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In most Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner of pronouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable from a short. Thus le in lēgo and logi seem to be founded equally loog; but when we pronounce them in composition, the difference is obvious ; thus, perlěgo, perlegi ; relēgo, -ěre; relēgo, -arc, 65.

The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The former apply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain syllables.


1. A vowel befort another powel is short ; as, Méus, alius : so nihil : b in verse being considered only as a breathe ing. ln like manner in English, crčate, běbave.

Exc. 1. I is long in fio, fiebar, 66. unless when followed by r; as, fieri, fierem ; thus,

Omnia jam fient, fiéri quæ pofle negabam, Ovid.

Exc. 2. E having an i before and after it, in the fifth declenfion, is long; as, Speciei. So is the first syllable in aer, dius, ēbeu, and the penultima in aulai, terrãi, Cs in Pompéi, Cai, and such like words ; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables, Hor. II. Od. 7.

Exc. 3. The first fyilable in obe and Diana is common; so likewise is the penult of genitives in ius ; 19, illius, unius, &c. to be, read long in profe. Alius, in the genitive is always long; cheriesThort.

In Greek words when a vowel comes before another, no certain sule concerning its quantity can be given.

Sometimes it is short; as, Danăe, Iděa, Sophiya, Symphonia, Simõis, Hyades, Phion, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thcbäis, &c.

Often it is long; as, Lycāon, Machãon, Didymaon; Amphion, Arion, Ixion, Pandion ; Näis, Läis, Achāï; Briseis, Cadmēis; Latous, & Latois, Myrıõus, Nerčius, Priamēíus ; Acheloņus, Minoius; Archelaus, Mencláus, Amphiarāus; Æneas, Penzus, Epēus, Acrifionēus, Adamantēus, Phæbeus, Giganteus; Darius, Bafilius, Eugenius, , Baccbius; Casiopea, Cæsarea, Chæronēa, Cytherea, Galatea, Laodicēa, Medēa, Panthēa, Penelopea; Clio, Enjo, Elegia, Iphiger.ia, · Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochia, idololatria, litania, politia, &c. Lä. ertes, Deïphobus, Deījanīra, Trões, herões, &c.

Sometimes it is common; as, Chorea, platea, Malea, Nercides, canopeum, Orion, Geryon, Eos, eõus, &c. So in foreign words, Michacl, lfrael, Raphael, Abraham, &c.

The accusative of nouns in eus is usually short; as, Orphěa, Salmoněa, Capharča, &c. but sometimes long; as, Idomenēa, ilionēa, Virg. lalcad of Elegía, Cytherea, we find Elegēia, Cythěrēža, Ovid. But

the quantity of Greek words cannot be properly understood without the knowledge of Greek.

In English a vowel beforc another is also sometimes lengthened ; as, science, idea.

2. A vowel before two consonants, or before a double consonant, is long, (by position, as it is called ;) as, ärma, fällo, axis, gāza, mājor; the compounds of jugum excepted ; as, bijŭgus, quadrijŭgus, &c.

When the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the follow ing begins with two consonants or a double one, that towel is Sometimes lengthened by position; as,

Ferte citi flammas, date velā, scandite muros, Virg.
But this rarely occurs.

f A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; as the middle fyllable in volucris, tenebre, thus,

Et primò fimilis volucri, mox vera volūcris, Ovid.

Nox teněbras profert, Phæbus fugat inde tenēbras, Id. But in prose these words are pronounced thort. So peragro, pharetra, podagra, chiragra, celebris, latebræ, &c.

To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. The vowel must be naturally short, the mute must go before the liquid, and be in the same syllable with it. Thus, a in patris is made common in verse, because a in pater is naturally short, or always so by cultom : but a in matris, acris, is always long, because long by nature or custom in mater and acer, In like manner the penult in falubris, ambulācrum, is always long; because they are derived from falus, falūs tis, and ambulātum. So a in arte, abluo, &c is long by pofition, because the mute and the liquid are in different syllables.

L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words; m and a do not take place except in Greek words.

3. A contracted syllable is long; as, Nil, for nihil ; mî, för mihi; cogo, for coăgo ; alius, for aliius; tibicen, for tibiicen; ît, for jit ; sõdes, for fi audes: nolo, for non volo; bigæ, for bijůgæ, &c,

4. A diphthong is always long; as, Aurum, Cæfar, Eubæa, &c. Only pre in composition before a vowel is commonly short; as, præire, præustus ; thus,

Nec totâ tamen ille prior præunte carinâ Virg.

Stipitibus duris agitur fudibusque præustis. ld.
But it is sometimes lengthened ; as,

cum vacuus domino præiret Arion. Statius. In English we pronounce several of the diphthongs short, by finking the sound of one vowel; but then there is properly no diphthong


Concerning the First and MIDDLE SYLLABLES.

Preterites and Supines of two Syllables.

Preterites of two fyllables lengthen the former fylable; as, Vēni, vidi, vici.

Exceps bibi, [cidi, from scindo, fidi from findo, tăli, dědi, něti.

6. Supines of two fyllables lengthen the former fylla. ble; as, Vifum, cāfum, mötum.

Except sătum, from sěro; citum, from cieo; litum, from lino; situm, from sino ; fătum, from fifto; itum, from co; dătum, from do ; ritum, from the compounds of ruo; quitum, from queo ; rătus, from recr.

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Preterites doubled,

7. Preterites which double the first syllable, have both the first syllables short; as, Cěcidi, tětigi, pěpůli, pěpëri, didici, từtúdi: except cecidi, from cædo ; pěpedi, from pēdo ; and when two consonants intervene; as, fefelli, těteudi, &c.


A noun is said to increase, when it has more syllables in any of the oblique cases than in the nominative; as, res, rēgis. Here reis called the increase or crement, and so through all the other cases. The last syllable is never esteemed a crement.

Some nouns have 3 double increase, that is, increase by more fyllables than one; as, iter, itineris.

A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case it has more syllables than the genitive singular; as, gener, genėti, geněrorum

Nouns of the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, do not increase in the fingular number, anlefs where one vowel comes before an. ether; a6, fru&us, fructüis res, rši; which fall under Rule 1,

Third Declenfon.

8. Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a and o long ; e, i, and u fhort; as, Pietātis, honoris ; mulieris, lapidis, murmuris.

The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the form: ation of the genitive in the third declenhon. But here perhaps it may be proper to be more particular.

A noun in A Mortens atis in the genitive ; as, dogma, -ătis, poer

w12, -ătis.

O. O thortens inis, but lengthens ēnis and onis ; as, Cardo, -inis ; Piro go, -rnis ; Anio, -ēnis ; Cicero, -ōnis. Gentile or patrial nours vary their quantity. Most of them shorten the genitive; as, Mecédo, -onis; Saxo, -ěnis : Some are long; as, Surffiones, Dritones. Brittones, is common.

1. C. D. I shortens itis ; as, Hydroxili, -tti. Es leagthens -etis ; as, Halcio acis.

A noun in D shortens the crement ; 26, David, -idis.

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Masculines in AL shorten õlis ; as, Sal, élis ; Hannibal, -ălis ; Hafdrubal, -ölis ; but neuters lengthen it; as, animal, -alis.

Solis from fol is long ; also Hebrew words in el; as, Michael, -ēlis. Other nouns in / shorten the crement; as, Vigil, -ilis; conful, -ślis.

N. Nouns in ON vary the crement. Some lengthen i: ; as, Helicon, monis ; Chiron, -ōnis, Some shorten it; as, Memnon, -öris ; Addon, -onis.

EN shortens inis; as, flumen, -inis ; tibicen, -inis. Other nouns in N lengthen the penult. AN anis ; as, Titan, -ānis : EN ēnis ; as, Si. ren, -inis : IN inis; as, delphin, inis : YN õnis ; as, Phorcyn, -ōnis.

R. 1. Neuters in AR lengthen aris; a3, calcar, -āris. Except the following, bacchar, -ăris ; jubar, -ăris ; reftar, -åris : Also the adjective par, .păris, and its compounds, impar, -ăris ; dispar, -ăris, &c.

2. The following nouns in R lengthen the genitive, Nar, Nāris, the name of a river ; fur, füris ; ver, vēris : Also Recimer, -ēris ; Byzer, -ēris ; Ser, Sēris; Iber, -ēris, proper names.

3. Greek nouns in TER lengthen teris ; as, crater, •ēris; character, ·ēris. Except æther, -ēris.

4. OR lengthens oris ; as, amor, -āris. Except neu. ter nouns ; as, marmor, -oris ; æquor, -óris : Greek nouns in tor; as, Hector, oris ; A&or, oris ; rhetor, oris : Allo arbor, -oris ; and memor, -oris.

5. Other nouns in R shorten the genitive ; AR aris, nafc.; as, Cæfar, -ăris ; Hamilcar, -ăris; lar, lăris.

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ER eris of any gender ; as, aer, děris ; mulier, oris ; cadaver, - ris ; iter, anciently itiner, itineris ; verberis, from the obsolete verber. UR uris ; as, vultur, -üris ; murmur, ūris. YR gris ; as, Martyr, ýris.

A s. 1. Nouns in A$ which have atis, lengthen the crements as, pietas, -ātis ; Macēnas, -ātis. Except anas, - štis.

2. Other nouns in AS Morten the crement; as, Greek nouns in ădis, àtis, and ănis ; thus, Pallas, -ădis ; artocreas, cătis ; Melas, ănis, the name of a river. So vas, vŭdis ; mas, măris : But vas, vāfis, is long.

E S. ES shortens the crement; as, miles, štis ; Ceres, čris ; pes, pédis.

Except locüples, -etis ; quies, -etis ; mansues, -ētis, beres, edis; merces, -ēdis.

I S. Nouns in IS fhorten the crement; as, lapis, dis ; Sanguis, -inis ; Phyllis, idis.

Except Glis, glóris ; and Latin nouns which have itis ; as, lis, litis ; dis, dītis : Quiris, -itis ; Samnis, -itis : But Charis, a Greek noun, has Charitis.

The following also lengthen the crement: Crenis,-idis; Pfopbis, idis ; Nefis, idis, proper names. And Greeks nouns in is, which have also in ; as, Salămis, or -in, Salaminis.

Nouns in OS lengthen the crement ; as, nepos, -otis ;
fos, floris.
Except Bos, lõvis ; compos, -otis ; impos, -õtis.

U S.
US shortens the crement; as, tempus, -öris ; tripus, -õdis.
Except nouns which have ūdis, üris, and ūtis ; as, incus,
ūdis; jus, juris ; falus, ūtis. But Ligus has Ligūris ; the
obsolete pecus, pccădis ; and intercus, -ŭtis.

The neuter of the comparative has õris ; as, melius, oris.

Y S. YS fhortens ydis or ydos ; as, chlamys, «ydis, or çdos : and lengthens ynis ; as, Trachys, jnis.

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