, for the neut. good : thus, Sing
Plur. N. bon-us, a, -um,
Ņ. boni, •, G bon-i,
G. bon-orum, -arum, .orum, D bon.o, .2, -0,
D bon-is, -is, .is, A bon-um, -am, -um,
A bonsos, -as, V. bon-e, .a, -um,
.a, A. bon.o,
A. bon.is, .is,
3. Adjectives of three terminations ; as, acer or acris, for the masc. acris, for the fem. acre, for the neut. sharp ; thus, Sing.
Plur. N. a-cer or .cris, -cris, .cre, N. a.cres, -cres, cria, G. a-cris, -cris, .cris, G. a-crium, .crium, -crium, D. a-cri, -cri, -cri, D. a.cribus, -cribus, -cribus, A. a.crem, .crem, -cre, A. a-cres, -cres,
-cria, V. a cer or -cris,.cris, -cre, V. a.cres, .cres,
-cria, A. a-cri, -cri, .cri. A. a.cribus, -cribus, .cribus.
In like manner, alacer or alacris, celer or celeris, cèleber or celebris, salūber or salūbris, volūcer or volucris, &c.
1. Adjectives of the third declension have e or i in the ablative singular : but if the neuter be in e, the ablative has i only.
2. The genitive plural ends in ium, and the neuter of the nominative, accusative, and vocative, in ia : except comparatives, which have um and a,
EXCEPTIONS. Exc. 1. Dives, bofpes, fofpes, fuperfles, juvēnis, fenex, and pauper, have e only in the abiative singular, and consequently um in the genitive plural.
Exc. 2. The following have also e in the abl. sing. and um, not ium in the gen. plur. Compos, -otis, master of, that hath obtained his desire; impos, -ötis, unable; inops, -õpis, poor ; fupplex, -icis, fuppliant, humble; uber, -ěris, fertile; confors, -tis, sharing, a partner ; degěner, -ěris, degenerate, or degenerating; vigil, watchful; puber, -ěris, of age, marriageable ; and celer : Also compounds in ceps, fex, pes, and corpor ; as, particeps, partaking of ; artifex, -icis, cunning, an artist ; bipes, -pědis, two footed; bicorpor, -õris, two-bodied, &c. All these have seldom the neut. sing, and almost never the neut, plur. in the nom and acc. To which add memor, mindful, which has memóri, and memorum : also defes, refes, bebes, perpes, prapes, teres, concolor, verficolor, which likewise for the most part want the genitive plural.
Exc. 3. Par, equal, has only pări : but its compounds have either e or i; as, compăre, or -ri. Vetus, old, hath vetěra, and vetěrum; plus, more, which is only used in the neut. sing. bas plure; and in the plural, plures, plura, or pluria, plurium.
Exc. 4. Exfpes, hopeless; and potis, -e, able, are only used in the nominative. Potis has also sometimes potis in the neuter.,