« ZurückWeiter »
Infulze lonio in magno, quas dira Celæno. Virg.
2. ECTHLIPSIS is, when m is cut off, with the vowel before is, in the end of a word, because the following word begins with a vowel ; as,
O curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus ioane? Perf. shus,
O cus | rás hómó- f n', o quan- | 1 ēst in / rebůs in. I anē. Sometimes the Synalæpha and E&hlipfis are found at the end of the verse; as,
Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, cælumque
Ardua cernebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id.
3. SYNÆRESIS is the contraction of two syllables into one, which is likewise called Crasis ; as, Phathon, for Phathon. So ä in Thesei, Orphei, deinde, Pompei ; üi in buic, !; ör in proinde ; ca in aureá; thus,
Notus amor Phædræ, nota cst injuria Thesei. Ovid.
Aurca percussum virgâ, versumque vencnis. Id.
Una câdemque viâ fanguisque animusque ferunter. Virg.
Te semper anteit dira necessitas. Alcaic. Hor.
To this figure may be referred the changing of i and u into į and v, or pronouncing them in the same fyllable with the following vowel; as in genva, tenvis ; arjetat, tenvia, abjete, pitvita ; parjetibus, Nafidjenus ; for genua, tenuis, &c. as,
Propterea qui corpus aquæ naturaque tenvis. Lucr.
4. DIÆRESIS divides one syllable into two; as, auläi, for aulæ ; Troiæ, for Trojæ ; Persëus, for Perseus; milü. us, for milvus ; folüit, for folvit ; voluit, for vol rit; aqüą, süetus, süasit, Süevos, relangüit, reliquas, for aquæ, fuetus, &c. as,
Aula in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg.
5. Systėle is when a long fyllable is made short ; as the penult in tulerunt ; thus,
Matri longa decem tulerunt fastidia wenses. Virg.
6. DiastÕLE is when a syllable usually short is made long; as the last syllable in amor, in the following verfe :
Confidant, fi tantus amor, et mænia condant.
To these may be subjoined the Figures of Didim, as they are called, which are chiefly used by the poets, tho' some of them likewise frequently occur in profe.
1. When a letter or syllable is added to the beginning of a word, it is called PROSTHESIS: as, gnavus, for navus ; retuli, for tuli. When a letter or fyllable is interpofed in the middle of a word, it is called EPENTHESIS ; as, relli. gio, for religio ; induperator, for imperator. When a letter or syllable is added to the end, it is called PARAGOGE ; as, dicier, for dici.
2. If a letter or fyllable be taken from the beginning of a word, it is called APHERESIS ; as, natus, for gnatus ; senderant, for tetenderant. If from the middle of a word, it is called Syncope ; as, dixti, for dixifli ; deum, for deo
If from the end, Arocope ; as, viden', for videfne ; Antoni, for Antonii.
3. When a letter or fyllable is transposed, it is called METATHESIS; as, piftris, for prislis ; Lybia, for Libya. When one letter is put for another, it is called ANTITH. ISIS; as, faciundum, for faciendum ; olli, for illi ; voltis, for vultis.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF POEMS.
Any work composed in verse is called a Poem, ( Poems or Corment
Poems are called by various names, from their subject, their form, the manner of treating the subject, and their style.
1. A poem on the celebration of a marriage is called an EPITHA: LAMIUM; on a mournful subject, an ELEGT OG LAMENTATION; in praise of the supreme Being, a HYMN; in praise of any person or ching, a PANEGYRIC or ENCOMIUM; on the viccs of any one, a SATIRE
OF INVICTIVE ; a poem to be inscribed op a tomb, an Epi•
2. A short poem adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an Ope, whence such compositions are called Lyric Poems : A poem in the form of a letter is called an EPISTLE; a short witty poem, playing on the fancies or conceits, which arise from any subject, is called an EPIGRAM; as those of Catullus and Martial. A sharp, unespected, lively turn of wit in the end of an epigram, is called its Point. A poem expressing the moral of any device or picture, is called an EMBLEM. A poem containing an obfcure question to be cxplained, is called an ÆNIGMA or RIDDLE.
When a character is described so that the firft letters of each verse, and sometimes the middle and final letters, express the name of the person or thing described, it is called an Acrostic; as the following on our Saviour ;
Inter cuncta micans I gniti lidera cælo 1,
3. From the manner of treating a sabject, a poem is oither Exto getic, Dramatic, or Mixt.
The Exegetic, where the poet always speaks himself, is of three kinds, Historical, Didactic or laftrudive, (as the Satire or Epiftlc ;) and Defcriptive
Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the actions of ordinary life, generally with a happy issue; and TRAGEDY, representing the adions and distresses of illustrious persoaages, commonly with an unhappy iffue. To which may be added Paftoral Poons or BUCOLICS, representing the actions and conversaFions of shepherds ; as most of the eclogues of Virgil,
The Mixt kind in where the poct sometimes speaks in his own person, and some .imes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly the EPIC or HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction of some great illustrious person, with its various circumstances; as, the wrath of Achilles in the Iliad of Ho. mer; the settlement of Æneas in Italy in the Æneid of Virgil ; the fall of man in the Paradise Los of Milton, &c.
4. The style of poetry, as of profe, is of three kinds, thư Imple, ornate, and sublime.
COMBINATION OF VERSES IN POEMS.
In long poems there is commonly but one kind of verse used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satyres and Epistles, Ovid in his Metamorphosis, Lucan, Silius Itali. cus, Valerius Flaccus, Juvenal, &c. always use Hexame. ter verse: Plautus, Terence, and other writers of Come. dy, generally use the lambic, and sometimes the Trocheic. It is chiefly in thorter poems, particularly those which are called Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms of Buchanan, that various kinds of verse are com bined.
A Poem which has only one kind of verse, is called by a Greek name, Monocolon, sc. poema v. carmen ; oi Monocolos, sc. ode : that which has two kinds, DicoLON; and that which has three kinds of verse, Trico.
If the fame sort of verse return after the second line, it is called Dicolon DISTRÕPHON; as when a Ingle Pentameter is alternately placed after an Hexameter, which is named Elegiac verse (carmen Elegiacum,) be. cause it was first applied to mournful fubjects; thus,
Flebilis indignos, Elegëia, folvc capillos;
This kind of verfe is used by Ovid in all his other works except the Metamorphoses; and also for the most part by Tibullus, Propertius, &c.
When a poem confifts of two kinds of verse, and after three lines returns to the first, it is called Dicolor Trifro, phon; when after four lines, Dicolon Tetrafropbon ; as,
Auream quisquis mediocritaten
When a poem congists of three kinds of verse, and after three lines always returns to the first, it is called Tri.