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Gener, a son-in-law, masc.
er, ir, us, i,
er, ir, e, i, Abl. genero
Abl. generis. After the same manner decline focer, -ěri, a father-inlaw; puer, čri, a boy ; So Furcifer, a villain ; Lucifer, the morning star ; adulter, an adulterer; armăger, an armour bearer ; presbyter, an elder; Mulciber, a name of the god Vulcan; vesper, the evening; and Iber, -ēri, a Spaniard, the only noun in er, which has the genit. long, and its compound Celtiber, -ēri : Allo, vir, viri, a man, the only noun in ir; and its compounds, Levir, a brother-in-law; Sen:ivir, duumvir, triumvir, &c. And likewise Satur, -uri, full, (of old faturus,) an adjective. But most nouns in er lose the e in the genitive ; as, Ager, a field, mafc.
In like manner, decline, Aper, a wild boar.
Colůber, a ferpent. Magister, a mafter Arbiter, a judge. Culter, the coulter of a Minister, a serdant, Aufter, the fouth wind. plough, a knife. Onăger, a wild afs. Cancer, a crab.fifo. Faber, a workman. Scalper, a lancet. Caper, an be-goat.
Also, liber, the bark of a tree, or a Ok, which has libri : but liber, free, an adjective, and Liber, a name of . Bacchus, the God of wine, have liběri.
So likewise proper names, Alexander, Evander, Periander, Menander, Terkcer, Meleāger, &c. gen. Alexandri, Evandri, &c
Dominus, a lord, masc.
EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.
The following nouns in us are feminine ; hie mus, the ground; alvus, the belly ; vannus, sieve.
And the following, derived from Greek nouns in os : Abyssus, a bottomless Dialectus, a dialect, or Methodus, a method. pit.
manner of Speech Periódus, a period. Antidotus, a preserva- Diametros, the diame- Perimetros, the circumtive against poison
ter of a circle. ference. Arctos, one of the con- Diphthongus, a diph- Pharus, a watch tower. stellations.
Synodus, an allembly. Carbåsus, a fuil. Erēmus, a desert.
To these add some names of jewels and plants, because gemma and planta are feminine ; as, Amethystus, an ame- Sappīrus, a sapphire. Byssus, fine flax or thyft. Topazius, a topaz.
linen. Chrysolithus, a chry
fan Egyp- Costus, cofimary. folite.
tian reed Crocus, faffron.
Biblus, Chryfophrăsus, a kind
of which Hyssopus, bxlop.
Papyrus, of topaz.
paper was Nardus, spikenard. Crystallus, a cryftal.
made. Leucochrysus, a jacinth.
Other names of jewels are generally masculine; as, Beryllus, the beryl ; carbunculus, a carbuncle ; Pyrõpus, a ruby ; Smaragdus, an emerald : And also names of plants ; as, Asparăgus, asparagus or sparrowgrass ; elleborus, ellebore; raphănus, radish or colewort; intžbus, endive er fuc
The nouns which follow, are either masculine or feminine : Atomus, an atom. Barbitus, a barp. Grossus, a green fig. Balănus, the fruit of the Camēlus, a camel. Penus, a forc-bouse. palm-tree.
Colus, a diftaft Phasēlus, a little foip. Virus, poison ; pelăgus, the sea, are neuter.
Vulgus, the common people, is either mascua line or neuter, but oftener neuter.
Ecx. 3. Exc. 4.
EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION. Proper names in ius lofe us in the vocative ; as,
Horatius, Horāti; Virgilius, Virgili ; Georgius, Georgi, names of men : Larius, Lari; Mincius, Minci, names of lakes. Filius, a fon, also hath fik ; genius, one's guardian angel, geni ; and deus, a god, hath deus, in the voc. and in the plural more frequently dii and däis, than dëi and dëis. Meus, my, an adjective pronoun, hath mi, and some. times meus in the vocative.
Other nouns in ius have e; as, tabellarius, tabellarie, a letter-carrier; pius, pie, &c. So these epithets, Delius, Delie; Tirynthius, Tirynthie ; and these pofleflives, Laertius, Laertie ; Saturnius, Saturnie, &c. which are not considered as proper names.
The poets sometimes make the voc. of nouns in us like the nom. as, fluvius, Latinus, for fluvie, Latine, Virg. This also occurs in prose, but more rarely. Thus, Audi tu populus, for popule. Liv.
The poets also change nouns in er into us; as, Evander, or Evandrus, voc. Evander, or Evandre : So Meander, Leander, Tymber, Teucer, &c. and so anciently puer in the voc. had puere from puěrus.
Note. When the gen. sing. ends in ii, the latter i is sometimes taken away by the poets, for the fake of quantity; as tugări, for tugurii ; ingěni, for ingenii, &c. And in the gen. plur. we find deum, liběrům, fabrûm, duumvirum, &c. for deorum, liberorum, &c. and in poetry, Teucrúm, Graiim, Argivům, Danaum, Pelasgüm, &c. for Teucres
Os and on are Greek terminations ; as, Alphēos, a riv. er in Greece ; Ilion, the city Troy; and are often change ed into us and um by the Latins ; as, Alpheus, Ilium, which are declined like dominus and regnum
Nouns in eos or ëus are sometimes contracted in the genitive; as, Orpbëus, gen. Crphëi, Orphei or Orpbi. So Thesëus, Promethëus, &c. But nouns in cus, when the eu is a diphthong, are of the third declenlop.
Some nouns in os have the gen. sing. in o; as, Androgeos, gen. Androgeo, or •ëi, the name of a man; Athos, Arbo, or -i, a hill in Macedonia : both which are also found in the third decl. thus, nom. Androgeo, gen. Androgeõnis : So Atbo or Atbon, -onis, &c. Anciently nouns in os, in imitation of the Greeks, had the gen. in u; as, Mé nandru, Apollodoru, for Menandri, Apollodori. Ter.
Nouns in os have the acc. in um or on; as, Delus or Delos acc. Delum or Delon, the name of an island.
Some neuters have the gen. plur. in ôn; as, Georgica, gen. plur. Georgicôn, books which treat of husbandry, as Virgil's Georgicks,
There are more nouns of the third declension than of all the other declensions together. The number of its final fyllables is not ascertained. Its final letters are thir. teen, a, e, i, o, y, c, d, l, n, r, s, t, x. Of these, eight are peculiar to this declension, namely, i, o, y, c, d, l, t, x; a and e are common to it with the first declension ; n and r, with the second ; and s with all the other declenfions. A, i, and y, are peculiar to Greek nouns.
The terminations of the different cases are these ; nom. fing. a, e, &c ; gen. is ; dat. i ; acc. em ; voc. the same with the nominative ; abl. e, or i : nom. acc. and voc. plur. es, a, or ia ; gen. um, or ium ; dat. and abl. ibus ; thus,
Sermo, Speech, masc.
Caput, the head, neut.
Rupes, a.rock, fem.
N. rupes, G. rupis,
G. rupium, D. rupi,
D. rupibus, A. rupem,
A. rupes, V. rupes,
V. ropes, 4. rupe.
Sedile, a seat, neut.
Lapis, a fone, mafc.
Iter, a journey, ntut.
of the GENDER and GENITIVE of Nouns of the Third
A, E, I, and r.
Nouns in a form the genitive in štis ; as, diadēma, diademàtis, a crown; dogma, -ătis, an opinion. So, Ænigma, e riddle. Apothegma, a foort Axioma, a plain trutk. Aroma, sweet spices. pitby saying Diploma, a charter, Epigramma, an in Sophisma, a deceitful Thēma, a theme, a fcription. argument.
subject to write or Numisma, a coin. Stemma, a pedigree. speak on. Phasma, an apparition. Stigma, & mark or Toreuma, a carved Poēma, a poem.
brand, a disgrace. velelo Schema, a sobeme or Stratagēma, an artful figure.
Nouns in e change e into is ; as, rete, retis, à net.
0. 2. Nouns in o are masculine, and form the genitive in onis ; as, sermo, fernānis, speech; draco, draconis, a dragon.
Nouns in io are feminine, when they signify any thing without a body; as, ratio, rationis, reason. But when they mark any thing which has a body, or signify numbers, they are masculine ; as, Curculio, the throat- Scorpio, a scorpion. Vespertillo, a bat.
pipe, the weafand. Septentrio, the nortb. Ternio, the number Papilio, a butterfly Stellio, a lizard.
three. Pugio, e dagger. Titio, a firebrand. Quaternio, --font Scipio, a faff Unio, a pearl