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Obf. 1. Humi, militia, and belli, are likewise construed in the geniz tive, as oan.es of towns; thus,
Domi et militie, or belli, At home and abroad. Facet bumi, He lies on the ground.
Obt. 2. When Domus is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a prepofition; as, In domo paterna, not domi paternæ ; So Ad domum paternam: Ex domo paternâ. Unless when it is joined with these pofseflives, Meus, tuus, suus, softer, regius, vester, and alienus ; 35, Domi meæ vixit, Cis. Regiam domum comportant, Sall.
Obf. 3. When Domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the prepofition is sometimes used, and sometimes not; as, Deprehenfus eft domi, domo, or in domo Cæfaris.
LIV. To names of countries, provinces, and all other places, except towns, the preposition is commonly added; as,
When the question is made by
Qua? Transit per Italiam, per Latium, per urbem, &c.
Peto always governs the accusative as an active verb, without a prepofition; as, Petivit Egyptum, He went to Egypt.
Obs. 2. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes constru. ed without the preposition; as, Pompeius Cypri visus est, Caf. Creta jullit considere Apollo, Virg. Venit Sardiniam, Cic. Rome, Numidia que facinora ejus memorat, Sall,
4. Measure and DistanCE.
LV. Measure or distance is put in the accusative, and sometimes in the ablative; as, Murus eft decem pedes altus,
The wall is ten feet bigh. Urbs distat triginta millia, or triginta millibus paffuum,
} The city is thirty miles difant. Iter, or itinere unius dici,
One day's journey. Obf. 1. The accusative or ablative of meafure is put after ad jectives and verbs of dimension; as, Longus, latus, craffus, profundus' and altus: Putet, porrigitur, eminet, &'c. The names of measure are pes, cubitus, ulna, paffus, digitus, an inch ; palmus, à fpan, an hand. breadth, &c. The accusative or ablative of distance is used only after verbs which express mocion or difance; as, Eo, curro, abfim
diso, Es. The accusative is governed by ad or per understood, and the ablative by a or ab.
Obs. 2. When we express the measure of more things than one, we commonly use the distributive number; as, Muri sunt denos pedes alti, and sometimes denûm pedum, for denorum, in the genitive, ad menfuram being understood. But the genitive is only used to express the measure of things in the plural number.
Obf. 3. When we express the distance of a place where any thing is done, we commonly use the ablative; or the accusative with the preposition ad; as, Sex millibus paffuum ab urbe consedit, ad sex millia paffuum, Caf. Ad quintum milliarium v. milliare consedit, Cic. Ad quintum lapidem, Nep.
Obf. 4. The excess or difference of measure and distance is put in the ablative ; as,
Hoc lignum excedit illud digito. Toto vertice fupra eft, Virg, Britanniæ longitudo ejus latitudinem ducentis quadraginta milliaribus superat.
LVI. When the question is made by Quando? When? time is put in the ablative ; as,
Venit borâ tertia, He came at three o'clock. q When the question is made by Quamdiu ? How long? time is put in the accusative or ablative, but oftener in the accusative ; as,
Manfit paucos dies, He staid a few days.
Sex menfibus abfuit, He was away fix months. * Or thus, Time when is put in the ablative, time how long is put in the accusative.
Obs. 1. When we speak of any precise time, it is put in the ablative; but when continuance of time is expreffed, it is put for the most part in the accusative.
Obf. 2. All the circumstances of time are often expreffed with a pre pofition; as, In præfentia, or in præsenti, fcil. tempore; in vel ad præsens; Per decem annos; Surgunt de nocte; Ad horam deftinaiam; Intra annum; Per idem tempus ; ad Kalendas foluturos ait, Suet. The preposition ad or circa is sometimes suppressed, as in these cxpressions, hoc, illud, id, istuc, ætatis, temporis, horæ, &c. for hac ætate, hoc tempore, &c. And ante or some other word; as, Annos natus unum & viginti, fc. ante. Siculi quotannis tributa conferunt, fc. tot annis, quot vel quotquot sunt, Cic. Prope diem, so. ad, foon ; Oppidum paucis diebus, quibus eo ventum est, expugnatum, ss. poft cos dies, Caf. Ante diem tertium Kalendas Maias accepi tuas literas, for die tertio ante, Cic. Qui dies futurus effet inante diem octavum Kalendas Novembris, 1d, Exante diem quintum Kal. Octob. Liv.
Lacedæmonii feptingentos jam annos amplius unis moribus et nunc quam mutatis legibus vivunt, fc. quam per, Cic. We find, Primum ftipendium meruit annorum decem feptemque, fc. Atticus; for feptemdecim annos natus, feventeen years old, Nep.
Obf. 3. The adverb ABHINC which is commonly used with refpect to past time, is joined with the accusative or ablative without a preposition, as, fa&tum eft abbinc biennio or biennium, It was done twoyears ago. So likewise are poff and ante; as, paucos poft annos : but here, ca or id may be understood.
A compound sentence is that which has more than one nominative, or one finite verb.
A compound sentence is made up of two or more fim. ple sentences or phrases, and is commonly called a Period.
The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Members or Claufes.
In every compound sentence there are either several subjects, and one attribute, or several attributes, and one subject, or both several fubjects and several attributes: That is, there are either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative, or both.
Every verb marks a judgment or attribute, and every attribute must have a subject. There must therefore be in every sentence or period as many propofitions as there are verbs of a finite mode.
Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions; as,
Happy is the man who loveth religion and practiseth virtue.
The CONSTRUCTION of RELATIVES.
LVII. The relative Qui, Qua, Quod, agrees with the antecedent in gender, number, and perfon; and is construed through all the cafes, as the antecedent would be in its place ; as, Singular.
Plural. Vir qui,
The man who.
The woman who. Negotium quod, The thing which.
Nos qui fcribimus.
Vos qui fcribitis.
Vir a quo,
Mulier que fcribit, The woman who writes. Mulieres que fcribunt
Viri quos vidi. Mulier quam vidi; The woman whom I saw. Mulieres quas vidi. Animal quod vidi,
The animal which I faw. Animalia quæ vidi. Vir cui pareti
The man whom he obeys. Viri quibus paret. Vir cui eft fimilis,
The man to whom he is like. Viri quibus eft fimilis.
Viri a quibus,
Mulieres ad quas. Vir cujus opus eft,
The man whose work it is. Viri quorum opus eft. Vir quem misëror,
cujus misereor vel miferesco, The man whom I pity.
whose interest it is, &c. If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, the reJative will be the nominative to the verb.
But if a nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative will be of that case, which the verb or noun following, or the preposition going before, use to govern.
Thus the construction of the relative requires an acquaintance with most of the foregoing rules of syntax, and may serve as an ex ercise on all of them.
Obf. 1. The relative must always have an antecedent expressed or understood, and therefore may be confidered as an adjective placed betwixt two cases of the same substantive, of which the one is al. ways expressed, generally the former; as,
Vir qui (vir) legit; vir, quem (viram) ame : Sometimes the latter ; as, Quam quisque norit artem, in hac (arte) se exerceat, Cic. Eunuchum, quem dedifti nobis, quas turbas dedit, Ter. sc. Eunucbus. Sometimes both cases are expressed ; as, Erant omnino duo itinera, quibus itineribus domo exire polent, Cæs. Sometimes, though more rarely, both cases are omitted ; as, Sunt, quos bos genus minime juvat, for funt bomines, quos, &*c. Hor.
Obf. 2. When the relative is placed betwixt two substantives of different genders, it may agree in gender with either of them, though most commonly with the former; as,
Vultus quem dixere chaos, Ovid. Ex locus in carcere, quod Tullianum appellatur, Sall. Animal, quem vocamus bominem, Cic. Cogito id quod res ef, Ter. If a part of a sentence be the antecedent, the relative is always put in the neuter gender ; as, Pompeius fe aflixit, quod mibi ef summo dolori, scil. Pompeium fe affligere, Cic. Sometimes the relative does not agree in gender with the antecedent, but with some synonymous word supplied; as, Scelus qui, for fceleftus, Ter, Abundantia earum rerum, quee mortales prima putant, scil. negotia, Sall. Vel virtus tua me vel vicinitas, quod ego in aliqua parte amicitiæ puto, facit ut te moneam, -scil. negotium, Ter.
Obs. 3. When the relative comes after two words of different persons, it agrees with the first or second person rather than the
third; as, Ego fum vir, qui facio, scarcely facit. In English it fome times agrees with either ; as, I am the man, who make, or maketh. But when once the person of the relative is fixed, it ought to be continued through the rest of the sentence: thus it is proper to say “ I am the man, who takes care of your interest,” but if I add, “ at the ex. pence of my own,” it would be improper. It ought either to be “ his own,” or “ who take.” In like manner, we say, “ I thank you, who gave, who did love," &c. But it is improper to say," I thank thee, who gave, who did love:" it fhould be, “ who gavest, who didit love." In no part of English syntax are inaccuracies committed more frequently than in this. Beginners are particularly apt to fall into them, in turning Latin into English. The reason of it seems to be our applying thou or you, thy or your, promiscuously, to express the second person singular, whereas the Latins almost always expressed it by tu and tuus.
Obf. 4. The antecedent is often implied in a poffeffive adjective; as,
Omnes laudare fortunas meas, qui baberem gnatum tali ingenio preditum, Ter. Sometimes the antecedent must be drawn from the sense of the foregoing words; as, Carne pluit, quem imbrem aves rapuifc feruntur; i. e. pluit imbrem carne, quem imbrem, &c. Liv. Si tempus eft ullum jure hominis necandi, quæ multa funt, fcil. tempora, Cic.
Obf. 5. The relative is sometimes entirely omitted ; as, Urbs an. riqua fuit : Tyrii tenucre coloni, fcil. quam or eam, Virg. Or if once expressed, is afterwards omitted, so that it must be supplicd in a different ease; as, Bocchus cum peditibus, quos filius ejus adduxerat, neque in priore pugna adfuerant, Romanos invadunt ; for quie que in priore pugna non adfuerant, Sall
. In English the relative is often omitted, where in Latin it must be expressed; as, The letter I wrote, for the letter which I wrote; The man I love, to wit, whom, But this omission of the relative is generally improper, particularly in serious discourse.
Obf. 6. The case of the relative sometimes seems to depend on that of the antecedent; as, Cum aliquid agas eorum, quorum consuêsti, for quæ consuefti agere, or quorum aliquid agere consuefti, Cic. But such examples rarely occur.
Obf. 7. The adje&tive pronouns ille, ipfe, ifc, bic, is, and idem, in their construction, resemble that of the relative qui; as, Liber ejus; His or her book; Vita eorum, Their life, when applied to men ; Vita carum, Their life, when applied to women. By the improper use of these pronouns in English, the meaning of sentences is often rendered obscure.
Obr. 8. The interrogative or indefinite adjectives, qualis, quantus, quotus, &c. are also sometimes construed like relatives; as, Facies est, qualem decet effe fororum, Ovid. But thefe have commonly other adjectives, either expressed or understood, which answer to them; as, Tanta eft multitudo, quantam urbs capere poteft: and are often applicd to different substantives ; as, Quales sunt cives, talis est civi.