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Peon primus, tēmporibus. ' Epitritus primus, võlūptātēs. Peon fecundus, potentia. Epitritus secundus, pænitentēs. Peon tertius, animātus. Epitritus tertius, difcordiās. Pæon quartus, cělěrītās. Epitritus quartus, fortūnātus.

SCANNING.

The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the feveral feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning.

When a verse has just the number of feet requisits, it is called Versus Acatelectus, or Acatale&icus, an Acatalectic verse: If a fyllable be wanting, it is called Cataledicus ; If there be a syllable too much, Hypercatale&ticus, or Hypermoter.

The ascertaining whether the verfe be complete, defective, or re dundant, is called Depofitio or Claufula.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE.

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I. HEXAMETER. The Hexameter or heroic verse consists of fix fect. Of these the bith is a dactyle, and the fixth a spondee; all the rest may be either, dactyles or spondees; 23, Lüděrě que vēl- | lēm călă | mo për I misit ö- I grējti. Virg. Infāno düm, Re- gină, jö- | bēs rěně. I våră -l lorem. Id.

A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syllables, or fewer than thirteen.

Sometimes a fpondee is found in the fifth place, whence the verse is callcd Spondaic ; 25, Cără Dě- 1 um sõbo- I lēs mā- ' gnum Jovis I incrë- 1 mertüm. Virg.

This verse is used, when any thing grave, Now, large, sad, or the like is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end.

Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syllable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant

with a vowel before it ; so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the present case must always begin with a vowel; as, Omnia | Mercũri- 10 simÝ- { is vo- | cỡmquẽ cô• | loremque Et Aavos crines

Those Hexameter verses found best, which have dadyles and spondecs alternately; as,

Ludere quæ vellem calamo permisit agresti. Virg.

Pinguis et ingratæ premeretur cafeus urbi. Id. Or which have more dactyles than spondees; as, Tityre tu patulæ recubans sub teginine fagis

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It is esteemed a great beauty in an Herameter verse, when by the use of dactyles and fpondees, the sound is adapted to the sense'; as,

Quadrupedante putrem fonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg.
lili inter sese magna vi brachia collunt. Id.
Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum.

Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. Jd. But what deserves particular attention in scanning Hexameter verse is the CÆSURA,

Cæfura is, when after a foot is completed, there remains a fylla'ble at the end of a word to begin a new foot; as,

At rē-gină gră-vi jām-dudum, &c. The Cafura is variously named, according to the differént parts of the hexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by 3 Greek name, Triemimoris : When on the fifth half-foot, or the syllable after the second foot, it is called Pentbemiměris : When it happens on the first syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hepbibemimēris ; and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the fifth foot, it is called Ennëemiměris.

All these different species of the Cafura fometimes occur in the fame perse ; as,

Tuž -tus nřvé-im möluli fül-tüs böă-cintbo. Virg. But the most common and beautiful Cæfura is the penthemim; on which fome lay a particular accent or stress of the voice in reading an hcxameter verse thus composed, whence they call it the Cafural pause : 25,

Tityre dum rede-0, brevis eff via, pasce capellas. Virg. When the Cafura falls on a syllable naturally Thort, it renders it long; as the last fyllable of fultus in the foregoing example.

The chief melody of an hexameter verse in a great measure depends on the proper dispofition of the Cæsura. Without this a line consisting of the number of feet requisite will be little else than mere prose; as,

Rome mænió terruit impiger Hannibal armis. Ennius. The ancient Romans in pronouncing verse paid a particular attention to its melody. They not only observed the quantity and accent of the several syllables, but also the different stops and paufes which the particular turn of the verse required in modern times we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin verfe, because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the people of every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin verse, therefore, we are directed by the fame rules which take place with respect to English verse.

The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words thould be pronounced fully; and the cadence of

the verse ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds with the natural cxpreflion of the words. At the end of each line there thould be no fall of the voice, unless the sense requires it; but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a comma.

2. PENTAMETER. The Pentaměter verfe conüts of five fcet. Of these the two first are either dactyles or spondees; the third always a spondee ; and the fourth and fifth, 30 anapæltus ; as,

Nātu- | ræ sēqui- | tur se- 1 mină quil- | quě sūæ. Propert.

Cārmini | būs vī- | vēs tēm- | pòs in om- | ně mčīs. Ovid. But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks or halves ; the former of which confills of two feet, either dactyles or fpondees, and a Cæfura; the latter, always of two dactyles and another Cæsura : thus,

Nātū- 1 sæ sěqui- | tur | sēmyaă | quisquě sů. | æ.

Carmin;- | būs vi. | vēs | tēmpůs in | omně mě. | is. The Pentameter usually ends with a difsyllable, but sometimes also with a polysyllable,

3. ASELEPIADEAN. The Asclepiadēan verse confifts of four feet; namely, a spondee, twice a choriambus, and a pyrrhichius; as,

Mæcē- | nás åtävis | ēditě ro | gibůs. Hor. But this verse may be more properly measured thus : In the first place, a fpondee; in the second, a dactyle; then a cæsura ; and after that iwo dactyles ; thus, Mæce-l aas ata- | vis | edite | regibus.

4 GLYCONIAN. The Glyconian verse has three feet, a spondee, choriambus, and Pyrrhichius ; as,

Näris 1 quæ tibi crē. I dětům. Hor. Or it may be divided into a spondee and two dactylcs; thus,

Navio | quæ tibi creditum.

S. SAPPHIC and ADONIAN. The Sapphic verse has five feet, via. a truehee, spondee, dactyle, and two trochees ; thus,

Intě- l gēr vi- | tæ, feělě. | risquě | pūrus. Hor. An Adonian verse confits only of a dactyle and spondee; as,

Jūpětěr | urget. Hor.

6. PHERECRATIAN. The Pherecratian verse conants of three feet, a fpondee, dactyle: and spondec; thus,

Nigris / æquoră | vēntis. Hor.

7. PHALEUCIAN.

The Phaleucian verse conGsts of five feet, namely, a {pondee, a dactyle, and three trochees; as, Simmam I sēc mětě. I as di- | ēm, něc I optès. Mart.

& The GREATER ALCAIC. The greater Alcaic, called likewise Daftylic, consists of four fcefi à (popdee or iambus, iambus and cæsura, then two dactyles ; 21, Visűrèpål- | fæ | nescii | sordide.. Hor.

9.

ARCHILOCHIAN. The Archilocbian iambic verse confits of four feet. Io the first and third place, it has either a spondee or iambus ; in the secotia and fourth, always an iambus; and in the end, a Casura ; a6,

Nēc sú- | mit, aūt pónit sécůfrēs. Hor,

10, The LESSER ALCAIC.

The leffer Dactylic Alcaic conlilts of four feet, pamely, two dac tyles and two trochees; as,

Arbitrị- 1 ó popů- 1 láris / auræ. Hor. of the above kinds of verse, the firlt two take their names from the pumber of feet of which they confit. All the rest derive their names from those by whom they were cither first invented, or frequently used.

There are several other kinds of verse, wbich are named from the feet by which tbey are most commonly measured; fuch as the dlactylic, irochaic, as. pæsis, and iambic. The last of these is mor frequently used.

11. TAMBIC.

Of lambic verse there are two kinds. The one coults of four fect, and is called by a Greck name Diméter; the other consists of fix feet, and is called Trimeter. The reason of thefe names is, that among the Grecks two feet were considered only as one measure in jambic verse; whereas the Latins measured it by single feet, and therefore called the dimcter quaternarius, and the crimeter fenarius.

Originally this kind of verse was purely iambic, is 6. admitted of ao other feet but the iambus ; thus,

Dimeter, Inār- / sýt ze -| fuö | siūs. Hor.

Trimeter, Sŭīs / čt i- | psă Ră, må vi- | rìbūs | rủit. Id. But afterwards, both for the sake of ease and variety, different feet were admitted into the uncven or odd places; that is, in the first, third, and fifth places, inftead of an iambus, they used a spondec, a dactyle, or an anapæstus, and sometimes a tribrachys. We also find a tribrachys in the even places, ii e, in the second place, and in the fourth; for the last foot must always be an iambus ; thus, Dimetor, Canidi- I å trā. | etāvit, dăpēs. Hor.

Vide- , rè propě- | räntēs domům. Id. Trimeter, Quoquo | scele- | fi rūi- / tis aūt | cür dēs. I těris. Id.

Påvidum- | quě lépo-1 raūt ād | věnām | låquča |

grúēm. id.
Aliti- | bės āt. I què căný- bès hom- | cid' Hēc |

etorēm. In comic writers we sometimes find an iambic verse consisting of eight feet, therefore called Tetrameter, or O&onariss..

FIGURES in SCANNING.

The several changes made upon words to adapt them to the verse, are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are the Synalepha, Eahlipfis, Synarējs, Dierēsis ; Systõle, and Diastole.

1. SYNALOEPHA is the cutting off of a vowel or diphthong, when the next word begins with a vowel; as,

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. to be scanned thus,

Contěců- 1 ēr' om- / nės in- / tênti- I qu'õrå tě- , nèbånt. The Synalepha is sometimes neglected; and seldom takes place in the interjections, é, heu, ah,, prob, ve, vab, hei ; as,

O pater, 8 hominum, Divûmque æterna potcstas. Virg. Long vowels and diphthongs, when not cut off, are sometimes shortened ; as,

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