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BS. PS. MS. Nouns in S with a confonant going before, shorten the penult of the genitive; as, cælebs, -ibis; inops, -opis ; hiems, -ěmis.

Except Cyclops, -õpis; feps, sēpis ; gryps, gryphis ; Cercops, -opis; plebs, plēbis ; hydrops, -opisa

T.
T fortens the crement; as, caput, .itis.

X. 1. Nouns in X which have the genitive in gis, shorten the crement ; as, conjux, -ŭgis ; remex, - žgis ; Allobrox, -õgis ; Phryx, Phrygis. But lex, lēgis ; and rex, rēgis, are long; and likewise frāgis.

2. EX fhortens icis ; as, vertex, vicis ; except vibex, -icis.

3. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement ; 28, pax, pocis ; radix, aisis ; vox, vocis; lux, lucis ; Pollux, -ūcis, &c.

Except făcis, něcis, vicis, précis, calicis, cilīcis, picis, fornicis, nivis, Cappadõcis, décis, nücis, crăcis, trúcis, onýcbis, Erğcis, mastyx, -ịchis, the rofin of the lentiscus, or mastich-tree, aod many others, whose quantity can only be ascertained by authority.

4. Some nouns vary the crement; as, Syphax, acis, or wöcis ; Sare dyr, -šis, or -isis; Bebryx, -ịcis, or -scis.

Increafe of the Plural Number.

9 Nouns of the plural number which increase, makc A, E, and 0, long; but shorten I, and U; as, musārum, rērum, dominorum ; règibus, portůbus : except böbus or būbus, contracted for bövibute

INCREASE OF VERBS.

A verb is said to increase, when any part has more fyllablcs thab the second person singular of the present of the indicative active; as, amas, amāmus, where the second syllable ma is the increase or crcment; for the last syllable is never called by that name.

A verb often increases by several fyllables; as, emas, amābāmini ; in which case it is said to have a forf, fecond, or third increase.

10. In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o are long ; ;, and u, short ; as,

Amāre, docere, amatote; legimus, gimus, volumus.

The poets sometimes shorten dědirunt and stătărunt ; and leagtheir rimus and ritis, in the future of the subjunctive; as, -franjeritis squas „Ovid. All the other exceptions from this rule are marked in the formation of the verb.

The first or middle fyllables of words which do not come under any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short by authority : and their quantity can only be discovered from the usage of the poets, which is the most certain of all rules. RERArks on the QUANTITY of the Pexult of WORDS.

1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the penult; as, Priamida, dílantiades, b'. Unless they come from nouns in eus; as, Pdiuit, Tydides, L.

2. Patronymies, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, ITIS, OIS, OTIS, *INE, and ONE, commonly lengthen the penult; as, Acháis, Prolemäis, Chryscis, Ænēis, Memphitis, Latõis, Icariotis, Nerine, Arifio. óc. Except Thebăis, and Phociis ; and Nereis, which is common,

3. Adjectives in ACUS, ICUS, IDUS, and IMUS, for the most part Morten the penult; as, Ægypti;cus, academicus, lepidus, legiiimus; also superlatives; as, fortissimus, &c. Except opācus, amicus, apricus, pudicus, mendicus, pofticus, fidus, infidus, (but perfidus, oi per and fides, is thort,) bimus, quadrimus, patrimus, matri mus, opinus; and two superlatives, imus, primus.

4. Adjectives in ALIS, ANUS, ARUS, IVUS, ORUS, OSUS, lengthen the penult; as, detālis, urbánus, avārus, aflivus, decorus, arcase fus. Except berbăsus, opipărus.

5. Verbal adjectives in ILIS (horten the penult; as, agilis, facilis, &c. Bui derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it; as, arīlis, civilis, berilis, &c. To these add, exilis, fubtilis; and names of months, Aprilis, Quindtilis, Sextilis: Except bumilis, parīlis; and also fimilis. But all adjectives in asilis are short; as, versātilis, volatilis, umbra. flis, &c.

6. Adjectives in INUS derived from inanimate things, as plants, Nones, &c. also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the penult; as, amaracinus, crocious, cedrinus, faginus, oleaginus; adamantiDus, criftallinus, craftinus, pristinus, perendimus, &c.

Other adjectives in INUS are long; as, aguinus, aufrinus, biaws, clandeftinus, Latinaws, marinus, fupinus, vespertinus, &c.

7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, ULA, ULUM, always shorten the penult; as, urceolus, filiðla, mulæðlum; lectulus, ratiuncŭla, corcŭlum, &c.

8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult; as, oppidātim, viritim, iribūrim. Escept affätim, perpërim, and stătim.

9. Defideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in ? he second and third person is the pepult; as, esūrio, esūris, csúrit. But other verbs in urio, lengthen that fyllable; as, ligūrio, ligūris; fcaturio, scatūris, &c.

PENULT of PROPER NAMES.

The following proper names lengthen the penult. Ab. dēra, Abydus, Adonis, Æsopus, Ætolus, Ahåla, Alaricus, Alcides; Amỹclæ, Andronicus, Anubis, Archimēdes, Ariarāthes, Ariobarzānes, Aristides, Ariftobulus, Ariftogiton, Arpinum, Artabānus ; Brachmānes, Busīris; Buthrotus ; Cethegus, Chalcedon, Cleobulus, Cyrēne, Cythēra, Curētes ; Dariei, Demonīcus, Diomedes, Dióres, Diofcūri; Ebūdes, Eriphợle, Eubulus, Euclides, Euphrates, Eume. des, Euripus, Euxinus; Gargānus, Gætūlus, Granicus ; Heliogabūlus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heraclitus, Hippo. nax, Hispānus ; Irene ; Lacydas, Latona, Leucāta; Lugdūnum, Lycoras; Mandāne, Mauso!us, Maximinus, Meleāger, Messāla, Messāna, Milētus; Nasica, Nicanor, Nicētas; Pachynus, Pandora, Peloris, et us, Pharsālus, Phænice, Polites, Polyclētus, Polynīces, Priapus; Sarpedon, Serāpis, Sinope, Siratonice, Suffêtes; Tigrānes, Thessalonica, Verona, Veronica.

The following are short ; Amăthus, Amphipolis, Anabilis, Anticýra, Antigonus, et-né, Antilöchus, Antiochus, Antiõpa, Antipas, Antipăter, Antiphănes, Antiphătes, Antiphila, Antiphon, Anýtus, Apůlus, Areopăgus, Arina. num, Arměnus, Athésis, Attalus, Attica; Bitŭrix, Bructēri ; Calăber, Callicrătes, CalliArătus, Candăce, Cantăber, Carneades, Cherilus, Chryfoftomus, Cleombrotus, Cleomonies, Corýcos, Constantinopolis, Cratěrus; Cratylus, Cre. měra, Crustuměri, Cyběle, Cyclădes, Cyzicus; Damocles,' Dardănus, Dejõces, Dejo arus, Democritus, Demipho, Didymus, Diogenes, Drepănum, Dumnorix; Empedocles, Ephéfus, Evergètes, Euměnes, Eurymědon, Euripỹlus ; Fucinus; Geryones, Gyárus; Hecyra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hefiodus, Hefione, Hippocrătes, Hippolămos, Hypăta, Hypănis; Icărus, Icētas, Illyris, Iphitus, Ismărus, Ithăca; Laodice, Laomědon, Lampsăcus, Lamýrus, Lapichæ, Leucretilis, Lipăre, v. -a, Lyfimachus, Longimănus ; Marăthon,. Mærălus, Marmaríca, Massagětæ, Matrona, Megara, Melitus, et -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myconus ; Neocles, Neritos, Noricum ; Omphale ; Patara, Pegasus, Pharnaces, Piliftratus, Polydamas, Polyx.

čna, Porséna, or Porsenna, Praxitěles, Puteõli, Pylades, Pythagoras; Sarmătæ, Sarsina, Seměle, Semirămis, Se. quăni,

et -a, Seriphos, Sicoris, Socrates, Sodoma, Sotades, Sparcăcus, Sporădes, Strongýle, Stymphålus, Sybóris ; Taygěrus, Telegonus, Telemăchus, Tenědos, Tarrąco, Theophones, Theophilus, Tomýris ; Urbicus; Veněti, Vologěsus, Volŭsus; Xenocršies; Zoilus. Zopýrus.

The penult of several words is doubtful; thus, Batăvi, Lucan. Båtāvi, Juv. et Mart. Fortuitus, Horat. Fortuitus, Mart. Some make fortuitus, of three syllables; but it may be shortened like gratuitus, Stat. Patrimus, matrimus, præftolor, a are by fome lengthened, and by Lome fioricoed; but for their quantity there is no certain author

ity.

2. FINAL SYLLABLES.

11. A in the cnd of a word declined by cases is thort; as, Musă templa, Tyck, Lampădă.

Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long ; as, Musa, Eneá; and the vocative of Greek nouns in as ; as, 0 Ænea, 0 Pella.

A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, Ami, Trafira, praeterea, ergå, intri.

Exc. Itä, quix, cjă, pofteå, puta, (adv.) and somctimes, though store rarely, the preposicions contră, ultră; and the compounds of ginta ; 26, trigiară, &c.

E. 12. E final is Thore; as, Vatě, sedilė, patré, carrě, nempě, antě.

Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, mē, tē, sê: except thek enclitic conjunctions, quč, vě, ně; and these syllabical adjections, peě, cě, tě; as, fuaptě, hujuscč, tutě.

Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declenfion are long; as, Cal. liõpē, Anchisé, fidē. So rēc, and dił, with their compounds, quarē; hodie, pridie, poftridie, quotidie: Also Greck nouns which want The fingular; Cetë, mele, Tempē; and the second person fingular of the imperative of the second conjugation ; 13, Docē, manē; but Save, vale, and vide, are sometimes liort.

Exc. 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second licclension are long; as, placidē, pulchrē, valdē, contracted for va lide: To these add fermë, ferè, and obe; also all adverbs of the five perlative degrce; as, duflifimē, fortisime : But benë and nală are disor

I.
13. I final is long ; as, Domini, patri, doceri.
F36 4. Grer's votatives age fhort; as, Akai AmaryllI.

Exc. 2. The dative of Greek nouns of the third declenlion which increase, is common; as, Pallădi, Minoidi.

Mihi, tibi, fibi, are also common : So likewise are idi, nis, ubi, quas ; and cui, when a disfyllable, which in poet. ty is feldom the case. Sicubi and necubi are always short.

0.

14. O final is common; as, Vergo, amo, quando.

Exc. 1. Monofyllables are long; as, o, do, fio, pro: The dative and ablative sing. of the fecond declension is long; as, libro domino : Alo Greek nouns; as, Dido, and Atho the genit. of Athos : and adverbs derived from nouns; as, certo, falső, paulo. To these add quo, eo, and their compounds, quovis, quocunque, adeo, ideo; likewise illo, idcircā, citro, intro, retro, ultro.

Exc. 2. The following words are short ; Ego, fcio, cedo a defective verb, homo, cito, illico, immo, duo, ambo, modo, with its compounds, quomodo, dummodo, poftmodő: but some of these are also found long.

Exc. 3. The gerund in DO in Virgil is long ; in other poets it is short. Ergó, on account of, is long ; ergo, there. fore, is doubtful.

U and r. 15. U final is long; I final is short ; as, Vultū: Moly.

B, D, L, M, R, T. 16. B, D, L, R, and T, in the end of a word, are short; as,

Ab, apūd, feměl, precòr, capăt. The following words are long, sal, sõl, nil; pār and its compounds; fär, lär, När, cūr, für; also nouns in er which have ēris in the genitive; as, Cratēr, vēr, Ibēr, like. wise aer, æther : to which add Hebrew names ; as, Job, Daniel, David.

M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Milităm offo, Ennius. But by later pocts, m in the end of a word is always cut off, when the next word begins with a vowel; thus, milit' octo; except in compound words; as, circümăgo, circümeo.

C, N.

17. C and N, in the end of a word, are long; as,

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