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The CONSTRUCTION of IMPERSONAL VERBS.

XXIX. An Impersonal verb governs the dative; as,

Expedit reipublice, It is profitable for the state. Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are used impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern the dative; as,

Favetur mihi, I am favoured, and not Ego faveor. So Nocetur mihi, imperatur mihi, &c. We find however, Hæc ego procurare imperor; Ego cur invideor, for imperatur, invidetur mihi, Hor.

Obf. 1. These verbs, Poteft; cæpit, incipit, definit, debet, and folet, are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal verbs; as,

Non potest credi tibi, You cannot be believed; Mihi non poteft noceri, I cannot be hurt; Negat jucunde poflc vivi fine virtute, Cic. Per virtutem potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi & gloriæ invideri folet, The praise and glory of others use to be envied, Id.

Obs. 2. Various verös are used both personally and impersonally; es, Venit in mentem mihi hæc res, vel de hac re, vel hujus rei, fcil. memoria; This thing came into my mind. Est curæ mihi hæc rcs, vel de hac re. Doleo, vel dolet mihi, id factum effe.

Obf. 3. The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs in English ; as, It rains, it shines, &c. And in Latin an infinitive is commonly subjoined to Impersonal verbs, or the fubjuncto ive with ut, forming a part of a fentence which may be supposed to supply the place of a nominative; as, Nobis non licet peccare, the fame with peccatum ; Omnibus bonis expedit rempublicam effe falvam, i. c. Salus reipublicæ expedit omnibus bonis, Cic. Accidit, evēnit, contigit, ut ibi essemus. These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, quod, &c. are sometimes joined to Impersonal verbs; as, Idem mihi licct, Cic. Eadem licent, Catull.

Obf. 4. The dative is often understood; as, Faciat quod libet, fo. fibi, Ter. Stat casus renovare omnes, fc. mihi, I am refolved, Virg.

Exc. 1. REFERT and INTEREST require the gen

itive ; as,

Refert patris, It concerns my father. Interes omnium, It is the interest of all.

But mea, tua, sua, noftra, veftra, are put in the accu. sative plural neuter ; as,. Non med refert,

It does not concern me. Obf. 1. Some think mea, tua, fua, &c. to be in the ablat. sing. fem. We say either cujus interest, and quorum interest; or cuja interest, from cujus, a, um.

Obr. 2. Refert and interest are often joined with these nominatives, Id, hoc, illud, quid, quod, nihil, &c. also with common nouns; and with these genitives, Tanti, quanti, magni, permagni, parvi, pluris ;

Hoc parvi refert.; Illud mca magni intereft, Cic. Ufque adeo magni refert studium, Lucr. Inceffus in gravida, rcfert Plin.

as,

as,

They are frequently construed with these abverbs, Tantum, quantum, multum, plus, plurimum, infinitum, parum, maxime, vehementer, minime, C6, as, Faciam, quod maxime reipublicæ interesse judicabo, Cic. Sometimes instead of the genit. they take the accusative with the prep. ad; as, Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert, Persæ quid rerum gerant? Of what importance is it? &c. Plant Magni ad honorem nostrum interest, Lic. rarely the dative; Dic. quid referat intra naturæ fines viventi, &c. Hor. Sometimes they are placed abfolutely; as, Magnopere interest opprimi Dolobellam, it is of great importance, Cic. Permultum intereft, qualis primus aditus fit, Id. Adeone eft fundata leviter fides, ut ubi fim, quam qui fim, magis referat ? Liv. Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibus hunc tu moribus instituas, Juu.

Obs. 3. The genitive after refert and interef is governed by fome substantive understood, with which the poffeßlives mea, tua, fua, &c. likewise agree; as, Interest Ciceronis, i. c. est inter negotia Ciceronis: Refert patris, i. e. refert fe hæc res ad negotia patris ; So interest mea eft inter negotia mea.

Exc. II. These five MISERET, POENITET, PU.
DET, TÆDET, and PIGET, govern the accusative of
a person, with the genitive of a thing ; as,
Miseret me tui, I pity you. Tædet me vitæ, I am weary of life.
Pænitet me peccati, I repent

of
my

fin. Obs. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium understood, or by some other substantive of a signification fimilar to that of the verb with which it is joined ; as, Miseret me tui, tbat is, negotium or miseratio tui miseret me.

Obs. 2. An infnitive or some part of a sentence may supply the place of the genitive; as, Pænitet me peccasse, or quod peccaverim. The accusative is frequently under food; as, Scelerum & bene pænitet, fcil. nos. Horat.

Obf. 3. Miferet, pænitet, &c. are fometimes used personally, especially when joined with these nominatives, boc, id, quod, &. as, Ipfe fui miferet, Lucr.; Nonne hæc te pudent? Ter. Nihil, quod pænitere possit, facias, Cic.

We sometimes find miferet joined with two accusatives, as, Menedemi vicem miseret me, scil. secundum, or quod ad. Ter.

Obf. 4. The preterites of miseret, pudet, tædet, and piget, when used in the passive form, govern the same cases with the active; as, Miferitum eft me tuarum fortunarum, Ter. We likewise find miferescit and miferetur used impersonally ; as, Miserescit me tui, Ter.; Misereatur te fratrum ; Negue me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri poteft, Cic.

Exc. III. DECET, DELECTAT, JUVAT, and OPORTET, govern the accusative of a perfon, with the infinitive; as,

Delectat me fudere, It Jelights me to study.
Non decet te rixari, It does not become you to scold.

Obf. 1. These verbs are sometimes ufed personally; as, Parvum parva decent, Hor. En aliquid quod non opporteat, etiamfi liceat, Cic. Hæc facta ab illo oportebant, Ter.

Obs. 2. Decet is sometimes construed with the dative; as, Ita nobis decet, Ter.

Obs. 3. Oportet is elegantly joined with the subjunctive mode, ut being understood ; as,

Sibi quisque consulat oportet, Cic. Or with the perfect participle effe or fuiffe being understood; as, Communicatum oportuit; manfum oportuit ; Adolefcenti morem geflum oportuit, The young man should have been humoured, Ter.

Obf. 4. Fallit, fugit, præterit, latet, when used impersonally, also govern the accusative with the infinitive; as, In lege nullâ effe ejusmodi caput, non te fallit; De Dionyfio fugit me ad te antea fcribere, Cic.

Note. Attinet, pertinet, & spectat, are construed with ad; Ad rempublicam pertinet, me confervari, Cic. And so personally, Ille ad me ate tinet, belongs, Ter. Res ad arma fpeciat, looks, points, Cis.

The CONSTRUCTION of the INFINITIVE.

XXX. One verb governs another in the infinitive; as, Cupio discere,

I desire to learn. Obf. 1. The infinitive is often governed by adjectives; as, Hora. tius est dignus legi, Quinctil. And sometimes depends on a substantive; as, Tempus equûm fumantia solvere colla, Virg.

Obf. 2. The word governing the infinitive is fometimes understood; as, Mene incepto defiftere victam, fcil. decet, or par est, Virg, Videre eft. Dicere non eft, feil. copia or facultas, Horat. And sometimes the infinitive itself is to be supplied; as, Socratem fidibus docuit,fcil. canere, Cic. So Discere, fcire fidibus.

Obs. 3. The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients Nomen verbi, The name or noun of the verb; because it is both joined with an adjective like a substantive, as, Velle suum cuique eft, Every one has a will of his own; and likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the nominative, but also in all the oblique cases; as, 1. In the nominative, Latrocinari, fraudare, turpe eft, Cic. Didicise fideliter artes emollit Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Peritus cantare, for cantandi, or cantûs, Virg. 3. In the dative, Paratus fervire, for fervi

4. In the accusative, Da mibi fallere, for artem fallendi, Horat. Quod faciam fupereft, præter amare, nihil, Ovid. 5. In the vocative, O vivere noftrum, ut non fentientibus effluis! For vita noflra. 6. In the ablative, Dignus amari, for amore, or qui ametur, Virg.

Obf. 4. Instead of the infinitive a different construction is often used after verbs of doubting, willing, ordering, fearing, hoping ; in fhort, after apy verb which has a relation to futurity; as, Dubitat ita

mores,

tuti, Sall.

facere, or more frequently, on, num, or utrum ita fa&turus fit; Dubitavit an faceret necne ; Non dubito quin fecerit. Vis me facere, or ut faciam. Metuit tangi, or ne tangatur. Spero te venturum effe, or fore ut venias, Nunquam putavi fore ut ad te fupplex venirem, Cic. Exifimabant futurum fuile ut oppidum amitteretur, Cæf.

Obf. 5. To, which in English is the fign of the infinitive, is omit. ted after bid, dare, need, make, fee, bear, feel, and some others; 3s, I bid bim do it: and in Latin may often be rendered otherwise than by the infinitive; as, I am fent to complain, Mittor queflum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, Promptus ad audiendum; Time to read, Tempus legendi ; Fit to swim, Aptus natando ; Easy to say, Facile di&tu ; I am to write, Scripturus fum ; A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus locanda : He was left to guard the city, Reliétus eft ut tueretur urbem.

The CONSTRUCTION of PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, and

SUPINES.

XXXI. Participles, Gerunds, and Supines, govern the case of their own verbs ; as,

Amans virtutem, Loving virtue. Carens fraude, Wanting guile. Obf. 1. Paflive participles often govern the dative, particularly when they are used as adjectives; as,

Suspectus mibi, Suspected by me; Suspectiores regibus, Sall. Invia fus mibi; hated by mc, or hateful to me: Indies invifior, Suet. Occulta, et maribus non invisa solum, sed etiam inaudita facra, unseen, Cic.

EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and often also PERTÆSUS, govern the accusative ; as, Tædas exofa jugales, Ovid. Plebs consulum pomen haud secus quam regum perosa erat, Liv. Pertælus ignaviam suam; semet ipfe, displeased with, Suet. vitam, weary of, Juftin. levitatis, Cic.

Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs ; as, Gratulabundus patriæ, fuft. Vitabundus caftra hoftium, Liv. So sometimes also nouns; as, Justitia eft obtemperatio fcriptis legibus, Cic. Insidiæ confuli, soll. Domum reditionis fpe sublata, Cæs. Spectatio ludos, Plauf.

Obs. 2. These verbs, do, reddo, volo, curo, facio, habeo, comperid, with the perfect participle, form a periphrafis limilar to what we use in English ; as, Compertum habeo, for comperi, I bave found, Sall. Eifectum dabo, for efficiam ; Inventum tibi curabo, et adductum tuum Pamphilum, i. e. inveniam et adducam, Ter. Sometimes the gerund is used with ed; as, Tradere ei gentes diripiendas, or ad diripiendum, Cic. Rogo, accipio, do aliquid utendum, or ad utendum; Milit mihi librum legendum, or ad legendum, &c.

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Obf. 3. These verbs, curo, babeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, mitto, &c. are elegantly construed with the participle in dus instead of the infinitive; as, Funus faciendum curavi, for fieri, or ut fieret : Columnas ædificandas locavit, Cic.

The CONSTRUCTION of GERUNDS. XXXII. Gerunds are construed like substantive nouns; as,

Studendum eft mibi, I must study. Aplus fudendo, Fit for studying. Tempus fudendi, Time of study.

But more particularly ; 1. The Gerund in DUM with the verb eft governs the dative ; as, Legendum eft mibi, I must read. Moriendum eft omnibus, All must die.

So Scio legendum effe mibi ; moriendum effe omnibus, &c.

Obf. 1. This gerund always imports obligation or necessity; and may be resolved into oportet, neceffe eft

, or the like, and the infinitive or the subjunctive, with the conjunction ut; as, Omnibus est mociendum, or Omnibus neceffe eft mori, or ut moriantur; or Neceffe eft ut omnes moriantur. Confulendum eft tibi a me, I must confult for your good; for Oportet ut confulam tibi, Cic.

Obs. 2. The dative is often understood; as, Orandum eft, ut fit mens sana in corpore sano, fc. tibi, Juv. Hic, vincendum, aut mo. riendum, milites, eft, fc. vobis, Liv. Deliberandum est dių, quod ftatuendum eft femel, fa tibi vel alicui, P. Syr.

11. The gerund in DI is governed by substantives or adjectives ; as,

Tempus legendi, Time, of reading. Cupidus difcendi, Defirous of learning.

Obs. This gerund is sometimes construed with the genitive plu. sal; as, Facultas agrorum condonandi, for agros, Cic. Copia fpectandi comoediarum, for comædias, Ter. But chiefly with pronouns; as, In castra venerunt fui purgandi causà, Gæf. Veftri adhortandi caufa, Liv. Ejus videndi cupidus, fc. fæminæ, Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern the genitive like a substantive noun.

III. The gerund in DO of the dative case is governed by adjectives fignifying usefulness or fitness ; as,

Cbarta utilis fcribendo, Paper useful for writing. Obf. 1. Sometimesche adjective is understood; as, Non eft folvendo, scil. par, or babilis, He is not able to pay. Is finis censendo factus est, Liv.

Obf. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs; 29, Adelle fcribendo, Cic. Aptat babendo enfim, for wearing ; Virg.

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