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Edipus, the name of a man, has Edipēdis: sometimes it is of the second declension, and has dipi. The compounds of pus, have õdis: as, tripûs ; masc. a tripod, tripodis ; but lagopus, -ödis
, a kind of bird, or the herb hares-foot, is fem. Names of cities have untis ; as, Trapezus, Trapezuntis ; Opus, Opuntis.
rs. 12. Nouns in ys are all derived from the Greek, and are for the most part feminine. In the genitive, they have sometimes yis, or yos; as hæc chelys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp; Capys, Capris, or yos, the name of a man: sometimes they have ğdis, or jdos, as, hæc chlamys, chlamýdis, or chlamýdos, a íoldier's cloak; and sometimes jnis, or jnos; as Trachys, Tracbönis, or Trachýnos, the name of a town.
ÆS, AUS, EUS. 13. The nouns ending in es and aus are, Æs, æris, n. brass or money.
Laus, laudis, f. praise. Fraus, fraudis, f. fraud.
Præs, prædis, m. or f. a surety. Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the genitive in eos ; as, Orpbeus, Orpheos ; Tereus, Tereos. But thefe nouns are also found in the second declension, where cus is divided into two syllables; thus, Orpheus, genit. Orphëi, or sometimes contracted Orpbei, and that into Orphí.
S with a confonant before it. 14. Nouns ending in s with a confonant before it, are feminine ; and form the genitive by changing the s into is or tis ; as, trabs, trăbis, a beam ; fcobs, fcõbis, faw-dust; hiems, bičmis, winter ; gens, gentis, a nation ; sips, Mipis, alms ; pars, partis, a part; fors, fortis, a lot; mors, -tis, death.
The following nouns are masculine : Chalys, -ýbis, feel.
Merops, -opis, a wood-pecker. Dens, -tis, a tooth.
Mons, -tis, a mountain. Fons, -tis, a well.
Pons, -tis, a bridge. Gryps, gryphis, a griffon. Seps, sēpis, a kind of serpent ; but, Hydrops, -āpis, the dropsy. Seps, fepis, a bedge, is fem.
Exc. 2. The following are either masc. or feminine : Adeps, adipis, fatness.
Serpens, -tis, a ferpent. Rudens, -tis, a cable.
Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree. Scrobs, scrobis, a ditch,
Stirps, an offspring, always fem.
Animans, a living creature, is found in all the genders, but most frequently in the feminine or neuter.
Exc. 3. Polysyllables in eps change e into i; as, hæc forceps, forcipis, a pair of tongs; princeps, -ějis, a prince, or princess ; particeps, .cipis, a partaker; fo likewise cælebs, cælibis, an unmarried man
The compounds of caput have cipitis ; as, præceps, præcipitis, headlong ; aneeps, ancipitis, doubtful; biceps, -cijitis, two-headed. Auceps, a fowler, has aucủpis.
Exc. 4. The following feminines have diso Frons, frondis, the leaf of a tres. Juglans, -dis, e walnut. Glans, glandis, 'an acorn.
Lens, lendis, a nit. So, libripens, libripendis, a weigher; 'nefrens, -dis, a grice or pig; and the compounds of sor : as, concors, concordis, agreeing; discors, disagreeing; vecors, mad, &c. But frons, the forehead, has frontis, fem. and lens, a kind of pulse, lentis, also fem.
Exc. 5. lens, going ; and quiens, being able, participles from the verbs eo and queo, with their compounds, have euntis : thus, iens, euntis ; quiens, queuntis ; rediens, redeuntis ; nequiens, nequiuntis : but ambiens, going round, has ambientis.
Exc. 6. Tiryns, a city in Greece, the birth-place of Hercules, has Tirynthis.
T. 15. There is only one noun in t, namely, caput, capitis, the head, neuter. In like manner, its compounds, hinciput, fincipitis, the forehead ; and occặput, štis, the hind-head.
16. Nouns in x are feminine, and in the geni. tive change x into cis ; as,
Vox, vācis, the voice; lux, lūcis, light.
Exc. 1. Polyfyllables in ax and ex are masculine; as, thorax, -ācis, a breast-plate ; Corax, acis, a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into žcis ; as, pollux, - cis, the thumb.
Vervex, a wedder sheep, has vervēcis ; fanifex, a mower of hay, fanisěcis : Refex, m. -ěcis, a vise branch cut off,
To these masculines add, Calix, -icis, a cup.
Oryx, -ýcis, a wild-goat. Calyx, -ýcis, the bud of a flower. Phænix, -icis, a bird so called. Coccyx, -ýgis, vel. ģcis, a cuckow. Traduz, -ăcis, a graff, or off-set of a Fornix, -ịcis, a vault.
vine ; also fem.
But the following polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine. Fornax, -ācis, a furnace.
Forfex, -icis, a pair of scissars. Panax, -ăcis, the herb all-beal. Halex, -ēcis, a berring. Smilax, -ăcis, the herb rope-weed, Supellex, fupellectilis, bousebold fur Carex, -icis, a sedge.
niture. Climax, acis, a ladder.
A great many nouns in x are either mascụ. line or feminine ; as, Calx, -cis, the heel, or the end of Limax, -acis, a snail.
any thing, the graol ; but calx, Obcx, - cis, a bolt or bar.
Perdix, -icis, a partridge.
Varix, -rcis, a swoln vein.
Exc. 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming the genitive: Aquiles, -égis, a well-maker. Phalanx, -angis, f. a phalanx. Conjunx, or ux, -ügis, a bufband Remex, -rgis, a rower, or wife.
Rex, régis, a king Frux, (not used) frūgis, f. corn. Nix, nīvis, f. fnuw. Grex, grégis, m. or f. a fuck. Nox, noctis, f night. Lex, lēgis, f. a law.
Senes, sěnis, (an adj.) old.
Greek nouns in %, both with respect to gender and declension, are as various as Latin nouns: thus, bombyx, bombýcis, a lilk worm, mafc. but when it fignifies filk, or the yarn sprn by the worm, it is feminine ; onyx, mafc. o fem. onýchis, a precious stone ; and !o fardonyx ; larynx, laryngis, fem. the top of the wind-pipe ; Phryx, Phrygis, a Phrygian ; sphinx, ingis, a fabulous hag; strix, .žgis, f a screechowl ; Styx, řgis, f. a river in hell; Hylax, -dis, the name of a dog i Bibrax, Bibradis, the name of a
DATIVE SINGULAR. The Dative singular anciently ended also in e; as, Eluriente leoni ex ore exculpere prædam, To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion, Lucil. Hæret pede pes, Foot sticks to foot, Virg. for efurienti and pedi.
EXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. Exc. I.
The following nouns have the accusative in
Amuflis, f. a mason's rule. Ravis, f. boarseness.
Sitis, f. thirft.
Tuflis, f the cough. Gummis, f. gum.
Vis, f. ftrength. Mephitis, f. a damp or strong smell.
To these add names of rivers, and some other proper names ; as, Tiběris, Tibërim, the Tiber; Syrtis, f. -im, a quicksand. These fome. times make the accusative in in; as, Bætin, Serāpin, &c.
Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em or im; as, Clavis, f. a key. Pelvis, f. a bafon. Secūris, fi an ax. Cutis, f. the skin. Puppis, f. the stern of a Sementis, f. a fowing. Febris, f. a fevers
Strigilis, f. a borfe-comb. Navis, f. a fbip. Restis, f. a rope.
Turris, f. a tower, &c. Thus navem, or navim ; puppem, or puppim, &c. The ancients iaid avim, aurim, ovim, pellim, vallim, vitim, &c. which are not to be imitated.
Exc. 3. GREEK Nouns form their accusative vari. ously :
1. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in is or os impure, that is, with a consonant going before, have the accusative in em or a; as, lampas, lampădis, or lampades ; lampadem, or lampada. In like manner, these three, which have is pure in the genitive, or is with a vowel before it : Tros, Trõis, Troem, and Troa, a Trojan; heros, a hero; Minos, a king of Crete. The three following have only a : Pan, the god of shepherds ; atber, the sky; delphin, a dolphin ; thus, Pāna, æthéra, delpbīna.
2. Masculine Greek nouns in is, which have their genitive in is or os impure, form the accusative in im or in, sometimes in idem, never ida; as, Paris, Paridis, or Paridos ; Parim, or Parin, sometimes Paridem, never Parida.
3. Feminines in is, increasing impurely in the genitive, have commonly idem or ida, but rarely im or in ; as, Elis, Elidis or Elidos, Elie dem or Elida ; seldom Elim or Elin ; a city in Greece. In like
manner, feminines in ys, ģdos, have ödem, or šda, not ym or yn in the accusative; as, chlamys, -ýdem, or ydu, not chlamyn, a soldier's cloak.
4. But all Greek nouns in is or us, whether masculine or feminine, having is or os pure in the genitive, form the accusative by changing s of the nominative into mor n; as, metamorpbõsis, -cos, or -ios, metamorphofim or-in, a change: Tetbys, -yos, or “yis ; Tetbym, or wyn; the name of a goddess.
5. Nouns ending in the diphthong eus, have the accusative in en; as, Tbefeus, Thefea.
Neuters in e, al, and ar have i in the ablative; as, sedile, fedili; animal, animai; caicar, calcāri. Except proper names; as, Prænejte, abl. Prenesle, the name of a town; and the following neuters in ar : Far, farre, corn.
Nectar, -ăre, drink of the gods. Hepar, -åte, the liver.
Par, păre, a matcb, a pair. Jubar, -ăre, a fun-beam.
Sal, săle, salt. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, have i in the ablative ; as, vis, vim, vi; but cannabis, Betis, and tigris, have e or i.
Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, make their ablative in e ori; as, turris, turre, or turri; but reftis, a rope ; and cutis, the skin, have e only.
Several nouns which have only em in the accusative, have e or i in the ablative; as, finis, fupellex, vectis, pugil, a champion ; mugil or mugilis ; rus, occiput : Also names of towns, when the question is made by ubi; as, babitat Carthagine or Carthagini, he lives at Carthage. So, civis, claffis, fors, imber, anguis, avis, poftis, fuftis, amnis, and ignis ; but there have oftener e. Canalis has only i. The most ancient writers made the ablative of many other nouns in i; as, aftati, cani, lapidi, ovi, &c.
Exc. 3. Adjectives used as substantives have commonly the same ablative with the adjertives ; as, bipennis, .', an halbert ; molāris, -i, a millstone ; quadrirēmis, ., a fhip with four banks of oars. So names of months, Aprīlis, -;; December, -bri, &c. But rudis, a rod given gladiators when discharged ; juvěnis, a young man, have only e; and likewise those ending in il, x, ceps, or ns ; as, Adolescens, a young Princeps, a prince.
Torrens, a brook. Senex, an old man. Vigil, a watchman Infans, an infant.
Thus, adolescente, infante, fene, &c