Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

Edipus, the name of a man, has Edipēdis: sometimes it is of the second declension, and has dipi. The compounds of pus, have õdis: as, tripûs ; masc. a tripod, tripodis ; but lagopus, -ödis

, a kind of bird, or the herb hares-foot, is fem. Names of cities have untis ; as, Trapezus, Trapezuntis ; Opus, Opuntis.

rs. 12. Nouns in ys are all derived from the Greek, and are for the most part feminine. In the genitive, they have sometimes yis, or yos; as hæc chelys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp; Capys, Capris, or yos, the name of a man: sometimes they have ğdis, or jdos, as, hæc chlamys, chlamýdis, or chlamýdos, a íoldier's cloak; and sometimes jnis, or jnos; as Trachys, Tracbönis, or Trachýnos, the name of a town.

ÆS, AUS, EUS. 13. The nouns ending in es and aus are, Æs, æris, n. brass or money.

Laus, laudis, f. praise. Fraus, fraudis, f. fraud.

Præs, prædis, m. or f. a surety. Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have the genitive in eos ; as, Orpbeus, Orpheos ; Tereus, Tereos. But thefe nouns are also found in the second declension, where cus is divided into two syllables; thus, Orpheus, genit. Orphëi, or sometimes contracted Orpbei, and that into Orphí.

S with a confonant before it. 14. Nouns ending in s with a confonant before it, are feminine ; and form the genitive by changing the s into is or tis ; as, trabs, trăbis, a beam ; fcobs, fcõbis, faw-dust; hiems, bičmis, winter ; gens, gentis, a nation ; sips, Mipis, alms ; pars, partis, a part; fors, fortis, a lot; mors, -tis, death.

Exc. 1.

The following nouns are masculine : Chalys, -ýbis, feel.

Merops, -opis, a wood-pecker. Dens, -tis, a tooth.

Mons, -tis, a mountain. Fons, -tis, a well.

Pons, -tis, a bridge. Gryps, gryphis, a griffon. Seps, sēpis, a kind of serpent ; but, Hydrops, -āpis, the dropsy. Seps, fepis, a bedge, is fem.

Exc. 2. The following are either masc. or feminine : Adeps, adipis, fatness.

Serpens, -tis, a ferpent. Rudens, -tis, a cable.

Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree. Scrobs, scrobis, a ditch,

Stirps, an offspring, always fem.

or woman.

Animans, a living creature, is found in all the genders, but most frequently in the feminine or neuter.

Exc. 3. Polysyllables in eps change e into i; as, hæc forceps, forcipis, a pair of tongs; princeps, -ějis, a prince, or princess ; particeps, .cipis, a partaker; fo likewise cælebs, cælibis, an unmarried man

The compounds of caput have cipitis ; as, præceps, præcipitis, headlong ; aneeps, ancipitis, doubtful; biceps, -cijitis, two-headed. Auceps, a fowler, has aucủpis.

Exc. 4. The following feminines have diso Frons, frondis, the leaf of a tres. Juglans, -dis, e walnut. Glans, glandis, 'an acorn.

Lens, lendis, a nit. So, libripens, libripendis, a weigher; 'nefrens, -dis, a grice or pig; and the compounds of sor : as, concors, concordis, agreeing; discors, disagreeing; vecors, mad, &c. But frons, the forehead, has frontis, fem. and lens, a kind of pulse, lentis, also fem.

Exc. 5. lens, going ; and quiens, being able, participles from the verbs eo and queo, with their compounds, have euntis : thus, iens, euntis ; quiens, queuntis ; rediens, redeuntis ; nequiens, nequiuntis : but ambiens, going round, has ambientis.

Exc. 6. Tiryns, a city in Greece, the birth-place of Hercules, has Tirynthis.

T. 15. There is only one noun in t, namely, caput, capitis, the head, neuter. In like manner, its compounds, hinciput, fincipitis, the forehead ; and occặput, štis, the hind-head.

[ocr errors]

16. Nouns in x are feminine, and in the geni. tive change x into cis ; as,

Vox, vācis, the voice; lux, lūcis, light.

Exc. 1. Polyfyllables in ax and ex are masculine; as, thorax, -ācis, a breast-plate ; Corax, acis, a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into žcis ; as, pollux, - cis, the thumb.

Vervex, a wedder sheep, has vervēcis ; fanifex, a mower of hay, fanisěcis : Refex, m. -ěcis, a vise branch cut off,

To these masculines add, Calix, -icis, a cup.

Oryx, -ýcis, a wild-goat. Calyx, -ýcis, the bud of a flower. Phænix, -icis, a bird so called. Coccyx, -ýgis, vel. ģcis, a cuckow. Traduz, -ăcis, a graff, or off-set of a Fornix, -ịcis, a vault.

vine ; also fem.

But the following polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine. Fornax, -ācis, a furnace.

Forfex, -icis, a pair of scissars. Panax, -ăcis, the herb all-beal. Halex, -ēcis, a berring. Smilax, -ăcis, the herb rope-weed, Supellex, fupellectilis, bousebold fur Carex, -icis, a sedge.

niture. Climax, acis, a ladder.

)

Exc. 2.

A great many nouns in x are either mascụ. line or feminine ; as, Calx, -cis, the heel, or the end of Limax, -acis, a snail.

any thing, the graol ; but calx, Obcx, - cis, a bolt or bar.
lime, is always fem.

Perdix, -icis, a partridge.
Cortex, -ycis, the bark of a tree. Pumex, švis, a pumice-fone.
Hystrix, -ícis, a porcupine. Rumex, -icis, forrel, an berb.
Imbrex, -icis, a gutter or roof tile. Sandix, -icis, a purple colour.
Lynx, -cis, un ounce, a beast of a Silex, -rcis, a flint.
very quick fight.

Varix, -rcis, a swoln vein.

Exc. 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming the genitive: Aquiles, -égis, a well-maker. Phalanx, -angis, f. a phalanx. Conjunx, or ux, -ügis, a bufband Remex, -rgis, a rower, or wife.

Rex, régis, a king Frux, (not used) frūgis, f. corn. Nix, nīvis, f. fnuw. Grex, grégis, m. or f. a fuck. Nox, noctis, f night. Lex, lēgis, f. a law.

Senes, sěnis, (an adj.) old.

Exc. 4.

Greek nouns in %, both with respect to gender and declension, are as various as Latin nouns: thus, bombyx, bombýcis, a lilk worm, mafc. but when it fignifies filk, or the yarn sprn by the worm, it is feminine ; onyx, mafc. o fem. onýchis, a precious stone ; and !o fardonyx ; larynx, laryngis, fem. the top of the wind-pipe ; Phryx, Phrygis, a Phrygian ; sphinx, ingis, a fabulous hag; strix, .žgis, f a screechowl ; Styx, řgis, f. a river in hell; Hylax, -dis, the name of a dog i Bibrax, Bibradis, the name of a

town, &c.

[ocr errors]

DATIVE SINGULAR. The Dative singular anciently ended also in e; as, Eluriente leoni ex ore exculpere prædam, To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion, Lucil. Hæret pede pes, Foot sticks to foot, Virg. for efurienti and pedi.

EXCEPTIONS IN THE ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR. Exc. I.

The following nouns have the accusative in

im :

Amuflis, f. a mason's rule. Ravis, f. boarseness.
Buris, f. the beam of a plough. Sināpis, f. mufard.
Cannabis, f. bemp.

Sitis, f. thirft.
Cucůmis, m. a cucumber.

Tuflis, f the cough. Gummis, f. gum.

Vis, f. ftrength. Mephitis, f. a damp or strong smell.

To these add names of rivers, and some other proper names ; as, Tiběris, Tibërim, the Tiber; Syrtis, f. -im, a quicksand. These fome. times make the accusative in in; as, Bætin, Serāpin, &c.

Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em or im; as, Clavis, f. a key. Pelvis, f. a bafon. Secūris, fi an ax. Cutis, f. the skin. Puppis, f. the stern of a Sementis, f. a fowing. Febris, f. a fevers

Lip. .

Strigilis, f. a borfe-comb. Navis, f. a fbip. Restis, f. a rope.

Turris, f. a tower, &c. Thus navem, or navim ; puppem, or puppim, &c. The ancients iaid avim, aurim, ovim, pellim, vallim, vitim, &c. which are not to be imitated.

Exc. 3. GREEK Nouns form their accusative vari. ously :

1. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in is or os impure, that is, with a consonant going before, have the accusative in em or a; as, lampas, lampădis, or lampades ; lampadem, or lampada. In like manner, these three, which have is pure in the genitive, or is with a vowel before it : Tros, Trõis, Troem, and Troa, a Trojan; heros, a hero; Minos, a king of Crete. The three following have only a : Pan, the god of shepherds ; atber, the sky; delphin, a dolphin ; thus, Pāna, æthéra, delpbīna.

2. Masculine Greek nouns in is, which have their genitive in is or os impure, form the accusative in im or in, sometimes in idem, never ida; as, Paris, Paridis, or Paridos ; Parim, or Parin, sometimes Paridem, never Parida.

3. Feminines in is, increasing impurely in the genitive, have commonly idem or ida, but rarely im or in ; as, Elis, Elidis or Elidos, Elie dem or Elida ; seldom Elim or Elin ; a city in Greece. In like

manner, feminines in ys, ģdos, have ödem, or šda, not ym or yn in the accusative; as, chlamys, -ýdem, or ydu, not chlamyn, a soldier's cloak.

4. But all Greek nouns in is or us, whether masculine or feminine, having is or os pure in the genitive, form the accusative by changing s of the nominative into mor n; as, metamorpbõsis, -cos, or -ios, metamorphofim or-in, a change: Tetbys, -yos, or “yis ; Tetbym, or wyn; the name of a goddess.

5. Nouns ending in the diphthong eus, have the accusative in en; as, Tbefeus, Thefea.

ABLATIVE SINGULAR.

Exc. 2.

Exc. 1.

Neuters in e, al, and ar have i in the ablative; as, sedile, fedili; animal, animai; caicar, calcāri. Except proper names; as, Prænejte, abl. Prenesle, the name of a town; and the following neuters in ar : Far, farre, corn.

Nectar, -ăre, drink of the gods. Hepar, -åte, the liver.

Par, păre, a matcb, a pair. Jubar, -ăre, a fun-beam.

Sal, săle, salt. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, have i in the ablative ; as, vis, vim, vi; but cannabis, Betis, and tigris, have e or i.

Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, make their ablative in e ori; as, turris, turre, or turri; but reftis, a rope ; and cutis, the skin, have e only.

Several nouns which have only em in the accusative, have e or i in the ablative; as, finis, fupellex, vectis, pugil, a champion ; mugil or mugilis ; rus, occiput : Also names of towns, when the question is made by ubi; as, babitat Carthagine or Carthagini, he lives at Carthage. So, civis, claffis, fors, imber, anguis, avis, poftis, fuftis, amnis, and ignis ; but there have oftener e. Canalis has only i. The most ancient writers made the ablative of many other nouns in i; as, aftati, cani, lapidi, ovi, &c.

Exc. 3. Adjectives used as substantives have commonly the same ablative with the adjertives ; as, bipennis, .', an halbert ; molāris, -i, a millstone ; quadrirēmis, ., a fhip with four banks of oars. So names of months, Aprīlis, -;; December, -bri, &c. But rudis, a rod given gladiators when discharged ; juvěnis, a young man, have only e; and likewise those ending in il, x, ceps, or ns ; as, Adolescens, a young Princeps, a prince.

Torrens, a brook. Senex, an old man. Vigil, a watchman Infans, an infant.

Thus, adolescente, infante, fene, &c

man.

« ZurückWeiter »