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Exc. 4. Nouns in ys, which have ym in the accusative, make their ablative in ye, or y; as, Atys, Atye, or Aty, the name of a man.

NOMINATIVE PLURAL.

1. The nominative plural ends in es, when the noun is either masculine or feminine ; as, sermones, rupes.

Nouns in is and es have sometimes in the nominative plural also eis or is ; as, puppes, puppeis, or pufpis.

2. Neuters which have e in the ablative singular, have a in the nominative plural; but those which have i in the ablative, make ia ; as, capita, sedilia.

GENITIVE PLURAL.

Exc. 2.

Nouns which in the ablative fingular have i only, or e and i together, make the genitive plural in ium ; buc if the ablative be in e, the genitive plural has um ; as, sedile, sedili

, sedilium ; turris, turre or turri, turrium ; caput, capite, cajitum.

Exc. 1. Monofyllables in as havę ium, though their ablative end in e; as, mas, a male, măre, marium ; vas, a surety, vădium ; but pollysyllables have rather um; as, civitas, a state or city, civitātum, and sometimes civitatium.

Nouns in es and is, which do not increase in the genitive singular, have also ium ; as, hoftis, an enemy, hosium. So likewile nouns ending in two consonants ; as, gens, a nation, gentium , urbs, a city, urbium.

But the following have um : parens, vates, panis, juvenis, and canis.

Exc. 3. The following nouns form the genitive plu. ral in ium, though they have e only in the ablative fin. gular : Caro, carpis, f. felle.

Lis, litis, f. Arife
Cohors, -tis, f. a company. Mus, mūris, m. a mouse.
Cor, cordis. n. the heart.

Nix, nivis, f. fnow.
Cos, cotis, f a bone or wbetstone. Nox, noctis, f. the night.
Dos, dotis, f. a dowry.

Os, offis, n. a bone.
Faux, faucis, f. the jaws. Quiris, -ītis, a Roman.
Glis, glīris, m. a rat,

Samnis, -ītis, m. or f. a Samnito. Lar, laris, m. a housebold-god. Uter, utris, m, a bottls. Linter, -tris, m. or f. a little boat.

Thus Samnitium, lintrium, litium, &c. Also the compounds of uncia and as ; as, septunx, seven ounces, septuncium ; bes, eight ounces, befium. Bos, an ox or cow, has boum, and in the dative, bõbus, or būbus.

Greek nouns have generally um ; as, Macédo, a Macedonian ; Arabs, an Arabian; Æthiops, an Ethiopian ; Monocéros, an unicorn ; Lynx, a beast so called ; Tbrax, a Thracian: Macedonum, Arăbum, Æthiopum, Monocerotum, Lyncum, Thrācum. But those which have a or fis in the nominative singular, sometimes form the genitive plural in on; as, Epigramma, epigrammătum, or epigrammatén, an epigram; metamorphosis, -jum, or -eôn.

Obr. 1. Nouns which want the fingular, form the genitive plural as if they were complete ; thus, manes, m. souls departed, manium; cælites, m. inhabitants of heaven, cælitum ; because they would have had in the fing. munis and cæles. But names of feasts often vary their declension; as, Saturnalia, the feast of Saturn, Saturnalium, and Saturnaliorum

Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, are, by the poets, often contracted into um ; as, nocentûm for nocentium : and sometimes to increase the number of syllables, a letter is inserted; as, cælituum for cælitum. The former of these is said to be done by the figure Syncope ; and the latter by Epentběsis.

Obf. 2

EXCEPTIONS IN THE DATIVE PLURAL.

Exc. 1.

Greek nouns in a have commonly tis instead of tõbus ; as, poēma, poem, poematis, rather than poematibus, from the old nominative poemătum. Exc. 2.

The poets sometimes form the dative plural of Greek nouns in fi, or when the next word begins with a vowel, in fin; as, Troăsi or Troăsin, for Troădibus, from Troas, Troădis, a Trojan woman.

EXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE PLURAL.

Exc. 1.

Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, make their accusative plural in es, eis, or is ; as, partes, partium, acc. partes, parteis, or partis. Exc. 2.

If the accusative singular end in a, the accu. sative plural also ends in as ; as, lampas, lampădem, or lampăda ; lampă des or lampădas. So Tros, Troas; beros, heroas; Æthiops, Ethiopas, &c.

GREEK NOUNS THROUGH ALL THE CASES.

Lampas, f. lampădis, or ·ădos ; ădi, -ŭdem, or ada ; -as ; -ade:

Plural -ades ; -ădum ; adibus ; ades, or -adas ; -ades ; adibus.

Troas, f. Troadis, or -ados ; i ; em or a ; as; e: Plur. Tros

ades ; -um; -ibus, h, or fin ; es or as ; es ; ibus. Tros, m. Trois ; Troi; Troem or -a; Tros ; Troe, &c. Phillis, f. Phillidis or -dos, di, dem or da; i ; de. Paris, m. Paridis or -dos ; di; dem, Parim or in ; i ;

de. Chlamys, f. Chlamýdis or vzdos, ġdi, šdem or jda, js, jde, &c. Capys, m. Capyis, or yos; yi; ym or yn; y; je or y. Metamorphosis, f. -is or -eos, i, em or in, i, i, &c. Orpheus, m. eos, ëi or ei, ea, eu, abl. eo of the second decl. Dido, f. Didús or Didonis, Dido or Didoni, &c.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

Sing.

Nouns of the fourth declension end in us and u.

Nouns in us are masculine : nouns in u are neuter, and indeclinable in the fingular number.

The terminations of the cases are ; nom. sing. us ; gen. ûs ; dat. ui ; acc. um ; voc. like the nom. ; nom. acc. voce plur. us or ua; gen. uum; dat. and abl ibus ; as, Fru&us, fruit, mafc.

Cornu, a born, neut.
Sing.
Plur.

Plur.
N. fructus, N. fructus,

N. cornu,

N. cornua, G. fructus, G. fructuum,

G. cornu,

G. cornuum, D. fructui, D. fru&ibus,

D. cornu,

D. cornibus A. fru&tum, A. fructus,

A. cornu,

A. cornua, V. fructus, V. fructus,

V cornu,

V. cornua, A. fructu. A. fructibus.

A. cornu.

A. cornibus. Exc. I.

The following nouns are feminine: Acus, a needle. Manus, the band.

Specus, a den. Domus, a boufe. Penus, a forehouse. Tribus, a tribe. Ticus, a fig.

Porticus, a gallery. Penus and specus are sometimes masc. Ficus, Penus, and. domus, with soveral others, are also of the second declension. Capricornus, m. the sign of Capricorn, although from cornu, is always of the second decl. and so are the compounds of manus ; unimănus'; centimănus, &c, Domus is but partly of the second ; thus,

Domus, a house, fem.
Sing.

Plur.
Nom. domus,

Nom. domus,
Gen. domûs, or -mi, Gen. domorum, or -uum,
Dat. domui, or -mo,

Dat. domibus,
Acc. domum,

Acc. domos, or asy Voc. domus,

Voc. domus, Abl. domo.

Abl. domibus.

Note. Domus, in the genit. fignifies, of a house; and domi, at home, or of home; as, memineris domi. Ter.

Exc. 2. The following have ŭbus in the dative and ablative plural. Acus, a needle. Lacus, a lake.

Specus, a den. Arcus, a bow.

Partus, a birtb. Tribus, a tribe. Artus, e joint. Portus, a barbour. Veru, a spit. Genu, tbe knee.

and have likewise ibus ; as, portibus or portübus.

Portus, genu,

veru,

Exc. 3. Iesus, the venerable name of our Saviour, has um in the accusative, and u in all the other cases.

Nouns of this declension anciently belonged to the third, and were declined like grus, gruis, a crane; thus, fru&tus, fru&tuis, fructui, fruluem, fructue ; fruclues, fru&uum, fructuibus, fructues, fructues, fruétuibus. So that all the cases are contracted, except the dative fingular, and genitive plural. In some writers, we still find the genitive fingular in uis, and in others, the dative in u. The gen. plur. is sometimes contracted ; as, currum for curruum.

FIFTH DECLENSION.

es,

el,

Nouns of the fifth declension end in es, and are of the feminine gender ; as,

Res, a thing, fem.
Sing.
Plur.

Terminations.
Nom. res,
Nom. res,

es, Gen. rei, Gen, rērum,

ei, erum, Dat. rëi, Dat. rēbus,

ebus, Acc. res,

em, Acc, rem,

es, Voc. res,

Voc. res,
Abl, re.
Abl. rebus.

ebus. In like manner decline, Acies, the edge of a Ingluvies, gluttony. Scabies, the feeb, or itch,

Series, an order. thing, or an army in Macies, leannefs.

order of battle. Pernicies, destruction. Species, an appearance. Caries, rottenness. Proluvies, a looseness. Superficies, the surface, Facies, the face. Rabies, madness.

Temperies, temperateGlacies, ice. Sanies, gore.

ness.

es,

es,

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Except dies, a day, masc. or fem. in the fingular, and always mafc. in the plural; and meridies, the mid-day, or noon, masc:

D

The poets Tometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the das tive, in e.

The nouns of this declension are few in number, not exceeding fifty, and seem anciently to have been comprehended under the third declension. Most of them want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and many the plural altogether.

All nouns of the fifth declension end in ies, except three, fides, faith; Spes, hope ; res, a thing; and all pouns in ies are of the fifth, except these four, abies, a fir tree; aries, a ram ; paries, a wall; and quies, rest; which are of the third declenfion.

IRREGULAR NOUNS..

Trregular nouns may be reduced to three classes, Vari. able, Defe&tive, and Redundant.

I. VARIABLE Nouns.

Nouns are variable, either in gender, or declension, or in both.

I Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous, and may be reduced to the following classes :

1. Masculine in the fingular, and neuter in the plural : Avernus, a lake in Campania, bell. Mænálus, a bill in Arcadia. Dindýmus, a bill in Phrygia. Pangæus, a promontory in Thrace. l{mărus, a hill in Thraci. Tænărus, a promontory in Laconia. Massắcus, a hill in Campania, fa- Tartarus, hell.

mous for excellent wines. Tāygětus, a hill in Laconia.

Thus, Averna, Avernorum ; Dindyma, -orum, &c. These are thought by some to be properly adjectives, having mons understood in the kngular, and juga or cacumina in the plural.

2. Mafc in the fing, and in the plur. masc. and neuter:

Focus, a jest, pl. joci and joca ; locus, a place, pl. loci and loca.

When we speak of passages in a book, or topics in difcourse, loci only is used.

3. Feminine in the fingular, and neuter in the plural :

Carbăsus, a fail, pl. carbăsa; Pergămus, the citadel of Troy, pl. Pergama.

4. Neuter in the fingular, and mafculine in the plural :

Calum, pl. cæli, heaven; Elysium, pl Elyfi, the Elysian fields ; 'Argos, pl. Argi, a city in Greece.

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