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Ac, sic, non. So Greek nouns in n; as, Titān, Siren, Salamin; Enean, Anchisen, Circen; Lacedemon, &c.
The following words are short, něc and donec ; forktăn, in, forsăn, tamen, ån, viděn; likewise nouns in en which have inis in the genitive; as, carměn, criměn; together with several Greek nouns; as, Ilion, Pylon, Alexin. The pronoun bic and the verb fac are common.
AS, ES, OS. 18. AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long; as, Mas, quies, bonos.
The following words are short, anăs, ës, from fum, and peněs; os having offis in the genitive, compos, and impos; also a great many Greek nouns of all these three terminations; as, Arcăs, and Arcădăs, herods, Phrygěs, Arcados, Tenědčs, Mělos, &c. and Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increasing short; as, Alés, heběs, obsės. But Cerēs, paries, ariës, abies, and per with its compounds, are long.
IS, US, rs. 19. IS, US, and rs, in the end of a word, are short; as, Turris, legis, legimės, annis, Capỹs.
Exc. 1. Plural cases in is and us are long ; as, Pennis, libris, nobis, omnis for omnes, fru&üs, manus : also the geni. cive singular of the fourth declension; as, portús. But bus in the dat. and abl. plur. is short ; as, floribus, fruâibus, redūs.
Exc. 2. Nouns in is are long, which have the genitive in itis, īnis, or entis ; as, līs, Samnis, Salamis, Simus ; To these add the adverbs gratis and forīs; the noun glīs, and vīs, whether it be a noun or a verb ; also it in the second person singular, when the plural has itis ; as, audis, abis, pofsīs. Ris in the future of the subjunctive is common.
Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long; as, grūs, sās : also nouns which in the genitive have uris, ūdis, utis, un
tls, or õdis ; as, tellūs, incūs, virtus, aměthūs, tripūs. To these add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third de. clension ; as, Čliás, Sapphus, Mantús ; also nouns which have u in the vocative; as, Panthūs.
Exc. 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which have likewise yn in the nominative; as, Phorcjs, Trachys.
The last syllable of every verse is common : Or, as some think, necessarily long, on account of the pause or suspension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation.
The Quantity of DERIVATIVE and COMPOUND words.
20. Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives ; as, Amicw, from amo. Decoro, from decus, -ories Auctionor, auctio, -onis. Exŭlo,
exul, -ŭlis. Au&toro, auctor, -öris. Påvidus, påveo. Auditor, auditum. Quirito,
Quiris, -itis. Aufpicor,
aufpen,-žeis. Radicitus, radix, -icis. Cauponor,
Tofpes, • štis.
cornix,-icis. Maternus, måter. Custodio, custos, -odis. Lěgebam, &c. lego. Decorus, decor, -öris. Lēgeram, &c.
1. Long from fort. Dēni, from déceń. Sufpicio, from suspicor. Mobilis, from moveo. Fomes, foveo. Sēdes, sědco. Hümor,
hūmus. Hämanus, homo. Sēcius, sécus. Jumentum, jūvo, &r. Rēgula, rėgo. Pēnuria, pěnus.
2. Short from long. Arena and årista, from areo. Lucerna, from hicco. Nota, and noto, nõtue.
Dux, -úcis, düco. Vădum, vädo. Stabilis,
Nábam. Fides, fido. Ditio,
dis, ditis, Sopor, sõpio. Qušsillas,
Compounds. 21. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which compofe them; as,
Děduco, of de and duco. So, profěro, antéfěto, consotor, denoto, depecülor, deprāvo, despēro, despumo, desquamo, enödo, ērúdio, exudo, exăro, expă veo, incero, inbūmo, in veftigo, pregrăvo, prænăto, règělo, appăro, appăreo, concăvus, pregrăvis, desoló, fuffoco, diffidit from diffindo, and diffidit from diffido, indico and indico, permånet from permăneo, and permanet from permano, . effodit in the present, and effodit in the perfect; fo exědit, and exèdit; devěnit and devenit; devěnimus and devenimus; reperiinus and reperimus ; effugit and effugit, &c.
The change of a vowel or diphthong in the com. pound does not alter the quantity; as, incãdo from in and cădo; incido, from in and cædo, fuffoco, from fub and faux, faucis. Unless the letter following make it fall under fome general rule ; as, admitto, pērcello, děofculor, prohibeo.
Exc. 1. Agnitum, cognitum, dējēro, pējëro, innŭba, pronŭba, maledịcus, veridicus, nihilum, semisopitus; from notus, jūro, nubo, dico, hilum, and sopio : ambie tus, a participle from ambio, is long; but the substantives ambitus and ambitio are short. Connubium has the fecond syllable common.
Exc. 2. The prepofition PRO is short in the follow. ing words : profundus, profugio, profŭgus, proněpos, proneptis, profeftus, prófari, profiteor, profānus, pro-. fecto, procella, prótervus, and propāgo, a lineage ; pro in pröpàgo, a vine-ftock or shoot, is long. Pro in the following words is doubtful: propago, to propagate ; propino, profundo, propello, propulso, procuro, and Proserpina.
Exc. 3. The inseparable prepositions SE and DI are long; as, sepăro, divello : except dịrimo, disertus. Re
is fhort ; as, remitto, référo : except in the imperfonal verb refert, compounded of res and fero.
Exc. 4. E, I, and 0, in the end of the former compounding word are usually shortened; as, něfas, něque, patěfacio, &c. omnïpotens, agrícola, significo, &c. duodecim, hodie, facrofanctus, &c. But from each of these there are many exceptions. Thus i is long when it is varied by cases ; as, quidam, quivis, tantidem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may be taken separately; as, ludīmagifter, lucrifacio, siquis, &c. Idem in the masc. is long, in the neuter short ; also ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis, and ubicunque, the i is doubtful.
Accent is the tone of the voice with which a fyllable is pronounced
In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is founded higher than the reft, to prevent monotony, or an uniformity of sound, which is disagreeable to the ear.
When accent is considered with respe& to the sense, or when a particular stress is laid upon any word, on ac. count of the meaning, it is called Emphăfis.
There are three accents, distinguished by their different sounds ; acute, grave, and circumflex.
1. The acute or sharp accent raises the voice in pronun. ciation, and is thus marked [']; as, prófero, prófer.
2. The grave or base accent depresses the voice, or keeps it in its natural tone ; and is thus marked [^]; as, dodies This accent properly belongs to all syllables which have no other.
3. The circumflex accent first raises, and then sinks the voice in some degree on the same fyllable; and is therefore placed only upon long syllables. When written, it has this mark, made up of the two former [^]; as, ama.
The accents art bardly ever marked in English books, except in dictionaries, grammass, spelling-books, or the like, where the acute accent only is used.
The accents are likewise feldom marked in Latin books, unters for the fake of distinction; as in these adverbs, alique, continuò, doce, vre, . to distinguith them from certain cases of adjectives, wbich are spelt in the same way. So poeta, gloriâ, in the ablative: fructis, exwallús, in the genitive : refirim, vefirin, the genitive of nes and yes : ergo, on account of : occidit, he few; Pompilī, for Pompilii; améris, for anonris,
A Verse is a certain number of long and short fyllabics dispolcà according to rule.
It is fo called, because when the number of fyllubles requisite is tompleted, we always turn back to the beginning of a new line.
The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just aumber of fyllables, are called Feet.
A verse is divided into different feet, rather to ascertain its meas. tre, than to regulate its pronunciation.
FEET. Poctic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a ungle syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Cæséra, which is commonly a long fyllable.
1. Feet of two syllables.
a short and a long ; as, amans.
a long and a short; as, sērvės.
2. Feet of three syllables.
The following are not so much used.
Dijambus, ämeenitās. Bacchius, dolores.
Cboriambus, pontificēs. Antibacchius, pēlluntur.
älēxanděr. 3. Feet of four syllables.
Ionicus minor, propěrabant Proceleufmaticus, hominibăs. Ionicus major,